Yakutsk

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Yakutsk (English)
Якутск (Russian)
Дьокуускай (Sakha)
-  City[1]  -
City under republic jurisdiction[1]
Yakutsk 1 (synchroswimr).jpg
View of the city from the Geological Institute collections area
Map of Russia - Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic in Russia
Yakutsk is located in Sakha Republic
Yakutsk
Yakutsk
Location of Yakutsk in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
Coordinates: 62°02′N 129°44′E / 62.033°N 129.733°E / 62.033; 129.733Coordinates: 62°02′N 129°44′E / 62.033°N 129.733°E / 62.033; 129.733
Coat of Arms of Yakutsk (Yakutia) 2012.jpg
Yakutsk flag.png
Coat of arms
Flag
City DaySecond Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of June 2009)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSakha Republic[2]
Administratively subordinated tocity of republic significance of Yakutsk[1]
Capital ofSakha Republic[2]
Administrative center ofcity of republic significance of Yakutsk[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2008)
Urban okrugYakutsk Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofYakutsk Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Aysen Nikolayev[citation needed]
Representative bodyOkrug Council[citation needed]
Statistics
Area122 km2 (47 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census)269,601 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 201068th
Density2,210 /km2 (5,700 /sq mi)[5]
Time zoneYAKT (UTC+10:00)[6]
Founded1632[7]
City status since1643[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8]677xxx
Dialing code(s)+7 4112[9]
Official website
Yakutsk on WikiCommons
 
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Yakutsk (English)
Якутск (Russian)
Дьокуускай (Sakha)
-  City[1]  -
City under republic jurisdiction[1]
Yakutsk 1 (synchroswimr).jpg
View of the city from the Geological Institute collections area
Map of Russia - Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic in Russia
Yakutsk is located in Sakha Republic
Yakutsk
Yakutsk
Location of Yakutsk in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
Coordinates: 62°02′N 129°44′E / 62.033°N 129.733°E / 62.033; 129.733Coordinates: 62°02′N 129°44′E / 62.033°N 129.733°E / 62.033; 129.733
Coat of Arms of Yakutsk (Yakutia) 2012.jpg
Yakutsk flag.png
Coat of arms
Flag
City DaySecond Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of June 2009)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSakha Republic[2]
Administratively subordinated tocity of republic significance of Yakutsk[1]
Capital ofSakha Republic[2]
Administrative center ofcity of republic significance of Yakutsk[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2008)
Urban okrugYakutsk Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofYakutsk Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Aysen Nikolayev[citation needed]
Representative bodyOkrug Council[citation needed]
Statistics
Area122 km2 (47 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census)269,601 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 201068th
Density2,210 /km2 (5,700 /sq mi)[5]
Time zoneYAKT (UTC+10:00)[6]
Founded1632[7]
City status since1643[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8]677xxx
Dialing code(s)+7 4112[9]
Official website
Yakutsk on WikiCommons

Yakutsk (Russian: Якутск, IPA: [jɪˈkutsk]; Sakha: Дьокуускай, Jokūskaĭ, pronounced [ɟokuːskaj]) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about 450 kilometers (280 mi) south of the Arctic Circle. Population: 269,601 (2010 Census);[4] 210,642 (2002 Census);[10] 186,626 (1989 Census).[11]

Yakutsk is a major port on the Lena River. It is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport. It is a major supplier of diamonds.

History[edit]

The Turkic Sakha people, also known as the Yakuts, migrated to the area in the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia due to the rising military power of the Mongols. When they arrived they mixed with other indigenous Siberians in the area.[12]

Kate Marsden leaving Yakutsk in 1891

Russian Yakutsk was founded in 1632[7] as an ostrog (fort) by Pyotr Beketov. In 1639, it became the center of a voyevodstvo. The Yakutsk Voyevoda quickly became the most important Russian official in the region and directed expansion to the east and south.

Yakutsk did not grow into a city until the discovery of large reserves of gold and other minerals in the 1880s and 1890s. These reserves were developed extensively during industrialization under Stalin. The rapid growth of forced labor camps in Siberia was also a major factor encouraging Yakutsk's development.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Yakutsk is the capital of the republic.[2] As an inhabited locality, Yakutsk is classified as a city under republic jurisdiction.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the settlement of Zhatay and eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yakutsk—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Yakutsk and the eleven rural localities are incorporated as Yakutsk Urban Okrug.[3] The settlement of Zhatay is not a part of Yakutsk Urban Okrug and is independently incorporated as Zhatay Urban Okrug.[3]

Transportation[edit]

Yakutsk is a destination of the Lena Highway. The city's connection to the highway is only accessible by ferry in the summer, or in the dead of winter, directly over the frozen Lena River, as Yakutsk lies entirely on its western bank, and there is no bridge anywhere in the Sakha Republic that crosses the Lena. The river is impassable for long periods of the year when it contains loose ice, when the ice cover is not thick enough to support traffic, or when the water level is too high and the river turbulent with spring flooding. The highway ends on the eastern bank of Lena in Nizhny Bestyakh (Нижний Бестях), an urban-type settlement of some four thousand people. Yakutsk is connected with Magadan by the Kolyma Highway.

A road bridge over the Lena is scheduled to be built by 2020.[13][14] The bridge had originally been planned to be a dual-use railroad and road bridge so the Amur Yakutsk Mainline, the North-South railroad being extended from the South, could connect the city with the East-West Baikal Amur Mainline. The railway reached the settlement of Nizhny Bestyakh, on the opposite bank of the Lena from Yakutsk, in November 2011.[15]

The bridge will be over 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) long and constructed 40 kilometers (25 mi) upriver at Tabaga, where the river narrows and does not create a wide flooded area in spring. In the dead of winter, the frozen Lena makes for a passable highway for ice truckers using its channel to deliver provisions to far-flung outposts. Yakutsk is also connected to other parts of Russia by Yakutsk Airport.

Education and research[edit]

M.K.Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University is situated in the city. There is also a branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which contains, among other things, the Institute of Cosmophysical Research, which runs the Yakutsk Extensive Air Shower installation (one of the largest cosmic-ray detector arrays in the world), and the Yakutsk Permafrost Institute developed with the aim of solving the serious and costly problems associated with construction of buildings on frozen soil.

At the primary and secondary levels, the city has a number of UNESCO Associated Schools, including the Sakha-Turkish College, Sakha-French School, Sakha-Korean School, and School #16.[16]

Economy[edit]

Yakutsk is responsible for a fifth of the world's production of diamonds,[7] and is home to ALROSA and other mining companies. The city is also home to a significant food industry, to tanneries, to sawmills, and to factories for building materials.[7]

Yakutia Airlines has its head office in the city.[17]

Climate[edit]

Yakutsk
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
9
 
−35
−42
 
 
8
 
−29
−38
 
 
7
 
−12
−27
 
 
8
 
−2
−12
 
 
20
 
13
1
 
 
35
 
22
9
 
 
38
 
26
13
 
 
37
 
22
9
 
 
31
 
12
1
 
 
18
 
−4
−12
 
 
16
 
−23
−31
 
 
10
 
−34
−40
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Pogoda.ru[18]

With an extreme subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfd), Yakutsk has the coldest winter temperatures for any city.[7] Average monthly temperatures range from +19.5 °C (67.1 °F) in July to −38.6 °C (−37.5 °F) in January, and only Norilsk has a lower mean annual temperature for any settlement of over 100,000.[citation needed] The coldest temperatures ever recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast of Yakutsk. Although winters are long and extremely cold, summers are warm (though rather short), with daily maximum temperatures occasionally exceeding +30 °C (86 °F),[7] making the seasonal temperature differences for the region among the greatest in the world. The lowest temperature recorded in Yakutsk was −64.4 °C (−83.9 °F) and the highest was +38.4 °C (101.1 °F). Yakutsk is the biggest city built on continuous permafrost, and most houses there are built on concrete piles. Yakutsk has a distinct inland location, being almost 1000 kilometres from the Pacific Ocean, which coupled with the high latitude means exposure to severe winters and also lack of temperature moderation, which sees July temperatures soar to an above-normal average for this parallel, with the July average being comparable to summer temperatures in Paris, Moscow, Sydney, Cape Town and on average warmer than the Los Angeles coastline.

The climate is quite dry, with maximum precipitation occurring in the summer months, due to the intense Siberian High forming around the very cold continental air during the winter. Even during the summer, precipitation is not heavy since the moist southeasterly winds from the Pacific Ocean lose their moisture over the coastal mountains well before reaching the Lena valley.

With the Lena River navigable in the summer, there are various boat cruises offered, including upriver to the Lena Pillars, and downriver tours which visit spectacular scenery in the lower reaches and the Lena delta.

Climate data for Yakutsk, 1971-2000
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)−5.8
(21.6)
−2.2
(28)
8.3
(46.9)
21.1
(70)
31.1
(88)
35.1
(95.2)
38.4
(101.1)
35.4
(95.7)
27.0
(80.6)
18.6
(65.5)
3.1
(37.6)
−3.9
(25)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F)−35.1
(−31.2)
−28.6
(−19.5)
−12.3
(9.9)
1.7
(35.1)
13.2
(55.8)
22.4
(72.3)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
11.5
(52.7)
−3.6
(25.5)
−23.1
(−9.6)
−34.3
(−29.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−38.6
(−37.5)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−4.8
(23.4)
7.5
(45.5)
16.4
(61.5)
19.5
(67.1)
15.2
(59.4)
6.1
(43)
−7.8
(18)
−27
(−17)
−37.6
(−35.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
Average low °C (°F)−41.5
(−42.7)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−11.8
(10.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.3
(48.7)
12.7
(54.9)
8.9
(48)
1.2
(34.2)
−12.2
(10)
−31
(−24)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−14.1
(6.6)
Record low °C (°F)−63
(−81)
−64.4
(−83.9)
−54.9
(−66.8)
−41
(−42)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.8
(18)
−14.2
(6.4)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−54.5
(−66.1)
−59.8
(−75.6)
−64.4
(−83.9)
Precipitation mm (inches)9
(0.35)
8
(0.31)
7
(0.28)
8
(0.31)
20
(0.79)
35
(1.38)
38
(1.5)
37
(1.46)
31
(1.22)
18
(0.71)
16
(0.63)
10
(0.39)
237
(9.33)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)2.12.01.92.93.87.36.56.05.36.15.74.153.7
 % humidity76767060545762677278787668.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours18.698.0232.5273.0303.8333.0347.2272.8174.0105.460.09.32,227.6
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[18]
Source #2: HKO

Culture[edit]

The cultural life of Yakutsk is developing constantly.

There are several theatres: the State Russian drama theatre, named after A. S. Pushkin; the Sakha Theater, named after P. A. Oiyunsky; the Suorun Omoloon Young Spectator's Theatre; and the State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre, named after D. K. Sivtsev.

There are a number of interesting museums as well: the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha; the Museum of Local Lore and History, named after E. Yaroslavsky; and the only museums in the world dedicated to the khomus and permafrost.

Gallery[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Yakutsk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  2. ^ a b c Constitution of the Sakha Republic
  3. ^ a b c d Law #174-Z #355-III
  4. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b c d e f Iuncker, Steeve (April 10, 2013). "Yakutsk: The Coldest City on Earth". LightBox (blog). Time. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  9. ^ (in Russian). Retrieved November 10, 2010.
  10. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.203.3886&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  13. ^ "Lena River Bridge to Provide Hope and Fruit" Link accessed March 15, 2014. (English)
  14. ^ Russia Basel's wins tender to build Yakutia railroad Reuters, Thu Nov 6, 2008
  15. ^ Russian Berkakit-Tommot-Nizhny Bestyakh line completed
  16. ^ Nikolaev, Michael E. (January 7, 2007). "The Most Valuable Possession of a Society is Education". Yakutia Today. Retrieved August 4, 2009. 
  17. ^ "About Us." Yakutia Airlines. Retrieved on July 18, 2010. "JSC "Air Company Yakutia" Address: 9, Bykovsky st., Yakutsk, Russia, 677014." Russian address: "Contact Us." "ОАО «Авиакомпания «Якутия» Адрес: Республика Саха (Якутия), 677014, г. Якутск, ул. Быковского, 9"
  18. ^ a b "Pogoda.ru.net-Climate Data for Yakutsk 1981-2010" (in Russian). Retrieved April 26, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]