Yichang

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Yichang
宜昌市
Prefecture-level city
Yichang skyline at the Yangtze River
Yichang skyline at the Yangtze River
Location of Yichang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Location of Yichang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Yichang is located in Hubei
Yichang
Yichang
Location of the city centre in Hubei
Coordinates: 30°43′N 111°17′E / 30.717°N 111.283°E / 30.717; 111.283Coordinates: 30°43′N 111°17′E / 30.717°N 111.283°E / 30.717; 111.283
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHubei
Municipal seatXiling District
Government
 • CPC Party SecretaryGuo Youming
 • MayorLi Lecheng
Area
 • Prefecture-level city21,227 km2 (8,196 sq mi)
 • Urban828 km2 (320 sq mi)
Elevation58 m (191 ft)
Highest elevation2,427 m (7,963 ft)
Lowest elevation35 m (115 ft)
Population (2008)
 • Prefecture-level city4,039,000
 • Density190/km2 (490/sq mi)
 • Urban1,330,000
 • Urban density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
Time zoneChina Standard (UTC+8)
Postal codes443000
Area code(s)0717
ISO-3166cn-42-05
Websitehttp://en.yichang.gov.cn/
 
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Yichang
宜昌市
Prefecture-level city
Yichang skyline at the Yangtze River
Yichang skyline at the Yangtze River
Location of Yichang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Location of Yichang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Yichang is located in Hubei
Yichang
Yichang
Location of the city centre in Hubei
Coordinates: 30°43′N 111°17′E / 30.717°N 111.283°E / 30.717; 111.283Coordinates: 30°43′N 111°17′E / 30.717°N 111.283°E / 30.717; 111.283
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHubei
Municipal seatXiling District
Government
 • CPC Party SecretaryGuo Youming
 • MayorLi Lecheng
Area
 • Prefecture-level city21,227 km2 (8,196 sq mi)
 • Urban828 km2 (320 sq mi)
Elevation58 m (191 ft)
Highest elevation2,427 m (7,963 ft)
Lowest elevation35 m (115 ft)
Population (2008)
 • Prefecture-level city4,039,000
 • Density190/km2 (490/sq mi)
 • Urban1,330,000
 • Urban density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
Time zoneChina Standard (UTC+8)
Postal codes443000
Area code(s)0717
ISO-3166cn-42-05
Websitehttp://en.yichang.gov.cn/
Yichang
Chinese宜昌
Postal MapIchang

Yichang (Chinese: 宜昌) is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.[1]

History[edit]

In ancient times Yichang was known as Yiling. There are historical records telling that in the year 278 BC during the Warring States period, the Qin general Bai Qi set fire to Yiling. In 222 AD Yichang was also the site of the Battle of Yiling during the Three Kingdoms Period.

Under the Qing Guangxu Emperor, Yichang was opened to foreign trade as a trading port after Qing and Great Britain signed Chefoo Convention, which was signed by Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang in Chefoo on 21 August 1876. The imperial government set up a navigation company there and built wharfs less than 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) in length. Since 1949, more than 50 wharves have been constructed at the port so that its wharf area is now over 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) long.

In 1940, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang took place in the area.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Administratively, it is a prefecture-level city; its municipal government has jurisdiction over five counties, five urban districts, and three satellite county-level cities (Yidu, Dangyang, Zhijiang).

Administrative map[edit]

The prefecture-level city of Yichang has direct jurisdiction over 5 districts (区 qu),3 County-level cities(县级市 xianjishi),3 Counties(县 xian) and 3 Autonomous counties(自治县 zizhixian):

MapNameHanziHanyu PinyinPopulation
(2010 census) [2]
Area
(/km²) [3]
Density
(/km²)
Districts
Xiling District西陵区Xīlíng Qū512,07468.147,515.03
Wujiagang District伍家岗区Wǔjiāgǎng Qū214,19484.032549.02
Dianjun District点军区Diǎnjūn Qū103,696533.23194.47
Xiaoting District猇亭区Xiāotíng Qū61,230130.40469.55
Yiling District夷陵区Yílíng Qū520,1863,416.57152.25
County-level cities
Yidu宜都市Yídū Shì384,5981,354.83283.87
Dangyang当阳市Dāngyáng Shì468,2932,148.82217.93
Zhijiang枝江市Jiāngxià Qū644,8352,010.00321
Counties
Yuanan County远安县Yuǎn'ān Xiàn184,5321,741.06105.99
Xingshan County兴山县Xīngshān Xiàn2,315.36480.2073.69
Zigui County秭归县Zǐguī Xiàn367,1072,273.80161.45
Autonomous counties
Changyang Tujia Autonomous County长阳土家族自治县Chángyáng Tǔjiāzú Zìzhìxiàn388,2283418.82113.56
Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County五峰土家族自治县Wǔfēng Tǔjiāzú Zìzhìxiàn188,9232,370.4179.70

Geography[edit]

Like most prefecture-level cities, Yichang includes both an urban area (what's labeled on less detailed maps as "Yichang") and the surrounding country area. It covers 21,084 square kilometres (8,141 sq mi) in Western Hubei Province, on both sides of the Yangtze River. The Xiling Gorge (西陵峡), the easternmost of the Three Gorges on the Yangtze, is located within the prefecture-level city.

Within the prefecture-level city of Yichang, the Yangtze is joined by a number of tributaries, including the Qing River (right), Xiang Xi and Huangbo Rivers (left).

The central urban area of Yichang is split between several districts. On the right (northeastern) bank of the Yangtze are located Xiling District (where the city center is located), Yiling District (neighborhoods north of the center) and Wujiagang District (southern area). The city area on the opposite (southeastern) bank of the river is included into Dianjun District. All these districts, with the exception of the central Xiling, also include a fair amount of suburban/rural area outside of the city urban core.

Climate[edit]

Yichang has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, damp and generally overcast winters, and hot, humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) in January to 27.7 °C (81.9 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 16.85 °C (62.3 °F). Close to 70% of the annual precipitation of 1,140 mm (45 in) occurs from May to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in January to 49% in August, the city receives 1,568 hours of bright sunshine annually, and summer is the sunniest season.

Transport[edit]

By Plane[edit]

Yichang Sanxia Airport is located in the Xiaoting District of Yichang City, 26 km (16 mi) away from the city center and 55 km (34 mi) from the Three Gorges Dam site. The airport [1] is conveniently located, which borders Yihuang Highway in the north, Long River Golden Waterway in the south and Jiaozhi Railway in the east.

Roads and bridges[edit]

Yiling Bridge

Several provincial highways connect Yichang center city with most counties.

Several bridges span the Yangtze River within the prefecture-level city of Yichang, including (upstream to downstream):

A railway bridge has been constructed downstream of downtown for the new Yiwan Railway. (As of April 2010, Google Maps' satellite view shows a bridge still under construction at 30°39′12″N 111°19′20″E / 30.65333°N 111.32222°E / 30.65333; 111.32222; however, those photos may be many months out of date).

There are several ferry crossings as well.

Waterways[edit]

The Three Gorges Dam is located near Sandouping and Maoping within Yichang prefecture-level city (some 40 km (25 mi) from Yichang central city)

Yichang is an important river port on the Yangtze river. Maoping Town (the county seat of Zigui County), has an active passenger wharf as well.

The Qing River in the southern part of the prefecture, with its cascade of dams, is an important waterway as well.

Railway[edit]

Yichang is served by several railway lines.

Yichang Railway Station, located in downtown Yichang, opened in 1971, was the city's first railway station. In 2012 it closed for a renovation project.[5]

The Yichang East Railway Station, opened in the late 2010 in the eastern suburbs of Yichang, is presently the city's main train station. It is the junction point of two segments of the Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, one of China's new east-west rail mainlines. To the east, the Hanyi Railway[6] (opened June 29, 2012) provides frequent service to Wuhan, with some trains continuing to Nanjing and Shanghai. To the west, the Yiwan Railway (Yichang-Wanzhou; opened December 2010) serves as the gateway to Hubei's southwestern panhandle (Enshi), with some service continuing to Chongqing and Chengdu.

The Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway, a north-south line, crosses the eastern part of the prefecture-level city. It crosses the Yangtze at Zhicheng in Yidu County-level City.

Demographics[edit]

Huangling Temple, Sandouping

Yichang has a population of 4,150,000 with urban population of 1,338,000.[7] Yichang prefecture-level city, is home to many members of the Tujia ethnic group, who mostly live in several counties in the south-west of the prefecture.

Yichang also formed the border between the cultures of Ba in the west (an ancient state in the eastern part of what is now Sichuan Province) and the Chu State in the east (an ancient state in what is now Hubei Province and northern Hunan Province).

Education[edit]

Since 2002, Yichang City has been home of the China Three Gorges University (the result of the merger of the University of Hydraulic & Electric Engineering, Yichang and of Hubei Sanxia University), the largest comprehensive university in Hubei Province outside Wuhan, with over 20,400 full-time students.

Economy[edit]

Yichang has long been a major transit port and distribution center of goods, and serves as the economic hub of western Hubei province and an intermediary between the major cities of Chongqing and Wuhan. Its primary industries are shipping and shipbuilding, taking advantage of its location on the Yangtze River.

Yichang prefecture is the site of many major hydroelectricity projects. The best known of them are the two huge dams on the Yangtze River: the Gezhouba Dam (located just upstream of Yichang central city) and Three Gorges Dam, which is 40 kilometres (25 mi) upstream. The Geheyan Dam and Gaobazhou Dam on the Qing River are important as well. Besides those, a huge number of medium-sized and small power plants operate on smaller rivers and streams within the prefecture.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yichang Information
  2. ^ "宜昌市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报". Yichang Statistics Bureau. May 30, 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "宜昌市土地利用总体规划(2006-2020年)". The Bureau of Land Resources Yichang. Nov 18, 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  4. ^ "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  5. ^ 3个月后宜昌火车站可进出动车 低站台改造成高站台.
  6. ^ Construction of Hanyi Railway to Kick off, Wuhan City Government web site, 2008-07-10
  7. ^ "History of Yichang" (in Chinese). Official website of Yichang Government. 2007-09-19. Archived from the original on 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 

External links[edit]