Yasuo Kuniyoshi

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Yasuo Kuniyoshi
Yasuo Kuniyoshi (cropped).jpg
Yasuo Kuniyoshi from the Archives of American Art
Born1889 (1889)
Okayama, Japan
Died1953 (aged 63–64)
New York City
NationalityAmerican
FieldPainting, Intaglio printmaking, lithography
TrainingLos Angeles School of Art and Design, Art Students League of New York
AwardsGuggenheim Fellowship
 
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Yasuo Kuniyoshi
Yasuo Kuniyoshi (cropped).jpg
Yasuo Kuniyoshi from the Archives of American Art
Born1889 (1889)
Okayama, Japan
Died1953 (aged 63–64)
New York City
NationalityAmerican
FieldPainting, Intaglio printmaking, lithography
TrainingLos Angeles School of Art and Design, Art Students League of New York
AwardsGuggenheim Fellowship
Kuniyoshi working on his painting "Upside Down Table and Mask" in his studio near Union Square at 30 East Fourteenth St. in New York, New York.

Yasuo Kuniyoshi (国吉 康雄 Kuniyoshi Yasuo?, 1 September 1893[1] - 14 May 1953) was an American painter, photographer and printmaker.[2]

Life[edit]

Kuniyoshi was born in Okayama, Japan in 1893.[1] He migrated to America in 1906, choosing not to attend military school in Japan.[3] Kuniyoshi originally intended to study English and return to Japan to work as a translator. He spent some time in Seattle, before enrolling at the Los Angeles School of Art and Design.[4] Kuniyoshi spent three years in Los Angeles, discovering his love for the arts. He then moved to New York City to pursue an art career. Kuniyoshi studied briefly at the National Academy and at the Independent School in New York City, and then studied under Kenneth Hayes Miller at the Art Students League of New York.[4] He later taught at the Art Students League of New York in New York City and in Woodstock, New York.

In 1935, Kuniyoshi was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship.[2][5] He was also an Honorary member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters and President of Artists Equity.[2] He died in New York City.

He joined the United States Office of War Information in the outbreak of WWII, despite being labeled an "Enemy Alien" by the U.S Government. However, his motives to working for the United States against the Empire of Japan wasn't just for his anti-fascist ideology, but to also prove that a Japanese immigrant in America can fully assimilate, and pledge loyalty to America. He himself had lived in America for at least 35 years when the war started, and fully assimilated into his new country. [6] In 1942, he raised funds for the United China Relief to provide humanitarian aid to China when it was still at war with Japan.[7] Time magazine ran an article featuring Yasuo Kuniyoshi, George Grosz, a German anti-Nazi painter, and Jon Corbino, an Italian painter, standing behind large unflattering caricatures of Hirohito, Hitler, and Mussolini.[8] Yasuo also directed the Japanese American Committee for Democracy's Arts Council, which was founded in 1943. The Arts Council was a semi-independent group that took advantange of the community's artistic resources to hold exhibitions, raise money for war relief, and issue its own statement denouncing a negotiated peace with Japan. [9] After WWII, Yasuo Kuniyoshi showed opposition to Tsuguharu Foujita's art show at the Kennedy Galleries. During WWII, Tsuguharu Foujita painted propaganda artwork for the Empire of Japan. Yasuo called Foujita a fascist, imperialist, and expansionist.[10]

Art[edit]

Printmaking[edit]

Kenneth Hayes Miller introduced Kuniyoshi to Intaglio printmaking, and made approximately 45 prints between 1916 and 1918.[4] In 1922, he learned about zinc plate lithography and adopted the technique.[11]

Painting[edit]

Strong Woman and Child (1925). Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Kuniyoshi was also known for his still-life paintings of common objects, female circus performers and nudes. Throughout Kuniyoshi’s career he had frequent changes in his art: methods and subject matter. In the 1920s, Kuniyoshi painted images that were more angular, somewhat Cubist style and a tilted plane that allowed him to paint the most detail for each object in his paintings. Kuniyoshi’s application of Cubism’s angularity can be seen in his painting titled Little Joe with Cow (1923). In these early paintings, Kuniyoshi was painting from a combination of his memory and imagination, which is a Japanese mode of thinking about painting. Instead of painting from life, like in Western painting, traditional Japanese painters typically paint the ideal image of a particular subject matter. Kuniyoshi combines this with Western painting in the way he applies the bold colors in oil on canvas;[12] in Japan, traditional painters use ink on either silk or rice paper. These early paintings are the precursors to his mature style that we see in the 1930s.[13]

Dream (1922). Bridgestone Museum of Art, Tokyo.

It was in the 1930s that Kuniyoshi switched from painting from memory to painting from life. This change occurred after his two trips to Europe in 1925 and 1928 where he was exposed to French modern art. In 1928, Goodrich notes, Kuniyoshi spent most of his time in Paris, France with his friend Jules Pascin and it was in this later trip that Kuniyoshi realized that his art had grown stale.[14] By switching to painting from life and incorporating perspective into his paintings, he was able to breathe life back into his images; the change in his style can be seen in Daily News (1935). In this painting it appears that the woman, who is seated in a chair, occupies space within the room depicted as opposed to appearing flat as in Little Joe with Cow. The sharp angles in the cow painting are gone in his painting of the woman, but the soft line work and bold use of colors are apparent in both images.

Kuniyoshi's "Artificial Flowers and Other Things" appeared in Whitney Museum's "Second Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting," which ran from November 27, 1934, to January 10, 1935, and included the work of one other Japanese-American artist, Hideo Noda.[15]

Even in his images of women where they are full-bodied and seem to have a presence in the painting, such as the woman in Daily News, Kuniyoshi did not entirely throw out painting from memory. Goodrich points out that Kuniyoshi did not work with models for the entire painting process. Rather, the artist drew from the model in the early stages of a painting but eventually stopped using her after about a week, or so, and then would continue on from his memory, making adjustments as he saw fit.[16] This desire to paint the ideal perfection of a subject was favored in Japanese art, whereas in Western traditions the painting is typically informed by the real object throughout the entire painting process.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Biographical Material". Archives of American Art. 1951. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  2. ^ a b c Fielding, Mantle (1983). "Kuniyoshi, Yasuo". In Glenn B. Opitz. Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors & Engravers. Apollo. p. 536. ISBN 0-938290-02-9. 
  3. ^ Tatham (2006), p.99
  4. ^ a b c Tatham (2006), p.100
  5. ^ http://www.gf.org/fellows/8250-yasuo-kuniyoshi
  6. ^ Becoming American?: Asian Identity Negotiated Through the Art of Yasuo Kuniyoshi By Shi-Pu Wang Page 43-44
  7. ^ Becoming American?: Asian Identity Negotiated Through the Art of Yasuo KuniyoshiBy Shi-Pu Wang page 18
  8. ^ http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/books/wangBecomingIntro.pdf
  9. ^ After Camp: Portraits in Midcentury Japanese American Life and PoliticsBy Greg Robinson Page 188
  10. ^ Glory in a Line: A Life of Foujita--the Artist Caught Between EastBy Phyllis Birnbaum page 276
  11. ^ Tatham (2006), p.100-102
  12. ^ Wolf, Tom. Yasuo Kuniyoshi's Women. Whitney Museum of American Art, 1948. VI-VII.
  13. ^ Goodall, Donald B. (1975). "Introduction". Yasuo Kuniyoshi 1889-1953: A Retrospective Exhibition. pp. 27–32. 
  14. ^ Goodrich, Lloyd. Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Retrospective Exhibition March 27 to May 9, 1948. Pomegranate Artbooks, 1993. 25-26.
  15. ^ Second Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. 1934. p. 8 (item # 27). 
  16. ^ Goodrich. Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Retrospective Exhibition March 27 to May 9, 1948. 32-34.

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