Zygomycosis

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Mucormycosis
Classification and external resources
Periorbital fungal infection known as mucormycosis, or phycomycosis PHIL 2831 lores.jpg
Periorbital fungal infection known as mucormycosis, or phycomycosis.
ICD-10B46
ICD-9117.7
DiseasesDB31329
MedlinePlus000649
eMedicinemed/1513 med/2026 oph/225 ped/1488
MeSHD020096
 
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Mucormycosis
Classification and external resources
Periorbital fungal infection known as mucormycosis, or phycomycosis PHIL 2831 lores.jpg
Periorbital fungal infection known as mucormycosis, or phycomycosis.
ICD-10B46
ICD-9117.7
DiseasesDB31329
MedlinePlus000649
eMedicinemed/1513 med/2026 oph/225 ped/1488
MeSHD020096

Zygomycosis is the broadest term to refer to infections caused by bread mold fungi of the zygomycota phylum. However, because zygomycota has been identified as polyphyletic, and is not included in modern fungal classification systems, the diseases that Zygomycosis can refer to are better called by their specific names: mucormycosis[1] (after Mucorales), phycomycosis[2] (after Phycomycetes) and basidiobolomycosis (after Basidiobolus).[3] These rare yet serious and potentially life-threatening fungal infections, usually affect the face or oropharyngeal (nose/mouth) cavity.[4] Zygomycosis type infections are most often caused by common fungi found in soil and decaying vegetation. While most individuals are exposed to the fungi on a regular basis, those with immune disorders (immunocompromised) are more prone to fungal infection.[2][5][6] These types of infections are also common after natural disasters, such as tornadoes or earthquakes, where people have open wounds that have become filled with soil or vegetative matter.[7]

The condition may affect the gastrointestinal tract or the skin. In non-trauma cases, it usually begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses and is one of the most rapidly spreading fungal infections in humans.[2] Common symptoms include thrombosis and tissue necrosis.[8] Treatment consists of prompt and intensive antifungal drug therapy and surgery to remove the infected tissue.[9][10] The prognosis varies vastly depending upon an individual patient's circumstances.[8]

Causes[edit]

Micrograph showing a zygomycetes infection.

Pathogenic Zygomycosis is caused by species in two orders: Mucorales and Entomophthorales, with the former causing far more disease than the latter.[11] These diseases are known as "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis", respectively.[12]

Oomycosis in animals[edit]

The term oomycosis is used to describe oomycete infections.[13] These are more common in animals, notably dogs and horses. These are heterokonts, not true fungi. Types include pythiosis (caused by Pythium insidiosum) and lagenidiosis.

Zygomycosis has been described in a cat, where fungal infection of the tracheobronchus led to respiratory disease requiring euthanasia.[14]

Zygomycosis in natural disasters[edit]

Zygomycosis has been found in survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami and in survivors of 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Toro, Carlos; del Palacio, Amalia; Álvarez, Carmen; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Carabias, Esperanza; Cuétara, Soledad; Carpintero, Yolanda; Gómez, César (1998). "Zigomicosis cutánea por Rhizopus arrhizus en herida quirúrgica" [Cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in a surgical wound]. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología (in Spanish) 15 (2): 94–6. PMID 17655419. 
  2. ^ a b c Auluck, Ajit (2007). "Maxillary necrosis by mucormycosis. a case report and literature review". Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal 12 (5): E360–4. PMID 17767099. 
  3. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1999). "Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis — Arizona, 1994–1999". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48 (32): 710–3. PMID 21033182. 
  4. ^ Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, MD MPH. "Mucormycosis". eMedicine. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  5. ^ "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Mucormycosis". Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  6. ^ Ettinger, Stephen J.; Feldman, Edward C. (1995). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine (4th ed.). W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-6795-3. [page needed]
  7. ^ Draper, Bill; Suhr, Jim (June 11, 2011). "Survivors of Joplin tornado develop rare infection". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. 
  8. ^ a b Spellberg, B.; Edwards, J.; Ibrahim, A. (2005). "Novel Perspectives on Mucormycosis: Pathophysiology, Presentation, and Management". Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18 (3): 556–69. doi:10.1128/CMR.18.3.556-569.2005. PMC 1195964. PMID 16020690. 
  9. ^ Spellberg, Brad; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Edwards, Jr.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S. (2009). "Recent Advances in the Management of Mucormycosis: From Bench to Bedside". Clinical Infectious Diseases 48 (12): 1743–51. doi:10.1086/599105. PMC 2809216. PMID 19435437. 
  10. ^ Grooters, A (2003). "Pythiosis, lagenidiosis, and zygomycosis in small animals". Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice 33 (4): 695. doi:10.1016/S0195-5616(03)00034-2. PMID 12910739. 
  11. ^ Ribes, J. A.; Vanover-Sams, C. L.; Baker, D. J. (2000). "Zygomycetes in Human Disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13 (2): 236–301. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.2.236-301.2000. PMC 100153. PMID 10756000. 
  12. ^ Prabhu, R. M.; Patel, R. (2004). "Mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis: A review of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment". Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10: 31–47. doi:10.1111/j.1470-9465.2004.00843.x. PMID 14748801. 
  13. ^ "Merck Veterinary Manual". Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  14. ^ Snyder, Katherine D.; Spaulding, Kathy; Edwards, John (2010). "Imaging diagnosis—tracheobronchial zygomycosis in a cat". Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 51 (6): 617–20. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2010.01720.x. PMID 21158233. 
  15. ^ Joplin toll rises to 151; some suffer from fungus