Yangtze River Delta

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Yangtze River Delta
长江三角洲
Shanghai
Nanjing (top) & Hangzhou (bottom)

Country CHN
Major CitiesShanghai
Nanjing
Hangzhou
Suzhou
Ningbo
Wuxi
Nantong
Shaoxing
Changzhou
Jinhua
Jiaxing
Taizhou
Yangzhou
Yancheng
Taizhou
Zhenjiang
Huzhou
Huai'an
Zhoushan
Quzhou
Ma'anshan
Hefei
Population (2010)
 • Total~105,000,000
 
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Yangtze River Delta
长江三角洲
Shanghai
Nanjing (top) & Hangzhou (bottom)

Country CHN
Major CitiesShanghai
Nanjing
Hangzhou
Suzhou
Ningbo
Wuxi
Nantong
Shaoxing
Changzhou
Jinhua
Jiaxing
Taizhou
Yangzhou
Yancheng
Taizhou
Zhenjiang
Huzhou
Huai'an
Zhoushan
Quzhou
Ma'anshan
Hefei
Population (2010)
 • Total~105,000,000
Yangtze River Delta
Simplified Chinese长江三角洲
Traditional Chinese長江三角洲
Transcriptions
Mandarin
- Hanyu PinyinAbout this sound Chángjiāng sānjiǎozhōu
Wu
- RomanizationZankaon Saekohtseu

The Yangtze River Delta, Yangtze Delta or YRD, also called Yangzi Jiang Delta, Chang Jiang Delta, River Chang Delta, Tai Lake Region or the Golden Triangle of the Yangtze, generally comprises the triangular-shaped territory of Wu-speaking Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province of China. The area lies at the heart of the region traditionally called Jiangnan (literally, "south of the Yangtze River"). The Yangtze River drains into the East China Sea. The urban build-up in the area has given rise what may be the largest concentration of adjacent metropolitan areas in the world. It covers an area of 99600 km2 and is home to over 105 million people as of 2010, of which an estimated 80 million is urban.

Contents

Early history

Since the fourth century, when the national capital was moved to Jiankang (today's Nanjing) at the start of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 317–420), the Yangtze River Delta has been a major cultural, economic, and political centre of China. Hangzhou served as China's capital during the Southern Song Dynasty (AD 1127–1279), and Nanjing was the early capital of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644) before the Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing in 1421.

Other key cities of the region in pre-modern times include Suzhou and Shaoxing. The ancient Suzhou was the capital of Wu State (12th century BC–473 BC), and the ancient Shaoxing was the capital of Yue State (20th century BC?–222 BC). The ancient Nanjing first served as a capital in the Three Kingdoms period as the capital of Wu Empire (AD 229–280). In these periods, there were several concomitant states or empires in China and each one had its own capital.

Population

The delta is one of the most densely populated regions on earth, and includes one of the world's largest cities on its banks — Shanghai, with a density of 2,700 inhabitants/km². Because of the large population of the delta, and factories, farms, and other cities upriver, the World Wide Fund for Nature says the Yangtze Delta is the biggest cause of marine pollution in the Pacific Ocean.

Most of the people in this region speak Wu Chinese (sometimes called Shanghainese, although Shanghainese is actually one of the dialects within the Wu group of Chinese) as their mother tongue, in addition to Mandarin. Wu is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, including Mandarin.

The area of the Yangtze River Delta incorporates more than twenty relatively developed cities in three provinces. The term can be generally used to refer to the entire region extending as far north as Lianyungang, Jiangsu and as far south as Wenzhou, Zhejiang. The region includes some of the fastest-growing economies in China in recent years, and as of 2004 has occupied over 21% of China's total gross GDP.[1]

The greater Yangtze River Delta metropolitan region

Since the 9th century, the Yangtze Delta has been the most populous area in China, East Asia, and one of the most densely populated areas of the world. During the mid to late period of Tang Dynasty (618-907), the region emerged as an economic centre, and the Yangtze River Delta became the most important agricultural, handicraft industrial and economic centre for the late Tang China.

In Song Dynasty, especially during the South Song Dynasty period (1127–1279), with its capital situated in Lin'an (Now Hangzhou), Hangzhou became the biggest city in the East Asia (and some claim, in the world) with a population more than 1.5 million, and the economic status of the Yangtze Delta became more enhanced. Ningbo became one of the two biggest seaports in East Asia along with Quanzhou (in Fujian Province)

During the mid-late Ming Dynasty period (1368–1644), the first capitalism bud of the East Asia was born and developed in this area, although it was disrupted by the Manchurian invasion and controlled strictly and carefully by the Confucian central government in Beijing, it continued its development slowly throughout the rest of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the delta became a large economic centre for the country, and also played the most important role in agriculture and handicraft industry.

During the Qianlong Era (1735-1796), Shanghai began developing rapidly and became the largest port in the Far East. From late 19th century to early 20th century, Shanghai was the biggest commercial centre in the Far East. The Yangtze River Delta became the first industrialized area in China.

After the Chinese economic reform program, which began in 1978, Shanghai again became the most important economic centre in mainland China, and is emerging to become one of Asia's centres for commerce. In modern times, the Yangtze Delta metropolitan region is centred at Shanghai, and also flanked by the major metropolitan areas of Hangzhou, Suzhou, Ningbo, and Nanjing, home to nearly 105 million people (of which an estimated 80 million are urban residents). It is the centre of Chinese economic development, and surpasses other concentrations of metropolitan areas (including the Pearl River Delta) in the People's Republic of China in terms of economic growth, productivity and per capita income.

Cities

Yangtze River Delta.gif

Shanghai
Jiaxing
Huzhou
Hangzhou
Shaoxing
Ningbo
Zhoushan
Suzhou
Wuxi
Changzhou
Zhenjiang
Nanjing
Nantong
Jinhua
Taizhou
Quzhou
Yangzhou
Taizhou
Yancheng
Huai'an
Ma'anshan
Hefei

The Yangtze River Delta (in the narrow sense or in the geographical sense) is shown in green, which includes Shanghai and parts of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Now some cities outside the green area in the map are also considered as in the greater Yangtze River Delta due to mutual economic development.

In 1982, the Chinese government set up the Shanghai Economic Area. Besides Shanghai, 4 cities in Jiangsu (Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Nantong) and 5 cities in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Huzhou, Ningbo) were included. In 1992, a 14-city cooperative joint meeting was launched. Besides the previous 10 cities, the members included Nanjing, Zhenjiang and Yangzhou in Jiangsu, and Zhoushan in Zhejiang. In 1997, the regular joint meeting resulted in the establishment of the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination Association, which included a new member Taizhou in Jiangsu in that year. In 2003, Taizhou in Zhejiang also joined the association. In 2010, the association accepted 6 new members after six-year observation and review, including Yancheng and Huai'an in Jiangsu, Jinhua and Quzhou in Zhejiang, and Ma'anshan and Hefei in Anhui. The total number of cities in the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination Association is now 22.[2] Some other cities that have been in consideration and in review include Wenzhou and Lishui in Zhejiang, Lianyungang and Xuzhou in Jiangsu, and Chuzhou, Wuhu, Tongling, Huainan and Xuancheng in Anhui.


CityHanziHanyu PinyinWuRegional Population(2010)Non-agricultural Population of Urban Districts(2010)[3]GDP(2011)(billion yuan)ImageInformation
Shanghai上海ShànghǎiZaonhe23,019,14812,286,2741,919.57Pudong Skyline, Shanghai, PRC.jpgShanghai is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world, with over 20 million people. Located on China's central eastern coast at the mouth of the Yangtze River, Shanghai is administered as a municipality of the People's Republic of China with province-level status.
Nanjing
(Jiangsu)
南京NánjīngNoecin

[note 1]

8,004,6805,105,946614.55Nanjing Skyline 2010.jpgNanjing is the capital of China's Jiangsu Province and the second largest city in the region. Nanjing is a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, serving as the capital of China during several historical periods. It is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province.
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang)
杭州HángzhōuGhaontseu8,700,4003,075,212701.18Hangzhou Wulin Square.jpgHangzhou is the capital and the largest city of Zhejiang province. Hangzhou is a sub-provincial city. It has a position on the Hangzhou Bay 180 kilometres (110 mi) southwest of Shanghai that gives it economic power. Hangzhou has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities of China for more than 1,000 years, due in part to its beautiful natural scenery. The West Lake is the best-known attraction in Hangzhou.
Suzhou
(Jiangsu)
苏州/
蘇州
SūzhōuSoutseu10,465,9942,424,7591,071.70China Suzhou Jinjihu Lake.jpga prefecture-level city on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in Jiangsu province. Suzhou is renowned for its beautiful stone bridges, pagodas, and meticulously designed gardens which have contributed to its status as a great tourist attraction. It is often dubbed the "Venice of the East" or "Venice of China".
Ningbo
(Zhejiang)
宁波/
寧波
NíngbōNyinpou7,605,6891,364,963601.05Juncture of three main rivers in Ningbo China.jpga sub-provincial city with separate state-planning status. Ningbo has a population of 2,182,000 and is situated in northeastern Zhejiang province. Lying south of the Hangzhou Bay, and facing the East China Sea to the east, it borders Shaoxing to the west and Taizhou to the south, and is separated from Zhoushan by a narrow body of water. The joint seaport with Zhoushan is one of the largest cargo ports in the world.[4]
Wuxi
(Jiangsu)
无锡/
無錫
WúxīVusih6,372,6242,252,571688.02Wuxi-bird-view.PNGan old city in Jiangsu province. Split into halves by Lake Taihu, Wuxi borders Changzhou to the west and Suzhou to the east. The northern half looks across to Taizhou to the north over the Yangtze River, while the southern half also borders the province of Zhejiang to the south. Wuxi is a prefecture-level city. Because of its recent rapid development, it has been dubbed the "little Shanghai".
Nantong
(Jiangsu)
南通NántōngNoethon7,282,8351,361,003408.02南通.jpga prefecture-level city in Jiangsu province. Located on the northern bank of the Yangtze River near the river mouth, Nantong is a vital river port bordering Yancheng to the north, Taizhou to the west, Suzhou to the south across the river, and the East China Sea to the east.
Shaoxing
(Zhejiang)
绍兴/
紹興
ShàoxīngZaushin4,912,200481,720329.12Shaoxing.gifa prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province. Lying on the south bank of the Qiantang River mouth, Shaoxing borders Ningbo to the east, Taizhou to the southeast, Jinhua to the southwest, and Hangzhou to the west. Shaoxing has a very long history, over thousands of years, and has accumulated and handed down a characteristic culture known as "Yue Culture".
Changzhou
(Jiangsu)
常州ChángzhōuZantseu4,591,9721,219,557358.04ChangZhou.jpga prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province. Located on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Changzhou borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the west, Zhenjiang to the northwest, Wuxi to the east, and the province of Zhejiang to the south.
Jinhua
(Zhejiang)
金华/
金華
JīnhuáCinho4,614,100321,632244.77金华婺江.jpga prefecture-level city in central Zhejiang province. Jinhua borders the provincial capital Hangzhou to the northwest, Quzhou to the southwest, Lishui to the south, Taizhou to the east, and Shaoxing to the northeast.
Jiaxing
(Zhejiang)
嘉兴/
嘉興
JiāxīngCiashin4,501,700428,609266.8120090913 Wuzhen 5129.jpga prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang province. Lying on the Grand Canal of China, Jiaxing borders Hangzhou to the southwest, Huzhou to the west, Shanghai to the northeast, and the province of Jiangsu to the north. Jiaxing is known as the 'home of silk', and hence is a producer of textiles as well, including woolens.
Taizhou
(Zhejiang)
台州TāizhōuThetseu5,968,800310,464279.49台州玉兰广场购物中心.jpgan emerging city along the eastern coast of Zhejiang province, facing the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean to the east. Taizhou lies between 300 kilometers from the major city of Shanghai, and 230 kilometers from Hangzhou city, the procincial capital of Zhejiang in distance. Taizhou is a prefecture-level city.
Yangzhou
(Jiangsu)
扬州/
揚州
YángzhōuGhiantseu

[note 1]

4,459,7601,705,209263.03Yangzhou.jpga prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yangtze River, Yangzhou borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the southwest, Huai'an to the north, Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang across the Yangtze River to the south. Historically it is one of the wealthiest of China's cities, known at various periods for its great merchant families, poets, painters, and scholars.
Yancheng
(Jiangsu)
盐城YánchéngGhiezen

[note 1]

7,260,240892,874277.13盐城市区开放大道.jpga prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangsu province. Having the largest jurisdiction area in Jiangsu, Yancheng borders Lianyungang to the north, Huai'an to the west, Yangzhou and Taizhou to the southwest, Nantong to the south, and looks out to the Yellow Sea to the east.
Taizhou
(Jiangsu)
泰州TàizhōuThatseu

[note 1]

4,618,558551,730242.26泰州.jpga prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province. Situated on the north bank of the Yangtze River, Taizhou borders Nantong to the east, Yancheng to the north and Yangzhou to the west.
Zhenjiang
(Jiangsu)
镇江/
鎮江
ZhènjiāngTsenkaon

[note 1]

3,113,384671,808231.04Zhenjiang Dantu.jpga prefecture-level city in the southwest of Jiangsu province. Sitting on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Zhenjiang borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the west, Changzhou to the east, and Yangzhou across the Yangtze River to the north. Today Zhenjiang is an important transportation hub owing to its location near the intersection of the Yangtze River and the Grand Canal.
Huzhou
(Zhejiang)
湖州HúzhōuGhoutseu2,893,500443,102151.88Night in Huzhou.jpga prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang province. Lying south of the Lake Tai, Huzhou borders Jiaxing to the east, Hangzhou to the south, and the provinces of Anhui and Jiangsu to the west and north respectively. Huzhou is known as the city of silk.
Huai'an
(Jiangsu)
淮安Huái'ānGhuaoe

[note 1]

4,799,8891,133,946169.00Huaian.jpga prefecture-level city in northern Jiangsu province. Huai'an borders Suqian to the northwest, Lianyungang to the north, Yancheng to the east, Yangzhou to the southeast, and the province of Anhui to the southwest. The area of Huai'an spans over ancient canal of Huai River and the name of Huai'an takes the hope of the residents for lasting peaceful Huai River.
Zhoushan
(Zhejiang)
舟山ZhōushānTseuse1,121,300281,42376.53Xihoumen Bridge in Zhoushan.jpgformerly transliterated as Chusan, a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province. The only prefecture-level city consisting solely of islands, Zhoushan lies across the mouth of the Hangzhou Bay, and is separated from the mainland by a narrow body of water. On 30 June 2011 the Chinese central government approves Zhoushan's status as a state-level new area. The joint seaport with Ningbo is one of the largest cargo ports in the world.[4]
Quzhou
(Zhejiang)
衢州QúzhōuJiutseu2,456,100275,97389.03衢州廿八都.jpga prefecture-level city in southwestern Zhejiang province. Sitting on the upper course of the Qiantang River, it borders Hangzhou to the north, Jinhua to the east, Lishui to the southeast, and the provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui to the south, southwest and northwest respectively.
Ma'anshan
(Anhui)
马鞍山/
馬鞍山
Mǎ'ānshānMooese

[note 1]

1,366,302532,410114.42Huayu Square cross.jpga prefecture-level city in the east of Anhui province. An industrial city stretching across the Yangtze River, Ma'anshan borders Hefei to the west, Wuhu to the southwest, and Nanjing to the east. It is a core city of the Nanjing Metropolitan Circle.
Hefei
(Anhui)
合肥HéféiGhehvi

[note 1]

7,457,466[note 2]1,783,612363.66Hefei-yejing1.jpgthe capital and the largest city of Anhui Province. A prefecture-level city, Hefei is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui. Located in the central portion of the province, it borders Huainan to the north, Chuzhou to the northeast, Chaohu to the southeast and Lu'an to the west.

Note:

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The dialects in these areas are generally not Wu Chinese.
  2. ^ including Chaohu City and Lujiang County

Transportation

The area is home to a very extensive transport network that include railways and expressways. The area has one of the highest private vehicle ownership rates in the country, and traffic rules governing Jiangsu, Shanghai, and Zhejiang are relatively strict compared to the rest of the country.

Main bridges

Sea

The region is served by some of the country's largest seaports:

Air

The region has eight major airports, whose area of coverage is generally around an hour's drive from any point of the delta. They include:

Road

Rail

High-speed Rail

Bus Rapid Transit

Light Rail

Metro

Suburban Rail

Climate

Shanghai
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
51
 
8
1
 
 
57
 
9
2
 
 
99
 
13
6
 
 
89
 
19
11
 
 
102
 
24
16
 
 
170
 
28
21
 
 
156
 
32
25
 
 
158
 
31
25
 
 
137
 
27
21
 
 
63
 
23
15
 
 
46
 
17
9
 
 
37
 
11
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

The Yangtze Delta has a marine monsoon subtropical climate, with hot and humid summers, cool and dry winters, and warm spring and fall. Winter temperatures can drop as low as -10°C (a record), however, and even in springtime, large temperature fluctuations can occur.

Fishing and agriculture

The Yangtze River Delta contains the most fertile soils in all of China. Rice is the dominant crop of the delta, but further inland fishing rivals it. In Qing Pu, 50 ponds, containing five different species of fish, produce 29,000 tons of fish each year. One of the biggest fears of fish farmers in this region is that toxic water will seep into their man-made lagoons and threaten their livelihood.

References

External links