Yekaterinburg

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Yekaterinburg (English)
Екатеринбург (Russian)
-  City[citation needed]  -
Catherineburg.JPG
The skyline of Yekaterinburg
Map of Russia - Sverdlovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia
Yekaterinburg is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Yekaterinburg
Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833°N 60.583°E / 56.833; 60.583Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833°N 60.583°E / 56.833; 60.583
Coat of Arms of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast) new.svg
Flag of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day3rd Saturday of August[citation needed]
Administrative status
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSverdlovsk Oblast
Administrative center ofSverdlovsk Oblast[citation needed]
Municipal status
Urban okrugYekaterinburg Urban Okrug[citation needed]
Head[1]Yevgeny Porunov[1]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)1,350,136 inhabitants[2]
Rank in 20104th
Population (2002 Census)1,293,537 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 20025th
Time zoneYEKT (UTC+06:00)[4]
FoundedNovember 18, 1723[citation needed]
Previous namesYekaterinburg (until 1924),[5]
Sverdlovsk (until 1991)[5]
Postal code(s)620000[citation needed]
Dialing code(s)+7 343[citation needed]
Official website
 
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Yekaterinburg (English)
Екатеринбург (Russian)
-  City[citation needed]  -
Catherineburg.JPG
The skyline of Yekaterinburg
Map of Russia - Sverdlovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia
Yekaterinburg is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Yekaterinburg
Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833°N 60.583°E / 56.833; 60.583Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833°N 60.583°E / 56.833; 60.583
Coat of Arms of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast) new.svg
Flag of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day3rd Saturday of August[citation needed]
Administrative status
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSverdlovsk Oblast
Administrative center ofSverdlovsk Oblast[citation needed]
Municipal status
Urban okrugYekaterinburg Urban Okrug[citation needed]
Head[1]Yevgeny Porunov[1]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)1,350,136 inhabitants[2]
Rank in 20104th
Population (2002 Census)1,293,537 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 20025th
Time zoneYEKT (UTC+06:00)[4]
FoundedNovember 18, 1723[citation needed]
Previous namesYekaterinburg (until 1924),[5]
Sverdlovsk (until 1991)[5]
Postal code(s)620000[citation needed]
Dialing code(s)+7 343[citation needed]
Official website

Yekaterinburg (Russian: Екатеринбу́рг; IPA: [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk], also romanized Ekaterinburg) is the fourth-largest city in Russia with a population of 1,398,889 (2012). Yekaterinburg is situated in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Europe and Asia.[6][7]

Yekaterinburg is the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast and the main industrial and cultural center of the Ural Federal District. Between 1924 and 1991, the city was named Sverdlovsk (Свердло́вск) after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov.

Internationally, Yekaterinburg is best known as a city where the last Russian Tsar Nicholas II and his family were executed in 1918.

Contents

History

This Prokudin-Gorsky photo from 1910 shows the tallest building in the pre-revolutionary Urals, the Great Zlatoust bell tower
Statue of Vasily Tatishev and Georg Wilhelm de Grennin

The city was founded in 1723 by Vasily Tatischev and Georg Wilhelm de Gennin and named after Tsar Peter the Great's wife Catherine I (Yekaterina). The official date of the city's foundation is November 18, 1723. It was granted town status in 1796.

Soon after the Russian Revolution, on July 17, 1918, Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, Alexandra, and their children Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei were murdered by the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House in this city. Other members of the Romanov family were killed at Alapayevsk the day after. In 1977, the Ipatiev House was demolished by order of Boris Yeltsin, to prevent it from being used as a rallying location for monarchists. He later became the first President of Russia and represented the people at the funeral of the Tsar in 1998.[8]

On August 24, 2007, the BBC reported that Russian archaeologists had found the remains of two children of Russia's last Tsar. The remains were discovered in the ground close to the site in Yekaterinburg where the Tsar, his wife, and their three other daughters were found in 1991 along with the remains of four servants. The 2007 discoveries are thought to be those of Prince Alexei and his elder sister Maria. Archaeologist Sergei Pogorelov said bullets found at the burial site indicate the children had been shot. He told Russian television the newly unearthed bones belonged to two young people: a young male aged roughly 10–13 and a young woman about 18–23. Ceramic vessels found nearby appear to have contained sulfuric acid, consistent with an account by one of the Bolshevik firing squad, who said that after shooting the family they doused the bodies in acid to destroy the flesh and prevent them becoming objects of veneration.[9] The Tsar's remains were given a state funeral in July 1998.[10]

During the 1930s, Yekaterinburg was one of several places developed by the Soviet government as a centre of heavy industry, during which time the famous Uralmash was built. Then, during World War II, many state technical institutions and whole factories were relocated to Yekaterinburg away from war-affected areas (mostly Moscow), with many of them staying in Yekaterinburg after the victory. The Hermitage Museum collections were also partly evacuated from Leningrad to Sverdlovsk (as Yekaterinburg was known during Soviet times) in July 1941 and remained there until October 1945.

The lookalike five-story apartment blocks that remain today in Kirovsky, Chkalovsky, and other residential areas of Yekaterinburg sprang up in the 1960s, under the direction of Khrushchev's government.

On May 1 1960, an American U-2 spy plane, piloted by Francis Gary Powers while under the employ of the CIA, was shot down over Sverdlovsk Oblast. He was captured, put on trial, found guilty of espionage and sentenced to seven years of hard labour. He served only about a year before being exchanged for Rudolph Abel, a high-ranking KGB spy, who had been apprehended in the United States in 1957.

There was an anthrax outbreak in Yekaterinburg in April and May 1979, which was attributed to a release from the Sverdlovsk-19 military facility.[11]

During the 1991 coup d'état attempt, Sverdlovsk, the home city of President Boris Yeltsin, was selected by him as a reserve capital for the Russian Federation, in the event that Moscow became too dangerous for the Russian government. A reserve cabinet headed by Oleg Lobov was sent to the city, where Yeltsin enjoyed strong popular support at that time.[12] Shortly after the failure of the coup and subsequent dissolution of the USSR, the city regained its historical name (Yekaterinburg).

Geography and climate

Downtown Yekaterinburg and Iset River

Yekaterinburg is situated on the border of Europe and Asia, 1,667 kilometers (1,036 mi) east of Moscow, on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains on the Iset River. It is surrounded by partially wooded plains, mainly cultivated for agricultural purposes, and small lakes. The city features a humid continental climate (Dfb) under the Köppen climate classification. The winter lasts for about six months—from October until the middle of April—and the temperature may fall to −45 °C (−49 °F), though rarely lower than −20 °C (−4 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F). Summer in the Urals is short, with warm weather for only 65–70 days and an average temperature of +18 °C (64 °F). The city's location "behind" the mountain range and highly variable winds mean that the weather is quite changeable from one day to the next and from year to year.

Climate data for Yekaterinburg
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.6
(42.1)
9.4
(48.9)
17.3
(63.1)
28.8
(83.8)
33.4
(92.1)
35.6
(96.1)
38.8
(101.8)
37.2
(99.0)
31.9
(89.4)
24.7
(76.5)
13.5
(56.3)
5.9
(42.6)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F)−9.1
(15.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.8
(49.6)
17.4
(63.3)
23.0
(73.4)
24.4
(75.9)
21.1
(70.0)
14.5
(58.1)
6.8
(44.2)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7.9
(17.8)
7.6
(45.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−12.6
(9.3)
−11.1
(12.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
4.3
(39.7)
11.3
(52.3)
17.1
(62.8)
19.0
(66.2)
15.9
(60.6)
9.8
(49.6)
3.4
(38.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−11
(12.2)
3.0
(37.4)
Average low °C (°F)−15.7
(3.7)
−14.5
(5.9)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.0
(32.0)
6.2
(43.2)
12.1
(53.8)
14.4
(57.9)
11.9
(53.4)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
Record low °C (°F)−44.6
(−48.3)
−42.4
(−44.3)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−13.5
(7.7)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.5
(34.7)
−1
(30)
−9
(16)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−46.7
(−52.1)
−46.7
(−52.1)
Precipitation mm (inches)26
(1.02)
20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
28
(1.1)
50
(1.97)
74
(2.91)
89
(3.5)
72
(2.83)
58
(2.28)
39
(1.54)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
537
(21.14)
humidity79756860576368737575787971
Mean monthly sunshine hours46.596.1164.3207.0257.3273.0269.7217.0144.077.551.037.21,840.6
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source #2: HKO

Population

Aquamarine apartment complex with the topped out 190 m Antey3 skyscraper in the background

Having decreased during the 1990s, the population started to grow slowly in the 21st century.

Demographic evolution
1724178118201861191719261939
4,0007,96913,02619,83271,590134,800423,000
1959197019791989200220052010
778,6001,025,0001,211,2001,364,621[14]1,293,537[3]1,335,5001,350,136[2]

Economy

Ural Federal University (main building)

The main areas of the region's industry are machinery, metal processing, and ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy.[citation needed]

Recently the commercial economy has improved, and business centers like Yekaterinburg-City have been planned. One of the tallest buildings in the area Antey 3 is a skyscraper which is now complete. It is the tallest structure in Russia outside of Moscow.[citation needed]

Ural Airlines has its head office in Yekaterinburg.[15]

Education

The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (UB RAS), as well as numerous scientific research institutes and establishments are situated in Yekaterinburg. With its 16 state-owned universities and educational academies, as well as a number of private higher education institutions (as of 2005), Yekaterinburg is considered the leading educational and scientific center of the Urals. These institutions include the Ural Federal University (on base Ural State University and Ural State Technical University), Ural State Pedagogical University, Ural State University of Forestry, Urals State University of Mines, Ural State University of Railway Transport, Russian State Vocational Pedagogics University, Ural State University of Economics, Military Institute of Artillery, Ural State Conservatory, Ural State Agricultural Academy, Ural State Law Academy, Ural State Academy of Medicine, Ural State Academy of Performing Arts, Ural Academy of Public Service, Institute of International Relations, and the Urals Academy of Architecture.

Transport

Old railway station
Yekaterinburg Metro – Prospekt Kosmonavtov station
The Kharitonov Palace (built 1794–1820)

Yekaterinburg is an important railway junction on the Trans-Siberian Railway, with lines reaching all parts of the Ural Mountains and the rest of Russia.

As the economy grew stronger after the slump of the 1990s, several European airlines started or resumed flying to the city's Koltsovo International Airport (SVX). These include Turkish Airlines, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines and Finnair.

Yekaterinburg is also served by the smaller Yekaterinburg Aramil Airport.

The city's public transit network includes many tram, bus, trolleybus, Marshrutka routes and Yekaterinburg Metro which opened in 1991. Today, the Yekaterinburg Metro consists of one line, with a total of eight stations.

Culture

The city has several dozen libraries, including the V. G. Belinsky Scientific Library, which is the largest public library in Sverdlovsk Oblast.

Famous for its theaters, Yekaterinburg is also home to some very popular theatre companies: the Yekaterinburg Academic Ballet and Opera Company, the Sverdlovsk Academic Theater of Musical Comedy (a notable company known in Russia and in ex-Soviet republics as Свердловская музкомедияSverdlovskaya muzkomedia), the Yekaterinburg Academic Dramatic Theater, the Yekaterinburg Theater for Young Spectators, the Volkhonka (a popular chamber theatre), and the Kolyada Theater (a chamber theatre founded by Russian playwright, producer and actor Nikolai Kolyada). Yekaterinburg is the centre of New Drama, a movement of contemporary Russian playwrights Nikolai Kolyada, Vasily Sigarev, Konstantin Kostenko, the Presnyakov brothers, and Oleg Bogayev. Yekaterinburg is often called the capital of contemporary dance for a number of famous dance companies residing in the city: the Kipling, the Provincial Dances, the Tantstrest, and a special department of contemporary dance at the Yekaterinburg University of Humanities.

A number of popular Russian rock bands, such as Urfin Dzhyus, Chaif, Chicherina, Nautilus Pompilius, Nastya, Trek, Agata Kristi and Smyslovye Gallyutsinatsii, were originally formed in Yekaterinburg (Ural Rock is often considered as a particular variety of rock music. Yekaterinburg and St. Petersburg are actually considered to be the main centers of the genre in Russia). Also, some famous opera singers – Boris Shtokolov, Yuri Gulyayev, Vera Bayeva – graduated from the Urals State Conservatory. The Ural Philharmonic Orchestra (currently conducted by Dmitry Liss), founded by Mark Paverman and located in Yekaterinburg, is also very popular in Russia and in Europe, as well as the Ural Academic Popular Chorus, a famous folk-singing and dance ensemble.

There are more than 30 museums in Yekaterinburg, including several museums of Ural minerals and jewellery, art galleries, one of the largest collections anywhere of Kasli mouldings (a traditional kind of cast-iron sculpture in the Urals), and the famous Shigirskaya Kladovaya (Шигирская кладовая), or Shigir Collection, which includes the oldest wood sculpture in the world: the Shigir Idol, found near Nevyansk and estimated to have been made about 9,500 years ago. Only here can you see a collection of Nevyansk icons- in the Nevyansk Icon Museum, with more than 300 icons representing 18–20 centuries on display.

Vladimir Yelizarov's Recording Studio SVE Records is based in Yekaterinburg. The studio is in a private residence built in 1837 under the title "The House of the Misters", in one of the historical centers of Yekaterinburg city, two hundred meters from Verkh-Isetsky Lake. In 1987, American singer Tina Turner recorded two tracks, which later appeared on her 1989 album Foreign Affair, whilst in the city as part of her highly acclaimed Break Every Rule World Tour.

Yekaterinburg also has a circus building, and one of the tallest incomplete architectural structures in the world, the Yekaterinburg TV Tower. There are also a number of unusual monuments: e. g. a popular landmark Keyboard monument and a monument to Michael Jackson.[16]

Sports

Yekaterinburg Central Stadium

International relations

Berlin Buddy Bears - Present of the German Consulate General to the City of Yekaterinburg
Cathedral on the blood stands on the site of the Ipatiev House, where the Romanovs – the last Royal Family of Russia – were murdered
Snow-covered statue of Yakov Sverdlov

Consulates

The United States,[18] United Kingdom,[19] Germany,[20] France[21] and several other countries have consulates in Yekaterinburg.

BRIC Summit

The BRIC countries met for their first official summit on 16 June 2009, in Yekaterinburg,[22] with Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attending.

The foreign ministers of the BRIC countries had also met in Yekaterinburg previously on May 16 2008.

Twin cities

Yekaterinburg is a sister city of:

Notable citizens

Other

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Eugenie Porunov has been elected the Head of Ekaterinburg – the Chairman of the Ekaterinburg city Duma". Ekburg.ru. http://www.ekburg.ru/english_version/news_Ekaterinburg/0/638/. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  2. ^ a b "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года [Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b "History - Официальный портал Екатеринбурга". Ekburg.ru. 1934-01-07. http://www.ekburg.ru/english_version/about_Ekaterinburg/history_Ekaterinburg/. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  6. ^ http://www.ekburg.ru/english_version/
  7. ^ http://www.ekaterinburg-ural.com/where-ekaterinburg-russia
  8. ^ "President Yeltsin speaks about Tsar Murder". BBC News. 1998-07-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/monitoring/134401.stm. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  9. ^ "Russia dig finds 'tsar's family'". BBC News. 2007-08-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6962606.stm. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  10. ^ "President Yelsin's speech". BBC News. 1998-07-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/monitoring/134401.stm. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  11. ^ Matthew S. Meselson, et al., "The Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak of 1979", Science 266:5188 (18 November 1994): 1202–1208.
  12. ^ Martin McCauley, "Who's who in Russia since 1900", Routledge, 1997: p.133.
  13. ^ "Климат Екатеринбурга". http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/28440.htm. 
  14. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  15. ^ Home page. Ural Airlines. Retrieved on 18 July 2010. "Address: Utrenniy 1g, Ekaterinburg Russia, 620025, SITA SVXTOU6" Russian address: Home page. "Адрес: 620025, Россия, Екатеринбург, пер. Утренний, 1г"
  16. ^ "Monument to Michael Jackson unveiled in Yekaterinburg: Photo gallery". :. 2011-06-29. http://english.ruvr.ru/photoalbum/52567834/index.html. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  17. ^ Illustraded History Bandy[dead link]
  18. ^ "Official website of the U.S. Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". http://yekaterinburg.usconsulate.gov/. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  19. ^ "Official website of the British Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". http://ukinrussia.fco.gov.uk/en/about-us/other-locations/ekat-landing/. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  20. ^ "Official website of the German Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". http://www.jekaterinburg.diplo.de/Vertretung/jekaterinburg/de/Startseite.html. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  21. ^ "Official website of the French Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". http://www.ambafrance-ru.org/-Ekaterinbourg-. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  22. ^ "First summit for emerging giants". BBC News. 16 June 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8102216.stm. Retrieved 16 June 2009. 

External links and sources