Zamak

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Zamak ingot

Zamak (formerly trademarked as ZAMAK[1] and also known as Zamac) is a family of alloys with a base metal of zinc and alloying elements of aluminium, magnesium, and copper. Zamak alloys are part of the zinc aluminium alloy family; they are distinguished from the other ZA alloys because of their constant 4% aluminium composition.[2] The name zamak is an acronym of the German names for the metals of which the alloys are composed: Zink (zinc), Aluminium, Magnesium and Kupfer (copper).[2] The New Jersey Zinc Company developed zamak alloys in 1929. While zinc alloys are popularly referred to as pot metal or white metal, zamak is held to higher industrial standards.

The most common zamak alloy is zamak 3, but zamak 2, zamak 5 and zamak 7 are still commercially used.[2] These alloys are most commonly die cast.[2] Zamak alloys (particularly #3 and #5) are frequently used in the spin casting industry.

A large problem with early zinc die casting materials was zinc pest, owing to impurities in the alloys.[3] Zamak avoided this by the use of 99.99% pure zinc metal, produced by New Jersey Zinc's use of a refluxer as part of the smelting process.

Zamak can be electroplated, wet painted, and chromate conversion coated well.[4]

Contents

Mazak

In the early 1930s Morris Ashby in Britain had licensed the New Jersey zamak alloy. The high-purity refluxer zinc was not available in Britain and so they acquired the right to manufacture the alloy using a locally available electrolytically refined zinc of 99.95% purity. This was given the name Mazak, partly to distinguish it from zamak and partly from the initials of Morris Ashby. In 1933, National Smelting licensed the refluxer patent with the intent of using it to produce 99.99% zinc in their plant at Avonmouth.[5]

Standards

Zinc alloy chemical composition standards are defined per country by the standard listed below:

Zinc alloy standards per country[6]
CountryZinc ingotZinc casting
EuropeEN1774EN12844
USAASTM B240ASTM B86
JapanJIS H2201JIS H5301
AustraliaAS 1881 - SAA H63AS 1881 - SAA H64
ChinaGB 8738-88-
CanadaCSA HZ3CSA HZ11
InternationalISO 301-

Zamak goes by many different names based on standard and/or country:

Various names for zamak alloys
Traditional nameShort composition nameFormCommonASTMShort European designationJISChinaUK BS 1004[7]France NFA 55-010[7]Germany DIN 1743-2[7]UNSOther
Zamak 2[8][9]
or
Kirksite[10]
ZnAl4Cu3[11]IngotAlloy 2[8][9]AG 43A[8][9]ZL0430[11]-ZX04[12]-Z-A4U3[11]Z430[11]Z35540[9]ZL2, ZA-2, ZN-002[13]
CastZP0430-Z35541[8]ZP2, ZA-2, ZN-002[13]
Zamak 3[8][9]ZnAl4[11]IngotAlloy 3[8][9]AG 40A[8][9]ZL0400[11]Ingot type 2[14]ZX01[12]Alloy A[11]Z-A4[11]Z400[11]Z35521[9]ZL3, ZA-3, ZN-003[13]
CastZP0400ZDC2[15]-Z33520[8]ZP3, ZA-3, ZN-003[13]
Zamak 4[16]IngotUsed in Asia onlyZA-4, ZN-004[13]
Zamak 5[8][9]ZnAl4Cu1[11]IngotAlloy 5[8][9]AG 41A[8][9]ZL0410[11]Ingot type 1[14]ZX03[12]Alloy B[11]Z-A4UI[11]Z410[11]Z35530[9]ZL5, ZA-5, ZN-005[13]
CastZP0410ZDC1[15]-Z35531[8]ZP5, ZA-5, ZN-005[13]
Zamak 7[8][9]ZnAl4Ni[12]IngotAlloy 7[8][9]AG 40B[8][9]--ZX02[12]---Z33522[9]ZA-7, ZN-007[13]
Cast-Z33523[8]
color of the cell is the color of the material designated by ASTM B908.[2]

The Short European Designation code breaks down as follows (using ZL0430 as the example):[11]

Zamak 2

Zamak 2 has the same composition as zamak 3 with the addition of 3% copper in order to increase strength by 20%, which also increases the price. Zamak 2 has the greatest strength out of all the zamak alloys. Over time it retains its strength and hardness better than the other alloys; however, it becomes more brittle, shrinks, and less elastic.[17]

Zamak 2 is also known as Kirksite when gravity cast for use as a die.[2][18] It was originally designed for low volume sheet metal dies.[19] It later gained popularity for making short run injection molding dies.[19] It is also less commonly used for non-sparking tools and mandrels for metal spinning.

Zamak 2 composition per standard
Alloying elementsImpurities
StandardLimitAlCuMgPbCdSnFeNiSiInTl
ASTM B240[20] (Ingot)min3.92.60.025--------
max4.32.90.050.0040.0030.0020.075----
ASTM B86[21] (Cast)min3.52.60.025--------
max4.32.90.050.0050.0040.0030.1----
EN1774[22] (Ingot)min3.82.70.035--------
max4.23.30.060.0030.0030.0010.020.0010.02--
EN12844[23] (Cast)min3.72.70.025--------
max4.33.30.060.0050.0050.0020.050.020.03--
GB8738-88[12]min3.92.60.03--------
max4.33.10.060.0040.0030.00150.035----
Zamak 2 properties[17]
PropertyMetric valueEnglish value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength397 MPa (331 MPa aged)58,000 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset)361 MPa52,000 psi
Impact strength38 J (7 J aged)28 ft-lbf (5 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation at Fmax3% (2% aged)
Elongation at fracture6%
Shear strength317 MPa46,000 psi
Compressive yield strength641 MPa93,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles)59 MPa8,600 psi
Hardness130 Brinell (98 Brinell aged)
Modulus of elasticity96 GPa14,000,000 psi
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range)379—390 °C714—734 °F
Density6.8 kg/dm30.25 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion27.8 μm/m-°C15.4 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity105 W/m-K729 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity6.85 μΩ-cm at 20 °C2.70 μΩ-in at 68 °F
Latent heat (heat of fusion)110 J/g4.7x10−5 BTU/lb
Specific heat capacity419 J/kg-°C0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction0.08

KS

The KS alloy was developed for spin casting decorative parts. It has the same composition as zamak 2, except with more magnesium in order to produce finer grains and reduce the orange peel effect.[24]

KS composition[24]
Alloying elementsImpurities
StandardLimitAlCuMgPbCdSnFeNiSiInTl
Nyrstarmin3.82.50.4--------
max4.23.50.60.0030.0030.0010.020----
KS properties[24]
PropertyMetric valueEnglish value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength< 200 MPa< 29,000 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset)< 200 MPa< 29,000 psi
Elongation< 2%
Hardness150 Brinell max
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range)380—390 °C716—734 °F
Density6.6 g/cm30.25 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion28.0 μm/m-°C15.4 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity105 W/m-K729 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical conductivity25% IACS
Specific heat capacity419 J/kg-°C0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction0.08

Zamak 3

Zamak 3 is the de facto standard for the zamak series of zinc alloys; all other zinc alloys are compared to this. Zamak 3 has the base composition for the zamak alloys (96% zinc, 4% aluminium). It has excellent castability and long term dimensional stability. More than 70% of all North American zinc die castings are made from zamak 3.[2]

Zamak 3 composition per standard
Alloying elementsImpurities
StandardLimitAlCuMgPbCdSnFeNiSiInTl
ASTM B240[20] (Ingot)min3.9-0.025--------
max4.30.10.050.0040.0030.0020.075----
ASTM B86[21] (Cast)min3.5-0.025--------
max4.30.250.050.0050.0040.0030.1----
EN1774[22] (Ingot)min3.8-0.035--------
max4.20.030.060.0030.0030.0010.020.0010.02--
EN12844[23] (Cast)min3.7-0.025--------
max4.30.10.060.0050.0050.0020.050.020.03--
JIS H2201[14] (Ingot)min3.9-0.03--------
max4.30.030.060.0030.0020.0010.075----
JIS H5301[15] (Cast)min3.5-0.02--------
max4.30.250.060.0050.0040.0030.01----
AS1881[25]min3.9-0.04--------
max4.30.030.060.0030.0030.0010.05-0.0010.00050.001
GB8738-88[12]min3.9-0.03--------
max4.30.10.060.0040.0030.00150.035----
Impurity
Zamak 3 properties[4]
PropertyMetric valueEnglish value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength268 MPa38,900 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset)208 MPa30,200 psi
Impact strength46 J (56 J aged)34 ft-lbf (41 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation at Fmax3%
Elongation at fracture6.3% (16% aged)
Shear strength214 MPa31,000 psi
Compressive yield strength414 MPa60,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles)48 MPa7,000 psi
Hardness97 Brinell
Modulus of elasticity96 GPa14,000,000 psi
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range)381—387 °C718—729 °F
Density6.7 g/cm30.24 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion27.4 μm/m-°C15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity113 W/mK784 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity6.37 μΩ-cm at 20 °C2.51 μΩ-in at 68 °F
Latent heat (heat of fusion)110 J/g4.7x10−5 BTU/lb
Specific heat capacity419 J/kg-°C0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction0.07

Zamak 4

Zamak 4 was developed for the Asian markets to reduce the effects of die soldering while maintaining the ductility of zamak 3. This was achieved by using half the amount of copper from the zamak 5 composition.[26]

Zamak 4 composition per standard
Alloying elementsImpurities
StandardLimitAlCuMgPbCdSnFeNiSiInTl
Ningbo Jinyi Alloy Material Co.[13]min3.90.30.03--------
max4.30.50.060.0030.0020.0020.075----
Genesis Alloys Ltd.[27]min3.90.30.04--------
max4.20.40.050.0030.0020.0010.020.0010.020.00050.001
Zamak 4 properties
PropertyMetric valueEnglish value
Mechanical properties[28]
Ultimate tensile strength317 MPa46,000 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset)221—269 MPa32,000—39,000 psi
Impact strength61 J (7 J aged)45 ft-lbf (5 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation7%
Shear strength214—262 MPa31,000—38,000 psi
Compressive yield strength414—600 MPa60,000—87,000 psi
Fatigue strength (rotary bending 5x108 cycles)48—57 MPa7,000—8,300 psi
Hardness91 Brinell
Physical properties[29]
Solidification range (melting range)380—386 °C716—727 °F
Density6.6 g/cm30.24 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion27.4 μm/m-°C15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity108.9—113.0 W/m-K @ 100 °C755.6—784.0 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F @ 212 °F
Electrical conductivity26-27% IACS
Specific heat capacity418.7 J/kg-°C0.100 BTU/lb-°F

Zamak 5

Zamak 5 has the same composition as zamak 3 with the addition of 1% copper in order to increase strength (by approximately 10%[17]), hardness and corrosive resistance, but reduces ductility.[30] It also has less dimensional accuracy.[30] Zamak 5 is more commonly used in Europe.[2]

Zamak 5 composition per standard
Alloying elementsImpurities
StandardLimitAlCuMgPbCdSnFeNiSiInTl
ASTM B240[20] (Ingot)min3.90.750.03--------
max4.31.250.060.0040.0030.0020.075----
ASTM B86[21] (Cast)min3.50.750.03--------
max4.31.250.060.0050.0040.0030.1----
EN1774[22] (Ingot)min3.80.70.035--------
max4.21.10.060.0030.0030.0010.020.0010.02--
EN12844[23] (Cast)min3.70.70.025--------
max4.31.20.060.0050.0050.0020.050.020.03--
JIS H2201[14] (Ingot)min3.90.750.03--------
max4.31.250.060.0030.0020.0010.075----
JIS H5301[15] (Cast)min3.50.750.02--------
max4.31.250.060.0050.0040.0030.01----
AS1881[25]min3.90.750.04--------
max4.31.250.060.0030.0030.0010.05-0.0010.00050.001
GB8738-88[12]min3.90.70.03--------
max4.31.10.060.0040.0030.00150.035----
Zamak 5 properties[30]
PropertyMetric valueEnglish value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength331 MPa (270 MPa aged)48,000 psi (39,000 psi aged)
Yield strength (0.2% offset)295 MPa43,000 psi
Impact strength52 J (56 J aged)38 ft-lbf (41 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation at Fmax2%
Elongation at fracture3.6% (13% aged)
Shear strength262 MPa38,000 psi
Compressive yield strength600 MPa87,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles)57 MPa8,300 psi
Hardness114 Brinell
Modulus of elasticity96 GPa14,000,000 psi
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range)380—386 °C716—727 °F
Density6.7 kg/dm30.24 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion27.4 μm/m-°C15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity109 W/mK756 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity6.54 μΩ-cm at 20 °C2.57 μΩ-in at 68 °F
Latent heat (heat of fusion)110 J/g4.7x10−5 BTU/lb
Specific heat capacity419 J/kg-°C0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction0.08

Zamak 7

Zamak 7 has less magnesium than zamak 3 to increase fluidity and ductility, which is especially useful when casting thin wall components. In order to reduce inter-granular corrosion a small amount of nickel is added and impurities are more strictly controlled.[2]

Zamak 7 composition per standard
Alloying elementsImpurities
StandardLimitAlCuMgPbCdSnFeNiSiInTl
ASTM B240[20] (Ingot)min3.9-0.01--------
max4.30.10.020.0020.0020.0010.075----
ASTM B86[21] (Cast)min3.5-0.005----0.005---
max4.30.250.020.0030.0020.0010.0750.02---
GB8738-88[12]min3.9-0.01----0.005---
max4.30.10.020.0020.0020.0010.0750.02---
Impurity Alloying element
Zamak 7 properties[31]
PropertyMetric valueEnglish value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength285 MPa41,300 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset)285 MPa41,300 psi
Impact strength58.0 J42.8 ft-lbf
Elongation at fracture14%
Shear strength214 MPa31,000 psi
Compressive yield strength414 MPa60,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles)47.0 MPa6,820 psi
Hardness80 Brinell
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range)381—387 °C718—729 °F
Coefficient of thermal expansion27.4 μm/m-°C15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity113 W/m-K784 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity6.4 μΩ-cm2.5 μΩ-in
Specific heat capacity419 J/kg-°C0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Casting temperature395—425 °C743—797 °F

Uses

Common uses for zamak alloys include:[32]

References

  1. ^ Zamak Latest Status Info, http://tarr.uspto.gov/servlet/tarr?regser=serial&entry=71234673, retrieved 2008-03-02
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Diecasting Alloys, http://www.eazall.com/diecastalloys.aspx, retrieved 2008-03-02
  3. ^ Wanhill, R.J.H.; Hattenberg, R.J.H. (May 2005) (PDF), Corrosion-induced cracking of model train zinc-aluminium die castings, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, http://www.nlr.nl/id~4210/lang~en.pdf, retrieved 2008-03-02.
  4. ^ a b ZL3/ZL0400/ZnAl4 (Zamak 3), http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/Zinc-Diecasting-Product-ZL0400-ZL3-Zamak3-GZ3-EDZA3-Alloy5-OVERCOR3/ZL0400-ZL3-ZnAl4-ZP0400-ZP3-Zamak3-Zamak-3-Z400-ZincAlloyForHotChamberDieCasting.htm, retrieved 2008-02-29
  5. ^ Cocks, E.J.; B. Walters (1968), A History of the Zinc Smelting Industry in Britain, Harrap, ISBN 245 59377 2.
  6. ^ World wide zinc die casting standards, Nyrstar, http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/ZZ_standards/DieCasting/ZincDieCastingStandardsWorldwide.htm, retrieved 2008-02-25.
  7. ^ a b c Now defunct due to standardization of European countries under EN 1774 & EN 12844.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p ASTM B86-04e2, 2004-10-01, http://www.techstreet.com/cgi-bin/detail?product_id=1217044, retrieved 2008-02-10
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p ASTM B240-98, 1998-05-01, http://www.techstreet.com/cgi-bin/detail?product_id=4378, retrieved 2008-02-10
  10. ^ prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee ; S.L. Semiatin, volume éditor. (1990), ASM Handbook, 14B, ASM International Handbook Committee, ISBN 0-87170-710-1, http://books.google.com/?id=ekEe4UwqkVUC.
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  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i GB8738 - Chinese standard: zinc alloys ingots for casting (2006), http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/ZZ_standards/DieCasting/GB8738-88-Zinc-Alloys-Casting-ingots-and-castings-quaility-requirements.htm, retrieved 2008-02-27
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  17. ^ a b c ZL2/ZL0430/ZnAl4Cu3 (Zamak 2), http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/Zinc-Diecasting-Product-ZL0430-ZL2-Zamak2-GZ2-EDZA2-Alloy2-Overcor2/ZL0430-ZL2-ZnAl4Cu3-ZP0430-ZP2-Zamak2-Zamak-2-Z430-ZincAlloyforhotchamberdiecasting.htm, retrieved 2008-02-29
  18. ^ a b Husite Engineering - Benefits of Cast Kirksite Tooling, http://husite.biz/kirksite.html, retrieved April 19, 2011
  19. ^ a b Cast Kirksite Re-Emerges as RT Approach for Molding Plastics, http://www.armstrongmold.com/pages/kirksitearticle.html, retrieved 2008-03-15.
  20. ^ a b c d ASTM B240: Standard specification for zinc in ingot form for die casting: chemical composition, http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/ZZ_standards/DieCasting/ASTMB240-zamak-and-zincdiecastingstandard-zincalloysUSA.htm, retrieved 2008-02-27
  21. ^ a b c d ASTM B86: Standard specification for zinc die casting: chemical composition, http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/ZZ_standards/DieCasting/ASTMB86-zamak-and-zincdiecastingstandard-zincalloysUSA.htm, retrieved 2008-02-27
  22. ^ a b c EN1774 Standard - zinc and zinc alloys - alloys for foundry purposes - ingot and liquid, http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/ZZ_standards/DieCasting/EN1774-zamak-and-zincdiecastingstandard-Alloys-for-foundry-purposes-ingot-and-liquid.htm, retrieved 2008-02-27
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  24. ^ a b c KS (spin casting alloy), http://www.nyrstar.com/nyrstar/en/products/zincdiecast/techdownloads/4520525, retrieved 2008-03-15
  25. ^ a b AS1881 - Australia standard - Zinc alloys - casting ingots and casting requirements (1986), http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/ZZ_standards/DieCasting/AS1881-1986-Zinc-Alloys-Casting-ingots-and-castings-quaility-requirements.htm, retrieved 2008-02-27
  26. ^ zamak 4 (Alloy 4), http://www.nyrstar.com/en/productsServices/products/zinc/ZincAlloysZamakProducts/Zinc-Diecasting-Product-Zamak4-GZ4/Zamak4-GZ4-ZincAlloyForHotChamberDieCasting.htm, retrieved 2008-03-09
  27. ^ Genesis Alloy 4, http://www.genesisalloys.com/eng/products/gz4.html, retrieved 2008-03-01
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  31. ^ Zinc Alloy 7; AG40B; Zn-4Al-0.015Mg, http://www.matweb.com/search/DataSheet.aspx?MatID=14541, retrieved 2008-02-29
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  33. ^ a b c d e Zinc alloy various purposes, http://www.jinyialloy.com/en/productsmore.asp?id=4, retrieved 2008-03-02

External links