Yakima, Washington

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Yakima
City
City of Yakima
Yakima viewed from Lookout Point
Yakima viewed from Lookout Point
Official seal of Yakima
Seal
Nickname(s): The Palm Springs of Washington, The Heart of Central Washington
Location of Yakima in Washington
Location of Yakima in Washington
Coordinates: 46°36′N 120°30′W / 46.600°N 120.500°W / 46.600; -120.500
CountryUnited States
StateWashington
CountyYakima
IncorporatedDecember 10, 1883
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • ManagerTony O'Rourke
 • MayorMicah Cawley
Area[1]
 • City27.69 sq mi (71.72 km2)
 • Land27.18 sq mi (70.40 km2)
 • Water0.51 sq mi (1.32 km2)  1.84%
Elevation1,066 ft (325 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City91,067
 • Estimate (2013[3])93,257
 • RankUS: 322th
 • Density3,350.5/sq mi (1,293.6/km2)
 • Urban129,534 (US: 248th)
 • Metro247,044 (US: 187th)
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
Zip Code98901, 98902, 98903, 98904, 98907, 98908, 98909
Area code(s)509
FIPS code53-80010
GNIS feature ID1509643[4]
Websitewww.yakimawa.gov
 
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"Yakima" redirects here. For other uses, see Yakima (disambiguation).
Yakima
City
City of Yakima
Yakima viewed from Lookout Point
Yakima viewed from Lookout Point
Official seal of Yakima
Seal
Nickname(s): The Palm Springs of Washington, The Heart of Central Washington
Location of Yakima in Washington
Location of Yakima in Washington
Coordinates: 46°36′N 120°30′W / 46.600°N 120.500°W / 46.600; -120.500
CountryUnited States
StateWashington
CountyYakima
IncorporatedDecember 10, 1883
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • ManagerTony O'Rourke
 • MayorMicah Cawley
Area[1]
 • City27.69 sq mi (71.72 km2)
 • Land27.18 sq mi (70.40 km2)
 • Water0.51 sq mi (1.32 km2)  1.84%
Elevation1,066 ft (325 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City91,067
 • Estimate (2013[3])93,257
 • RankUS: 322th
 • Density3,350.5/sq mi (1,293.6/km2)
 • Urban129,534 (US: 248th)
 • Metro247,044 (US: 187th)
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
Zip Code98901, 98902, 98903, 98904, 98907, 98908, 98909
Area code(s)509
FIPS code53-80010
GNIS feature ID1509643[4]
Websitewww.yakimawa.gov

Yakima (/ˈjækɨmɑː/ or /ˈjækɨmə/) is a US city located about 60 miles southeast of Mount Rainier in Washington. Yakima is the county seat of Yakima County, Washington, and the state's ninth largest city by population. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 91,067 and a metropolitan population of 243,231.[5] The unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima.[6]

Yakima is situated in the Yakima Valley, an extremely productive agricultural region noted for apple, wine and hop production. As of 2011, the Yakima Valley produces 77% of all hops grown in the United States.[7] The name Yakima originates from the Yakama Nation, located south of the city.

History[edit]

Armistice Day on Yakima Avenue

The Yakama people were the first known inhabitants of the Yakima Valley. In 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came to the area and discovered abundant wildlife and rich soil, prompting the settlement of homesteaders.[8] A Catholic Mission was established in Ahtanum, southwest of present-day Yakima, in 1847.[9] The arrival of settlers and their conflicts with the natives resulted in the Yakima War. The U.S. Army established Fort Simcoe in 1856 near present-day White Swan as a response to the uprising. The Yakamas were defeated and forced to relocate to the Yakama Indian Reservation.

Yakima County was created in 1865. When bypassed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in December 1884, over 100 buildings were moved with rollers and horse teams to the nearby site of the depot. The new city was dubbed North Yakima and was officially incorporated and named the county seat on January 27, 1886. The name was changed to Yakima in 1918. Union Gap was the new name given to the original site of Yakima.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.69 square miles (71.72 km2), of which, 27.18 square miles (70.40 km2) is land and 0.51 square miles (1.32 km2) is water.[1] Yakima is 344.392 meters above mean sea level.

Yakima region[edit]

Yakima, Washington as seen from the west.

The city of Yakima is located in the Upper Valley of Yakima County. The county is geographically divided by Ahtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Ridge into two regions: the Upper (northern) and Lower (southern) valleys. Yakima is located in the more urbanized Upper Valley, and is the central city of the Yakima Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The cities of Selah and Union Gap lie immediately to the north and south of Yakima. In addition, the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. With these cities included in the immediate area, population within 20 miles of the city is over 123,000. Other nearby cities include Moxee, Tieton, Cowiche, Wiley City, Tampico, Gleed, and Naches in the Upper Valley, as well as Wapato, Toppenish, Zillah, Harrah, White Swan, Parker, Buena, Outlook, Granger, Mabton, Sunnyside, and Grandview in the Lower Valley. As of the 2013, the estimated population of the metropolitan area is 247,044.

Bodies of water[edit]

The primary irrigation source for the Yakima Valley, the Yakima River, runs through Yakima from its source at Lake Keechelus in the Cascade Range to the Columbia River at Richland. In Yakima, the river is used for both fishing and recreation. A 10-mile (16 km) walking and cycling trail, a park, and a wildlife sanctuary are located at the river's edge.

The Naches River forms the northern border of the city. Several small lakes flank the northern edge of the city, including Myron Lake, Lake Aspen, Bergland Lake (private) and Rotary Lake (also known as Freeway Lake). These lakes are popular with fishermen and swimmers during the summer.

Climate[edit]

Yakima has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with a Mediterranean precipitation pattern. Winters are cold, with December the coolest month, with a mean temperature of 28.5 °F (−1.9 °C).[10] Annual average snowfall is 21.7 inches (55.1 cm).,[10] with most occurring in December and January, when the snow depth averages 2–3 inches. There are 22 days per year in which the high does not surpass freezing, and 2.3 nights where the low is 0 °F (−18 °C) or lower.[10] Springtime warming is very gradual, with the average last freeze of the season May 13. Summer days are hot, but the diurnal temperature variation is large, exceeding 35 °F (19 °C) during that season; there are 34 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually and 3.2 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs. Autumn cooling is very rapid, with the average first freeze of the season occurring on September 30. Due to the city's location in a rain shadow, precipitation, at an average of 8.22 inches (209 mm) annually, is low year-round,[10] but especially during summer. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −25 °F (−32 °C) in February 1950, to 110 °F (43 °C) in August 1971.[11]

Climate data for Yakima, Washington (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)68
(20)
69
(21)
80
(27)
92
(33)
102
(39)
105
(41)
109
(43)
110
(43)
100
(38)
88
(31)
73
(23)
67
(19)
110
(43)
Average high °F (°C)38.6
(3.7)
46.3
(7.9)
56.2
(13.4)
63.8
(17.7)
72.4
(22.4)
79.5
(26.4)
87.9
(31.1)
86.8
(30.4)
78.0
(25.6)
63.9
(17.7)
47.9
(8.8)
35.8
(2.1)
63.1
(17.3)
Average low °F (°C)23.3
(−4.8)
25.9
(−3.4)
30.1
(−1.1)
34.4
(1.3)
41.9
(5.5)
48.3
(9.1)
53.3
(11.8)
51.8
(11)
43.5
(6.4)
34.1
(1.2)
26.8
(−2.9)
21.3
(−5.9)
36.2
(2.3)
Record low °F (°C)−21
(−29)
−25
(−32)
−1
(−18)
18
(−8)
25
(−4)
30
(−1)
34
(1)
35
(2)
24
(−4)
4
(−16)
−13
(−25)
−17
(−27)
−25
(−32)
Precipitation inches (mm)1.13
(28.7)
.78
(19.8)
.62
(15.7)
.55
(14)
.58
(14.7)
.62
(15.7)
.21
(5.3)
.26
(6.6)
.36
(9.1)
.53
(13.5)
1.05
(26.7)
1.53
(38.9)
8.22
(208.7)
Snowfall inches (cm)5.5
(14)
2.5
(6.4)
.7
(1.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
.1
(0.3)
3.4
(8.6)
9.4
(23.9)
21.7
(55.1)
Avg. precipitation days9.57.56.45.86.25.22.42.33.24.78.610.171.9
Avg. snowy days4.32.2.7.100000.11.76.215.3
Source: NOAA (extremes 1946–present)[10]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18901,535
19003,154105.5%
191014,082346.5%
192018,53931.7%
193022,10119.2%
194027,22123.2%
195038,48641.4%
196042,2849.9%
197045,5887.8%
198049,8269.3%
199054,84310.1%
200071,84531.0%
201091,06726.8%
Est. 201393,2572.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
2013 Estimate[13]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census of 2010, there were 91,067 people with 33,074 households, and 21,411 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,350.5 people per square mile. There were 34,829 housing units at an average density of 1,281.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.1% White, 1.7% African American, 2.0% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.3% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. 41.3% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race.[14][15] 19.1% of the population had a Bachelor's degree or higher.[16]

There were 33,074 households of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 35.3% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.3.

28.3% of the population was under the age of 18 and 13.1% were 65 years or older. The median age was 33.9 years. 50.7% of the population was female.

The median household income was $39,706. The per capita income was $20,771. 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line.

Culture[edit]

Cultural activities and events take place throughout the year. The Yakima Valley Museum houses exhibits related to the region’s natural and cultural history, a restored soda fountain, and periodic special exhibitions. Downtown Yakima’s historic Capitol Theatre and Seasons Performance Hall, as well as the West-side’s Allied Arts Center, present numerous musical and stage productions. Larson Gallery housed at Yakima Valley Community College present six diverse art exhibitions each year. The city is home to the Yakima Symphony Orchestra. The Yakima Area Arboretum is a botanical garden featuring species of both native and adapted non-native plants. Popular music tours, trade shows, and other large events are hosted at the Yakima SunDome in State Fair Park.

All America City Award[edit]

In 1994, the City of Yakima received the All-America City Award, given by the National Civic League. Ten U.S. cities receive this award per year.

Festivals and Fairs[edit]

Sports[edit]

The Sun Dome was home to the Warriors and Sun Kings.

(Former professional teams)

Transportation[edit]

Roads and highways[edit]

Welcome sign on I-82.

Interstate 82 is the main highway through Yakima. The highway runs north and south, but is sign-posted east and west. Northbound traffic is posted west, since this heads towards Seattle, and southbound traffic is posted east since this heads towards Salt Lake City. U.S. Route 12 crosses through the city from White Pass. U.S. Route 97 joins I-82 from Yakima for approximately 40 miles (64 km) north to Ellensburg. State Route 24 terminates at Yakima and is the primary means of reaching Moxee City and many of the area's agricultural areas to the east. State Route 821 terminates near Yakima and is also called Canyon Road because it passes through the Yakima River canyon. It is an alternate route to Ellensburg which bypasses the I-82 summit at Manastash Ridge.

Public transport[edit]

Yakima Transit services Yakima, Selah, Union Gap, west Valley and Terrace Heights, as well as several daily trips to Ellensburg. There are also free intercity bus systems between adjacent Union Gap and nearby Toppenish, Wapato, White Swan, and Ellensburg.[20]

Airport[edit]

Yakima's airport, McAllister Field, operates commercial flights by Alaska Airlines to Seattle.

The airport is home to numerous private aircraft, and is a popular test site for military jets and Boeing test flights. Several businesses are located at the airport including Hertz Car Rental, Budget Rent a Car, Airporter Shuttle, Cub Crafters and several freight companies.

Economy[edit]

Yakima's growth in the 20th century was fueled primarily by agriculture. The Yakima Valley produces many fruit crops, including apples, peaches, pears, cherries, and melons. Many vegetables are also produced, including peppers, corn and beans. Most of the nation's hops, a key ingredient in the production of beer, are also grown in the Yakima Valley. Many of the city's residents have come to the Valley out of economic necessity and to participate in the picking, processing, marketing and support services for the agricultural economy.

Largest employers in the Yakima area[21]
EmployerTypePersons employed
1. Yakima Valley Memorial HospitalHospital2,200
2. Yakima School DistrictSchool district
(Education)
1,736
3. WalmartDepartment store1,587
4. Washington State Department of Social and Health ServicesState government
(Social services)
1,400
5. Yakima CountyCounty government1,213
6. Del Monte FoodsFruit processing1,200
7. Yakima Valley Farm Workers ClinicHospital1,181
8. Yakima Regional Medical & Cardiac CenterHospital942
9. Yakima Training CenterUnited States Army
(Military)
850
10. AB FoodsBeef processing850
11. Yakima Valley Community CollegeEducation761
12. City of YakimaCity government711
13. Yakama Legends CasinoCasino634
14. Washington State Department of TransportationState government555
15. Tree Top, Inc.Fruit processing540

Downtown Yakima, long the retail hub of the region, has undergone many changes since the late 1990s. Three major department stores, and an entire shopping mall that is now closed, have been replaced by a Whirlpool Corporation facility, an Adaptis call center, and several hotels.

The region's retail core has shifted to the town of Union Gap, where a renovated shopping mall and other new retail businesses are flourishing. While some see big-box retail leaving the downtown area as a loss, others see it as an opportunity to recast the downtown area as a center for events, services, entertainment, and smaller, more personal shopping experiences. One part of this effort has been the Downtown Futures Initiative.[22] The DFI has provided for street-to-storefront remodeling along Yakima Avenue throughout the entire downtown core, and includes new pedestrian-friendly lighting, water fountains, planters, banner poles and new trees and hanging baskets, all of which complement the new paver-inlaid sidewalks.

Events held downtown include Yakima Downtown New Year's Eve, a Cinco de Mayo celebration, Yakima Live music festival, Yakima Summer Kickoff Party, Fresh Hop Ale Fest,[18] a weekly Farmers' Market,[23] and the Hot Shots 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament.[24]

A bright spot in the economy of the Yakima Valley is the burgeoning wine industry, due in part to the Yakima Valley soil, which is very similar to the soil conditions of France. Over fifty wineries dot the Yakima Valley, covering more than 11,000 acres (45 km2).

The Yakima Training Center, between Yakima and Ellensburg, is a United States Army training center. It is used primarily for maneuver training and land warrior system testing, and has a live-fire area. Artillery units from the Canadian Armed Forces based in British Columbia, as well as the Japan Ground Self Defense Force, conduct annual training in Yakima. Japanese soldiers train there because it allows for large-scale live-fire maneuvers not available in Japan. Similarly, it is the closest impact area for the Canadian Gunners, the next closest being in Wainwright, Alberta.

Tourism[edit]

In the early 2000s, the city of Yakima, in conjunction with multiple city organizations, began revitalization and preservation efforts in its historic downtown area. The Downtown Yakima Futures Initiative was created to make strategic public investments in sidewalks, lighting and landscaping to encourage further development. As a result, local businesses featuring regional produce, wines, and beers, among other products, have returned to the downtown area. Many of these business are located on Front Street, Yakima Avenue and 1st Street.[citation needed]

During the summer, a pair of historic trolleys operate along five miles (8 km) of track of the former Yakima Valley Transportation Company through the Yakima Gap connecting Yakima and Selah. The Yakima Valley Trolleys organization, incorporated in 2001, operates the trolleys and a museum for the City of Yakima.

Education[edit]

The city of Yakima has three K–12 public school districts, several private schools, and three post-secondary schools.

High schools[edit]

Public schools[edit]

There are five high schools in the Yakima School District:

Outside the city:

Homeschooling[edit]

Yakima is home to over 250 homeschooling families, and the Christian Association of Parent Educators (CAPE), established in 1981, is a 501c(3) nonprofit organization and the central resource group for several co-operative learning groups, as well as hosting an annual Family Learning Conference and field trips.

Yakima Organized Unschoolers, The Yakima chapter of Unschooling United is a support group for Unschooling families and welcomes unschoolers regardless of their religious affiliation.

Private schools[edit]

Post-secondary schools[edit]

Yakima Valley Community College (YVCC) is one of the oldest community colleges in the state of Washington. Founded in 1928, YVCC is a public, two-year institution of higher education, and part of one of the most comprehensive community college systems in the nation. It offers programs in adult basic education, English as a Second Language, lower-division arts and sciences, professional and technical education, transfer degrees to in-state universities, and community services.[citation needed]

Perry Technical Institute is a private, nonprofit school of higher learning located in the city since 1939. Perry students learn trades such as automotive technology, instrumentation, information technology, HVAC, electrical, machining, office administration, medical coding, and legal assistant/paralegal.

Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences opened in the fall of 2008,[26] and graduated its first class of osteopathic physicians (D.O.) in 2012. The university has plans to open a PsyD program (clinical psychology) and a masters program in physician assistant studies.[27] The first college on the 42.5-acre (172,000 m2) campus is home to the first medical school approved in the Pacific Northwest in over 60 years, and trains physicians with an osteopathic emphasis. The school's mission is to train primary-care physicians committed to serving rural and underserved communities throughout the Pacific Northwest. It is housed in a state-of-the-art 45,000-square-foot (4,200 m2) facility.[28]

Media[edit]

Yakima is served by a diverse variety of print and broadcast media. The Yakima Herald-Republic is the primary daily newspaper in the area.

According to Arbitron, the Yakima metropolitan area is the 197th largest radio market in the US, serving 196,500 people.[29]

Yakima is part of the U.S.'s 123rd largest television viewing market, which includes viewers in Pasco, Richland and Kennewick.[30]

Notable current and former residents[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Yakima's sister cities are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-14. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Washington's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting" (.XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. 2011-02-23. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 
  6. ^ "State and City Quickfacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  7. ^ "Hop Economics Working Group". Retrieved 2013-10-19. 
  8. ^ "City of Yakima History". City of Yakima. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  9. ^ "St. Joseph's Mission, Ahtanum Valley, Tampico vicinity, Yakima County, WA". Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record. Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  11. ^ "Average Weather for Yakima, WA - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  12. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  14. ^ "2010 Demographic Profile Data". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  15. ^ La Ganga, Maria L. (September 25, 2014) "Yakima Valley Latinos Getting a Voice, With Court's Help" Los Angeles Times
  16. ^ "State & County QuickFacts - Yakima (city), WA". US Census Bureau State & County QuickFacts. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  17. ^ "Yakima Folklife Festival". Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  18. ^ a b "Fresh Hop Ale Festival". Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  19. ^ "A Case of the Blues and All That Jazz". Retrieved 2014-05-12. 
  20. ^ "Pahto Public Passage". Yakama Nation Tribal Transit. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  21. ^ "Yakima Valley Major Employers". Greater Yakima Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  22. ^ "Downtown Futures Initiative". Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  23. ^ "Farmers' Market". Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  24. ^ "Hot Shots 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament". Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  25. ^ http://www.cmacademy.org/
  26. ^ "Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences". Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  27. ^ Ward, Leah Beth (August 8, 2008). "Pacific NW University Will Add Two Colleges". Yakima Herald-Republic. Retrieved December 27, 2011. 
  28. ^ "New osteopathic school planned for Yakima". Puget Sound Business Journal. April 14, 2005. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  29. ^ "Arbitron Radio Market Rankings: Spring 2012". Arbotron. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  30. ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates". Nielson. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  31. ^ "Oleta Adams Biography". Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  32. ^ "Jamie Allen Stats". Baseball Almanac. Baseball Almanac. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  33. ^ a b Jenkins, Sarah (2 April 2006). "Their claim is fame - and a link to the Valley". Yakima Herald-Republic. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  34. ^ Muir, Pat (17 September 2010). "Outtakes from the Garret Dillahunt interview". Yakima Herald Republic. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f "Most Popular People Born In Yakima, Washington, USA". Internet Movie Data Base (IMDb). Amazon.com. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  36. ^ Ward, Leah (23 August 2009). "Larry Knechtel, a music legend, dies at 69". Yakima Herald Republic. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  37. ^ "James Walter Nolan, Jr. (Obituary)". Yakima Herald-Republic. 24 March 2004. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  38. ^ "Creek actor Will Sampson honored with spot on Oklahoma Walk of Fame". Muscogee (Creek) Nation. Muscogee (Creek) Nation. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 46°36′N 120°30′W / 46.600°N 120.500°W / 46.600; -120.500