Zeus

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Zeus
God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice
Jupiter Smyrna Louvre Ma13.jpg
The Jupiter de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in 1680[1]
AbodeMount Olympus
SymbolThunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak
ConsortHera and various others
ParentsCronus and Rhea
SiblingsHestia, Hades, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter
ChildrenAres, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Dionysus, Hebe, Hermes, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Perseus, Minos, the Muses, the Graces
Roman equivalentJupiter[2]
 
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For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation).
Zeus
God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice
Jupiter Smyrna Louvre Ma13.jpg
The Jupiter de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in 1680[1]
AbodeMount Olympus
SymbolThunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak
ConsortHera and various others
ParentsCronus and Rhea
SiblingsHestia, Hades, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter
ChildrenAres, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Dionysus, Hebe, Hermes, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Perseus, Minos, the Muses, the Graces
Roman equivalentJupiter[2]

Zeus (Ancient Greek: Ζεύς, Zeús; Modern Greek: Δίας, Días; English pronunciation /ˈzjs/[3] or /ˈzs/) is the "Father of Gods and men" (πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε, patḕr andrōn te theōn te)[4] who rules the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father rules the family according to the ancient Greek religion. He is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. Zeus is etymologically cognate with and, under Hellenic influence, became particularly closely identified with Roman Jupiter.

Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, and the youngest of his siblings. In most traditions he is married to Hera, although, at the oracle of Dodona, his consort is Dione: according to the Iliad, he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione.[5] He is known for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo and Artemis, Hermes, Persephone (by Demeter), Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses (by Mnemosyne); by Hera, he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus.[6]

As Walter Burkert points out in his book, Greek Religion, "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence."[7] For the Greeks, he was the King of the Gods, who oversaw the universe. As Pausanias observed, "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men".[8] In Hesiod's Theogony Zeus assigns the various gods their roles. In the Homeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods.

His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" (Greek: Νεφεληγερέτα, Nephelēgereta)[9] also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward, with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.

Name

The Chariot of Zeus, from an 1879 Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church.

The god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς Zeús /zdeús/. It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεῦ Zeû; accusative: Δία Día; genitive: Διός Diós; dative: Διί Dií. Diogenes Laertius quotes Pherecydes of Syros as spelling the name, Ζάς.[10]

Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky, also called *Dyeus ph2tēr ("Sky Father").[11] The god is known under this name in the Rigveda (Vedic Sanskrit Dyaus/Dyaus Pita), Latin (compare Jupiter, from Iuppiter, deriving from the Proto-Indo-European vocative *dyeu-ph2tēr),[12] deriving from the root *dyeu- ("to shine", and in its many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god").[11] Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology.[13]

The earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek 𐀇𐀸, di-we and 𐀇𐀺, di-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script.[14]

Zeus in myth

Zeus, at the Getty Villa, A.D. 1 - 100 by unknown.

Birth

Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father—an oracle that Rhea was to hear and avert.

When Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.[15]

Infancy

Rhea hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story:

  1. He was then raised by Gaia.
  2. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes— soldiers, or smaller gods— danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry (see cornucopia).
  3. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
  4. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus placed her among the stars.
  5. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey.
  6. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves.

King of the gods

Colossal seated Marnas from Gaza portrayed in the style of Zeus. Roman period Marnas[16] was the chief divinity of Gaza (Istanbul Archaeology Museum).

After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe.

As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, along with the Gigantes, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans that fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.

After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). The ancient Earth, Gaia, could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades claimed the humans that died (see also Penthus).

Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under Mount Etna, but left Echidna and her children alive.

Zeus and Hera

Main article: Hera

Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. By Hera, Zeus sired Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus, though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia and Eris as their daughters. The conquests of Zeus among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous. Olympian mythography even credits him with unions with Leto, Demeter, Dione and Maia. Among mortals were Semele, Io, Europa and Leda (for more details, see below) and with the young Ganymede (although he was mortal Zeus granted him eternal youth and immortality).

Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him. For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by talking incessantly, and when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others.

Consorts and children

Divine offspring

Mother
Children
Aega

Aegipan[17]

Ananke or Themis

Moirai/Fates1

  1. Atropos
  2. Clotho
  3. Lachesis
AphroditeTyche6 (possibly)
DemeterPersephone
Dione or ThalassaAphrodite
Eos
  1. Ersa
  2. Carae
Eris

Limos

Eurynome/Eurydome/
Eurymedusa/Euanthe
Charites/Graces2
  1. Aglaea
  2. Euphrosyne
  3. Thalia
Gaia
  1. Manes
Hera
  1. Ares3
  2. Eileithyia
  3. Eris
  4. Hebe3
  5. Hephaestus3
  6. Angelos
Leto
  1. Apollo
  2. Artemis
Maia

Hermes

Metis

Athena4

Mnemosyne
  1. Muses (Original three)
    1. Aoide
    2. Melete
    3. Mneme
  2. Muses (Later nine)
    1. Calliope
    2. Clio
    3. Erato
    4. Euterpe
    5. Melpomene
    6. Polyhymnia
    7. Terpsichore
    8. Thalia
    9. Urania
NemesisHelen of Troy (possibly)
Persephone
  1. Zagreus
  2. Melinoe
Selene
  1. Ersa
  2. Nemean Lion
  3. Pandia
ThaliaPalici
Themis
  1. Astraea
  2. Nymphs of Eridanos
  3. Nemesis
  4. Horae
    1. First Generation
      1. Auxo
      2. Carpo
      3. Thallo
    2. Second Generation
      1. Dike
      2. Eirene
      3. Eunomia
    3. Third generation
      1. Pherusa
      2. Euporie
      3. Orthosie
Unknown motherAletheia
Unknown motherAte
Unknown motherCaerus
Unknown motherLitae

Semi-divine/mortal offspring

Mother
Children
Aegina
  1. Aeacus
  2. Damocrateia[18]
AlcmeneHeracles
Antiope
  1. Amphion
  2. Zethus
AnaxitheaOlenus
Asterope, OceanidAcragas
CallistoArcas
CalyceAethlius (possibly)
Callirhoe (daughter of Achelous)no known offspring
CarmeBritomartis
CassiopeiaAtymnius
Chaldene
  1. Solymus
  2. Milye
DanaëPerseus
DiaPirithous
Elara
  1. Tityos
Electra
  1. Dardanus
  2. Iasion
  3. Harmonia
Europa
  1. Minos
  2. Rhadamanthus
  3. Sarpedon
  4. Alagonia
  5. Carnus
  6. Dodon[19]
EurymedousaMyrmidon
EuryodeiaArcesius
Himalia
  1. Kronios
  2. Spartaios
  3. Kytos
Idaea, nymphCres
IodameThebe
Io
  1. Epaphus
  2. Keroessa
IsonoeOrchomenus
Lamia
  1. Achilleus[20]
  2. Herophile
LaodamiaSarpedon
Leda
  1. Pollux
  2. Helen of Troy5
MaeraLocrus
Niobe
  1. Argus
  2. Pelasgus
OthreisMeliteus
Pandora
  1. Graecus
  2. Latinus
Phthia (daughter of Phoroneus)Achaeus (possibly)
PloutoTantalus
Podarge
  1. Balius
  2. Xanthus
Protogeneia
  1. Aethlius (possibly)
  2. Opus
PyrrhaHellen
SemeleDionysus
TaygeteLacedaemon
Thyia
  1. Magnes
  2. Makednos
TorrhebiaCarius
Nymph AfricanIarbas
Nymph SamothracianSaon (possibly)
Nymph SithnidMegarus
Unknown mother
  1. Calabrus
  2. Geraestus
  3. Taenarus
Unknown motherCorinthus
Unknown motherCrinacus

1The Greeks variously claimed that the Moires/Fates were the daughters of Zeus and the Titaness Themis or of primordial beings like Chaos, Nyx, or Ananke.

2The Charites/Graces were usually considered the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome but they were also said to be daughters of Dionysus and Aphrodite or of Helios and the naiad Aegle.

3Some accounts say that Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus were born parthenogenetically.

4According to one version, Athena is said to be born parthenogenetically.

5Helen was either the daughter of Leda or Nemesis.

6Tyche is usually considered a daughter of Aphrodite and Hermes.

Roles and epithets

Roman marble colossal head of Zeus, 2nd century AD (British Museum)[21]

Zeus played a dominant role, presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults. Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and the archetypal Greek deity.

Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity to doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority:

Additional names and epithets for Zeus are also:

Cults of Zeus

Marble eagle from the sanctuary of Zeus Hypsistos, Archaeological Museum of Dion.

Panhellenic cults

The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games. There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there. Outside of the major inter-polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor to Sicily. Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar, for instance.

Zeus Velchanos

With one exception, Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new", Will Durant observed,[29] and Cretan Zeus retained his youthful Minoan features. The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort",[30] whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos ("boy-Zeus") often simply the Kouros.

In Crete, Zeus was worshipped at a number of caves at Knossos, Ida and Palaikastro. In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at the Hagia Triada site of a long-ruined Minoan palace. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree, with a cockerel on his knees.[31] On other Cretan coins Velchanos is represented as an eagle and in association with a goddess celebrating a mystic marriage.[32] Inscriptions at Gortyn and Lyttos record a Velchania festival, showing that Velchanios was still widely venerated in Hellenistic Crete.[33]

The stories of Minos and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests. The dramatic setting of Plato's Laws is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site, emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge. On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult, and hymned as ho megas kouros "the great youth". Ivory statuettes of the "Divine Boy" were unearthed near the Labyrinth at Knossos by Sir Arthur Evans.[34] With the Kouretes, a band of ecstatic armed dancers, he presided over the rigorous military-athletic training and secret rites of the Cretan paideia.

The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus,[35] together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees, suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.[36] The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus had actually been a great king of Crete and that posthumously his glory had slowly turned him into a deity. The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion.

Zeus Lykaios

For more details on this topic, see Lykaia.
Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus on a gold stater, Lampsacus, c 360-340 BC (Cabinet des Médailles).

The epithet Zeus Lykaios ("wolf-Zeus") is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Mount Lykaion ("Wolf Mountain"), the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia; Zeus had only a formal connection[37] with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants.[38] Near the ancient ash-heap where the sacrifices took place[39] was a forbidden precinct in which, allegedly, no shadows were ever cast.[40]

According to Plato,[41] a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios.

Apollo, too had an archaic wolf-form, Apollo Lycaeus, worshipped in Athens at the Lykeion, or Lyceum, which was made memorable as the site where Aristotle walked and taught.

Additional cults of Zeus

Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios ("kindly" or "honeyed") while other cities had Zeus Chthonios ("earthy"), Zeus Katachthonios ("under-the-earth") and Zeus Plousios ("wealth-bringing"). These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars.

In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus. Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius ("the nurturing"), depending on whether you believe Pausanias, or Strabo. The hero Amphiaraus was honored as Zeus Amphiaraus at Oropus outside of Thebes, and the Spartans even had a shrine to Zeus Agamemnon.

Non-panhellenic cults

In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men. With the epithet Zeus Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetna, where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor.[42] Other examples are listed below. As Zeus Aeneius or Zeus Aenesius, he was worshiped in the island of Cephalonia, where he had a temple on Mount Aenos.[43]

Oracles of Zeus

Roman cast terracotta of ram-horned Jupiter Ammon, 1st century AD (Museo Barracco, Rome).

Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo, the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis, a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus.

The Oracle at Dodona

The cult of Zeus at Dodona in Epirus, where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak. When the Odyssey was composed (circa 750 BC), divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi, who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches.[44] By the time Herodotus wrote about Dodona, female priestesses called peleiades ("doves") had replaced the male priests.

Zeus' consort at Dodona was not Hera, but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle.

The Oracle at Siwa

The oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world before Alexander's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War. Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta, where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War.[45]

After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl.

Zeus and foreign gods

Zeus was identified with the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination (see interpretatio graeca) with various other deities, such as the Egyptian Ammon and the Etruscan Tinia. He, along with Dionysus, absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius. The Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes erected a statue of Zeus Olympios in the Judean Temple in Jerusalem.[46] Hellenizing Jews referred to this statue as Baal Shamen (in English, Lord of Heaven).[47]

Zeus in philosophy

In Neoplatonism, Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind. Specifically within Plotinus' work the Enneads[48] and the Platonic Theology of Proclus.

Zeus in the Bible

Zeus is mentioned in the Bible two times: First is in Acts 14:8-13: When the people living in Lystra, saw Apostle Paul heal a lame man, they considered Paul and his partner Barnabas to be gods, identifying Paul with Hermes and Barnabas with Zeus, even trying to offer sacrifices with the crowd to them. Two ancient inscriptions discovered in 1909 from close of Lystra testify to the worship of these two gods in that city.[49] One of the inscriptions refers to the "priests of Zeus," and the other mentions "Hermes Most Great"” and "Zeus the sun-god."[50]

Another occurrence is in Acts 28:11: the name of the ship in which the prisoner Paul set sail from the island of Malta bore the figurehead "Sons of Zeus" aka Castor and Pollux.

Apocryphal book of 2.Maccabees 6:1, 2 talks of King Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), who in his attempt to stamp out the Jewish religion, directed that the temple at Jerusalem be profaned and rededicated to Zeus (Jupiter Olympius).[51]

In modern culture

Depictions of Zeus as a bull, the form he took when raping Europa, are found on the Greek 2-euro coin and on the United Kingdom identity card for visa holders. Mary Beard, Professor of Classics at Cambridge University, has criticised this for its apparent celebration of rape.[52]

Miscellany on Zeus

Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology

Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology
Uranus
Gaia
Oceanus
Hyperion
Coeus
Crius
Iapetus
Mnemosyne
Cronus
Rhea
Tethys
Theia
Phoebe
Themis
Zeus
Hera
Hestia
Demeter
Hades
Poseidon
Ares
Hephaestus
Hebe
Eileithyia
Enyo
Eris
Metis
Maia
Leto
Semele
Aphrodite
Athena
Hermes
Apollo
Artemis
Dionysus

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inachus
 
Melia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus
 
Io
 
Phoroneus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Epaphus
 
Memphis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Libya
 
Poseidon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belus
 
Achiroe
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agenor
 
Telephassa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Danaus
 
Pieria
 
Aegyptus
 
Cadmus
 
Cilix
 
Europa
 
Phoenix
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mantineus
 
Hypermnestra
 
 
 
Lynceus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harmonia
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Polydorus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sparta
 
Lacedaemon
 
Ocalea
 
Abas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agave
 
Sarpedon
 
 
Rhadamanthus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Autonoë
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eurydice
 
Acrisius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ino
 
 
 
Minos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus
 
Danaë
 
 
 
 
 
 
Semele
 
Zeus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perseus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dionysus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See also

References

  1. ^ The sculpture was presented to Louis XIV as Aesculapius but restored as Zeus, ca. 1686, by Pierre Granier, who added the upraised right arm brandishing the thunderbolt. Marble, middle 2nd century CE. Formerly in the 'Allée Royale', (Tapis Vert) in the Gardens of Versailles, now conserved in the Louvre Museum (Official on-line catalog)
  2. ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
  3. ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. ISBN 0582053838.  entry "Zeus"
  4. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 542 and other sources.
  5. ^ There are two major conflicting stories for Aphrodite's origins: Hesiod (Theogony) claims that she was "born" from the foam of the sea after Cronos castrated Uranus, thus making her Uranus' daughter; but Homer (Iliad, book V) has Aphrodite as daughter of Zeus and Dione. According to Plato (Symposium 180e), the two were entirely separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos.
  6. ^ Hamilton, Edith (1942). Mythology (1998 ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1. 
  7. ^ Iliad, book 1.503; 533
  8. ^ Pausanias, 2. 24.2.
  9. ^ Νεφεληγερέτα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  10. ^ Laertius, Diogenes (1972) [1925]. "1.11". In Hicks, R.D. Lives of Eminent Philosophers (in English).  "1.11". (in Greek). 
  11. ^ a b "Zeus". American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 2006-07-03. 
  12. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jupiter". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  13. ^ Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. p. 321. ISBN 0-674-36280-2. 
  14. ^ "The Linear B word di-we".  "The Linear B word di-wo". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages. 
  15. ^ "Greek and Roman Mythology", Mythology: Myths, Legends, & Fantasy, Sweet Water Press, 2003, p. 21, ISBN 9781468265903 
  16. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Gaza". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. ; Johannes Hahn: Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt; The Holy Land and the Bible
  17. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 155
  18. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 9, 107
  19. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Dōdōne, with a reference to Acestodorus
  20. ^ Photios (1824). "190.489R". In Bekker, August Immanuel. Myriobiblon (in Greek). Tomus alter. Berlin: Ge. Reimer. p. 152a.  At the Internet Archive.
    "190.152a". Myriobiblon (in Greek). Interreg Δρόμοι της πίστης -Ψηφιακή Πατρολογία. 2006. p. 163.  At khazarzar.skeptik.net.
  21. ^ The bust below the base of the neck is eighteenth century. The head, which is roughly worked at back and must have occupied a niche, was found at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli and donated to the British Museum by John Thomas Barber Beaumont in 1836. BM 1516. (British Museum, A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1904).
  22. ^ Homer, Iliad i. 202, ii. 157, 375, &c.
  23. ^ Pindar, Isthmian Odes iv. 99
  24. ^ Hyginus, Poetical Astronomy ii. 13
  25. ^ Spanh. ad Callim. hymn. in Jov, 49
  26. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aegiduchos". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Boston. p. 26. 
  27. ^ Δικταῖος in Liddell and Scott.
  28. ^ Libanius (2000). Antioch as a Centre of Hellenic Culture as Observed by Libanius. Translated with an introduction by A.F. Norman. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-85323-595-3. 
  29. ^ Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon & Schuster) 1939:23.
  30. ^ Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, "The Minoan belief-system" (Routledge) 1990:125
  31. ^ Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15.
  32. ^ A.B. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398.
  33. ^ Dietrich 1973, noting Martin P. Nilsson, Minoan-Mycenaean Religion, and Its Survival in Greek Religion 1950:551 and notes.
  34. ^ "Professor Stylianos Alexiou reminds us that there were other divine boys who survived from the religion of the pre-Hellenic period — Linos, Ploutos and Dionysos — so not all the young male deities we see depicted in Minoan works of art are necessarily Velchanos" (Castleden 1990:125
  35. ^ Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78).
  36. ^ "This annually reborn god of vegetation also experienced the other parts of the vegetation cycle: holy marriage and annual death when he was thought to disappear from the earth" (Dietrich 1973:15).
  37. ^ In the founding myth of Lycaon's banquet for the gods that included the flesh of a human sacrifice, perhaps one of his sons, Nyctimus or ArcasZeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia can have been little more than a formula.
  38. ^ A morphological connection to lyke "brightness" may be merely fortuitous.
  39. ^ Modern archaeologists have found no trace of human remains among the sacrificial detritus, Walter Burkert, "Lykaia and Lykaion", Homo Necans, tr. by Peter Bing (University of California) 1983, p. 90.
  40. ^ Pausanias 8.38.
  41. ^ Republic 565d-e
  42. ^ Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vi. 162
  43. ^ Hesiod, according to a scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautika, ii. 297
  44. ^ Odyssey 14.326-7
  45. ^ Pausanias 3.18.
  46. ^ 2 Maccabees 6:2
  47. ^ David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191.
  48. ^ In Fourth Tractate 'Problems of the Soul' The Demiurge is identified as Zeus.10."When under the name of Zeus we are considering the Demiurge we must leave out all notions of stage and progress, and recognize one unchanging and timeless life."
  49. ^ The translation of Hermes
  50. ^ The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, edited by J. Orr, 1960, Vol. III, p. 1944.
  51. ^ 2.Maccabees 6:1,2
  52. ^ A Point of View: The euro's strange stories, BBC, retrieved 20/11/2011
  53. ^ Hamilton, Edith (1969). "The Gods". Mythology. p. 29. ISBN 0-451-62702-4. 
  54. ^ Brandenberg, Aliki (1994). The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. 30. 

Further reading

External links