Xi'an

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Xi'an
西安市
Sub-provincial city
From top: City wall of Xi'an, Xingqinggong Park, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Great Mosque of Xi'an, Southeast city corner, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Nan'erhuan Road
From top: City wall of Xi'an, Xingqinggong Park, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Great Mosque of Xi'an, Southeast city corner, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Nan'erhuan Road
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Xi'an is located in China
Xi'an
Xi'an
Location in China
Coordinates: 34°16′N 108°54′E / 34.267°N 108.900°E / 34.267; 108.900Coordinates: 34°16′N 108°54′E / 34.267°N 108.900°E / 34.267; 108.900
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShaanxi
Government
 • CPC Xi'anWei Minzhou (魏民洲)
 • MayorDong Jun (董军)
Area
 • Sub-provincial city9,983 km2 (3,854 sq mi)
 • Urban826 km2 (319 sq mi)
 • Metro3,830 km2 (1,480 sq mi)
 • Yangling94 km2 (36 sq mi)
Elevation405 m (1,329 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Sub-provincial city8,467,837
 • Density850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
 • Urban6,501,200
 • Urban density7,900/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Metro7,168,005
Time zoneCST (UTC+8)
Postal code710000 - 710090
Area code(s)+86/29
GDP(2013)
- Total$ 81.4billion
- Per capita$9,220.59
License plate prefixesA
City flowerPomegranate flower
City treePagoda tree
Websitehttp://www.xa.gov.cn/
 
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Xi'an
西安市
Sub-provincial city
From top: City wall of Xi'an, Xingqinggong Park, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Great Mosque of Xi'an, Southeast city corner, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Nan'erhuan Road
From top: City wall of Xi'an, Xingqinggong Park, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Great Mosque of Xi'an, Southeast city corner, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Nan'erhuan Road
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Xi'an is located in China
Xi'an
Xi'an
Location in China
Coordinates: 34°16′N 108°54′E / 34.267°N 108.900°E / 34.267; 108.900Coordinates: 34°16′N 108°54′E / 34.267°N 108.900°E / 34.267; 108.900
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShaanxi
Government
 • CPC Xi'anWei Minzhou (魏民洲)
 • MayorDong Jun (董军)
Area
 • Sub-provincial city9,983 km2 (3,854 sq mi)
 • Urban826 km2 (319 sq mi)
 • Metro3,830 km2 (1,480 sq mi)
 • Yangling94 km2 (36 sq mi)
Elevation405 m (1,329 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Sub-provincial city8,467,837
 • Density850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
 • Urban6,501,200
 • Urban density7,900/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Metro7,168,005
Time zoneCST (UTC+8)
Postal code710000 - 710090
Area code(s)+86/29
GDP(2013)
- Total$ 81.4billion
- Per capita$9,220.59
License plate prefixesA
City flowerPomegranate flower
City treePagoda tree
Websitehttp://www.xa.gov.cn/
Xi'an
Chinese西安
Postal MapSian
Literal meaningwestern peace
Chang'an
Simplified Chinese长安
Traditional Chinese長安
Literal meaningperpetual peace

Xi'an (Chinese: 西安; pinyin: Xī'ān)[1][2] is the capital of Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an (長安) before the Ming Dynasty.[1] Xi'an is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history,[3] including Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, and Tang.[3] Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.[1]

Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of interior China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. It is now one of the most populous built-up areas in inland China with 6,501,189 inhabitants, while the total population of the Municipality is up to 8,467,837.[4][5] According to a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, it was recently named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China.[6] The report pinpoints and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping these cities' development.

Name[edit]

The two Chinese characters "西安" in the name Xi'an literally mean "Western Peace". During the Zhou Dynasty, the area was called Fenghao, with the portion of the city on the west bank of the Feng River called Feng and the portion on the east called Hao.[7] It was renamed Chang'an, meaning "Perpetual Peace", during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE), although it was also sometimes referred to as the Western Capital or Xijing (西京) during the Han Dynasty after the capital was moved further east to Luoyang during Eastern Han. It changed in 581 CE to Daxing (大興) during the Sui Dynasty then again became Chang'an from 618 during the Tang Dynasty. During the Yuan Dynasty (1270-1368), the city was first given the name Fengyuan (奉元), followed by Anxi (安西) then Jingzhao (京兆). It finally became Xi'an in 1369 at the time of the Ming Dynasty. This name remained until 1928, then in 1930 it was renamed Xijing (西京), or "Western Capital". The city's name once again reverted to its Ming-era designation of Xi'an in 1943.

Xi'an currently does not have a widely accepted one-character abbreviation as many other Chinese cities do, possibly due to fact that it was historically called Jing (京) or Du (都), both meaning "the Capital", for obvious reason. Several suggested abbreviations include Feng (丰, the City's first name when it was founded as the new Capital of Zhou, meaning abundance, greatness, and bumper harvest), Hao (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hào, derived from the name of Zhou Dynasty's capital Haojing), or Tang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Táng, from the name of the Tang Dynasty).

History[edit]

Remains of carriages and horses in Fenghao of the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BC)
Terracotta Army inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, 3rd century BCE.
Site of front hall of Weiyang Palace in Chang'an city of Western Han Dynasty(206 BC - 9 AD)
Site of Hanyuan Hall of Daming Palace, Tang Dynasty
Statues in the Imperial Tomb of Tang Emperor Gaozong
Xi'an in 1908

Xi'an has a rich and culturally significant history. The Lantian Man was discovered in 1963 in Lantian County, 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Xi'an, and dates back at to least 500,000 years before the present time. A 6,500-year old Banpo Neolithic village was discovered in 1954 on the outskirts of the city proper.

11th century BCE to 19th century CE[edit]

Xi'an became a cultural and political centre of China in the 11th century BCE with the founding of the Zhou Dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing (丰京) and Haojing (镐京), together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. Following the Warring States period, China was unified under the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an almost immediately after his ascension to the throne.

In 202 BCE, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han Dynasty established his capital in Chang'an County; his first palace, Changle Palace (長樂宮, perpetual happiness) was built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. This is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an, or Xi'an. Two years later, Liu Bang built Weiyang Palace (未央宮, (perpetual happiness) hasn't reached its midpoint yet) north of modern Xi'an. The original Xi'an city wall was started in 194 BCE and took 4 years to finish. Upon completion, the wall measured 25.7 km (15.97 mi) in length and 12–16 m (39.37–52.49 ft) in thickness at the base, enclosing an area of 36 km2 (13.90 sq mi). In the year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo moved the court from Luoyang to Chang'an in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him.

Following several hundred years of unrest, the Sui Dynasty united China again in 582. The emperor of Sui ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing (大興, great prosperity). It consisted of three sections: the Imperial City, the palace section, and the civilian section, with a total area of 84 km2 (32 sq mi) within the city walls. At the time, it was the largest city in the world. The city was renamed Chang'an in the Tang Dynasty. In the mid-7th century, after returning from his pilgrimage to India, Buddhist monk Xuanzang (popularly known as Tang Sanzang) established a translation centre for Sanskrit scriptures.

Construction of the Great Wild Goose Pagoda began in 652. This pagoda was 64 m (209.97 ft) in height, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras obtained from India by Xuanzang. In 707, construction of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda began. This pagoda measured 45 m (147.64 ft) tall at the time of completion, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras by Yijing. The massive 1556 Shaanxi earthquake eventually damaged the tower and reduced its height to 43.4 m (142.39 ft).

Chang'an was devastated at the end of the Tang Dynasty in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming Dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. The wall measures 11.9 km (7.4 mi) in circumference, 12 m (39.37 ft) in height, and 15–18 m (49.21–59.06 ft) in thickness at the base; a moat was also built outside the walls. The new wall and moat would protect a much smaller city of 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi).

20th century and after[edit]

In October 1911, during the revolution in which the Qing Dynasty was overthrown, the Manchus living in the northeastern zone within the city walls were massacred.[8] In 1936, the Xi'an Incident took place inside the city during the Chinese Civil War. The incident brought the Kuomintang (KMT) and Communist Party of China to a truce in order to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion.

Geography and climate[edit]

Xi'an
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6.9
 
5
−4
 
 
9.6
 
8
−1
 
 
29
 
14
4
 
 
43
 
21
10
 
 
60
 
26
14
 
 
54
 
31
19
 
 
99
 
32
22
 
 
71
 
31
21
 
 
92
 
25
16
 
 
60
 
20
10
 
 
24
 
12
3
 
 
5.8
 
6
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of 400 metres (1,312 ft) above sea level and an annual precipitation of 553 mm (21.8 in). The urban area of Xi'an is located at 34°16′N 108°56′E / 34.267°N 108.933°E / 34.267; 108.933. The Wei River provides potable water to the city.

The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km (62 mi) away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.

At the beginning of Han Dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang to choose Guanzhong as the capital of the Han Dynasty: 'Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Land of thousands miles and rich in harvest can be found here, as if this place is belongs to the nation of the heaven.' ("关中左崤函,右陇蜀,沃野千里,此所谓金城千里,天府之国也") Since then, Guanzhong is also known as the 'Nation of the Heaven'.[9]

National Time Service Centre[edit]

The Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory was established in 1966. In 1975, according to the Geodetic Origin Report of the People's Republic of China, 'in order to avoid bias in the mensuration as much as possible, the Geodetic Origin would be in central mainland China.' Lintong (临潼), a town near Xi'an was chosen. Since 1986, Chinese Standard Time (CST) was set from NTSC. The NTSC in Lintong is 36 km (22 mi) away from Xi'an.iN xi'an the terracotta army also lays there.

National Time Service Centre (NTSC), the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an institute which is mainly engaged in the service and research on time and frequency. NTSC takes charge of generating and maintaining the national standard time scale, disseminating the time and frequency signals. The autonomous standard time scales of universal time and atomic time and the dissemination techniques with LF radio and HF radio were established successively during the 1970s and 1980s, which meet all the requirements for different applications on the whole, such as the scientific researches, national economy, etc.[10]

Climate[edit]

Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the Köppen climate classification as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from around the freezing mark in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 13.68 °C (56.6 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 31% in December to 47% in August, the city receives 1,646 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) to 42.9 °C (109 °F).[11]

Demographics[edit]

Muslim Quarter in Xi'an

By the end of 2005, Xi'an had a population of 8.07 million.[13] Compared to the census data from 2000, the population has increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million.[13] The population is 51.66% male and 48.34% female.[13] Among its districts, Yanta has the largest population, with 1.08 million inhabitants.[13]

The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1% of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 people belonging to ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Hui people.[citation needed]

During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.

Subdivision[edit]

The sub-provincial city of Xi'an has direct jurisdiction over 9 districts (区 qu) and 4 counties (县 xian):

ISO 3166-2[14]EnglishChinesePinyinArea in km2[15]SeatPostal codeSubdivisions[16]
SubdistrictsTownsTownshipsResidential communitiesVillages
610100Xi'an西安市Xī'ān Shì10096.81Weiyang District7100001066917213025
610102Xincheng District新城区Xīnchéng Qū30.13Xiyi Road Subdistrict (西一路街道)71000091041
610103Beilin District碑林区Bēilín Qū23.37Zhangjiacun Subdistrict (张家村街道)7100008103
610104Lianhu District莲湖区Liánhú Qū38.32Beiyuanmen Subdistrict (北院门街道)71000091275
610111Baqiao District灞桥区Bàqiáo Qū324.50Fangzhicheng Subdistrict (纺织城街道)710000937223
610112Weiyang District未央区Wèiyāng Qū264.41Zhangjiabao Subdistrict (张家堡街道)7100001093181
610113Yanta District雁塔区Yàntǎ Qū151.44Xiaozhai Road Subdistrict (小寨路街道)710000811792
610114Yanliang District阎良区Yánliáng Qū244.55Fenghuang Road Subdistrict (凤凰路街道)710089522380
610115Lintong District临潼区Líntóng Qū915.97Lishan Subdistrict (骊山街道)7106002338284
610116Chang'an District长安区Cháng'ān Qū1588.53Weiqu Subdistrict (韦曲街道)7101002531668
610122Lantian County蓝田县Lántián Xiàn2005.95Languan (蓝关镇)710500229519
610124Zhouzhi County周至县Zhōuzhì Xiàn2945.20Erqu (二曲镇)7104002214376
610125Hu County户县Hù Xiàn1279.42Ganting (甘亭镇)7103001621518
610126Gaoling County高陵县Gāolíng Xiàn285.03Luyuan (鹿苑镇)71020071488

Transportation[edit]

Xi'an Metro
Yongningmen Metro Station
Xi'an North Railway Station
Bell Tower Underpass
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport

Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educations zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians.

Electric bikes are very popular[citation needed] among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are numerous but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of more than 200 bus routes.

Metro[edit]

Currently the metro system is designed with 6 lines.

Line 2 was the first to open, on September 16, 2011. Line 1 opened on 15 September 2013. The rest are planned to start in 2013 and to be finished around 2016.

Taxi[edit]

Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly VW Santana made in Shanghai, BYD Auto made in Xi'an, and Citroen made in Wuhan. Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas.

Rail[edit]

There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an. Xi'an Railway Station, located just north of Xi'an walled city, is one of the eight major national railway stations, and the main railway transportation hub of Shaanxi Province. The new Xi'an North Railway Station, situated a few miles to the north, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway.

The city's other stations include Xi'an West, Xi'an East, Xi'an South, Sanmincun, and Fangzhicheng railway stations.

Xi'an Railway Station covers 597 thousand square meters, has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 000 people daily. There are services from Xi'an to Zhengzhou, from Xi'an to Lanzhou, from Xi'an to Baoji, and from Xi'an to Mount Hua. China Railway High-speed 2 now run an express services from Xi'an to Baoji and Xi'an to Zhengzhou; with a total running time to Baoji of under 90 minutes, and 2 hours to Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway opened on February 6, 2010.

Expressways[edit]

Xi'an currently has two ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road which encircle the city. These ring roads are similar to freeways, except that there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.

As a tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with well-maintained roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since its construction in September 2007, the Xi'an–Hanzhong Expressway connects Hanzhong and Xi'an through the Qinling. At 15 km (9.3 mi) long the Zhongnan Shan Tunnel is the longest tunnel in Asia.[citation needed]

Air[edit]

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (airport code: XIY) is the major airport serving the city and is the largest airport in the northwestern part of China. The airport is located to the northwest of the city, between Xi'an and Xianyang. Chang'an Airlines and China Eastern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport.

International Routes: There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Osaka, Pusan, Sapporo, Singapore and Seoul and Taipei. First direct route between Xi'an and Europe was launched by Finnair on 14 June 2013. There are 3 three frequencies per week via Helsinki hub to many major cities in Europe during the summer season.

Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5-percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.

Culture[edit]

A typical Chinese pavilion located in Xi'an
Traditional Chinese musical performances at Xi'an
Yangrou Paomo, a famous Xi'an cuisine with Muslim influence

The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong Ren (关中人/關中人) culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" (关中十大怪/關中十大怪). Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" (长安八景/長安八景), a collection of scenic areas in the region.

Much like Beijing 798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile Town (纺织城). The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s.[citation needed] Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.[citation needed]

Xi'an is home to contemporary Chinese stars such as Xu Wei, Zhang Chu, Zheng Jun.

Yangrou Paomo or Pita Bread Soaked in Lamb Soup is well known Xi'anese dish.

Opera[edit]

Qinqiang (Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera. Also called "random pluck" (乱弹), Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province. As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang (西秦腔, Voice of West Qin) in Qin Dynasty, and blossomed until Qing Dynasty, with direct influences on many branches of Chinese Opera.

Cinema[edit]

Zhang Yimou and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Xi'an is also the only city in China to win the Golden Bear (Berlin Film Festival) twice. The first film is Red Sorghum and the second one is Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an Filmmaking Company, respectively.

Religion[edit]

Christianity[edit]

In Xi'an there was formerly a Baptist mission from England. The Baptist missionaries ran a hospital.[17] In 1892, Arthur Gostick Shorrock[18] and Moir Duncan[19] founded the Sianfu Mission, in present day Xi'an.[20][21][22]

Islam[edit]

Xi'an, formerly the capital of China, was the first to be introduced to Islam. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty officially allowed the practice of Islam in 651 AD. Xi'an has a large Muslim community, the significant majority are from the Hui group, there are an estimated 50,000 Hui Muslims in Xi’an.[23] There are seven mosques in Xi'an, the most famous being the Great Mosque.[24]

Economy[edit]

Erhuan Road of Xi'an

As part of the China Western Development policy, Xi’an became a major target for accelerated attention. From 1997 to 2006, the industrial output value of Xi’an’s service industry increased at an annual average rate of 13.74%, compared to traditional service industries of 0.74%, representing a growth from US$8.113 billion to US$25.85 billion.[25] Xi'an is the largest economy of the Shaanxi province, with a GDP of 324.1 billion Yuan in 2010. On average this value increases by 14.5% annually, and accounts for approximately 41.8% of Shaanxi's total GDP.[25][26] At least fifty-eight countries have established over 2,560 enterprises in Xian, including nineteen of the Fortune 500 enterprises. These include ABB Group, Mitsubishi, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Coca-Cola, and Boeing.[27]

Important industries include equipment manufacturing, tourism, and service outsourcing.[28] The manufacturing industry had an annual output of RMB 36.5 billion, accounting for 44.5% of the city's total.[26] Furthermore, as one of China's four ancient capitals,[29] Xi'an's many cultural sites, including the Terracotta Army, the City Wall of Xi'an, and the Famen Temple, make tourism an important industry as well. In 2010, 52 million domestic tourists visited Xi'an, earning a total income of RMB 40.52 billion. On average, revenue increases by 36.4% per year, and foreign-exchange earnings (530 million in 2009) increase by around 35.8%.[26]

Xi'an is also one of the first service outsourcing cities in China, with over 800 corporations in the industry. The city's output value from this sector exceeded RMB 23 billion in 2008. Employment in the sector doubled from 1997-2006, from a base of 60,000, and computer consulting also doubled from 16,000 to 32,000.[25] As a result of the importance of the software-outsourcing industry, the city planned construction of a Software New Town, which is scheduled to be completed in 2015 with 30 billion RMB investment.[26] Other major export goods include lighting equipment and automobile parts, while its major import goods are mechanical and electrical products. Internationally, Xi'an's largest trade partner is the United States.[26]

Xi'an is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Chongqing.

Industrial zones[edit]

Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

Major industrial zones in Xi'an include:

Software and outsourcing industries[edit]

The growing economy of Xi'an supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China.[citation needed]

A Silicon.com article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits - with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month - half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."[30][31]

Aerospace industry[edit]

In November 2006, Xi'an and the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics.

Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach other parts of Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5-8 products with global competitiveness.

In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace centre in Shanghai, the PRC is constructing another civil aerospace centre in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover 23 km2 (8.9 sq mi), will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications.

Famous economists[edit]

Chinese economists from Northwest University in Xi'an includes Zhang Weiying (张维迎), Zhang Shuguang (张曙光), Weijie (魏杰), Liu Shijin (刘世锦), Song Ze (宋则), Feng Lun (冯仑), Feng Zongsu (冯宗苏), Zou Dongtao (邹东涛), Li Yiping (李义平), Zuo Zhonghai (左中海). Zhang Chaoyang (张朝阳), the CEO of SOHU (Nasdaq) company, born and grew up in Xi'an, is a prominent leader in the Chinese Internet industry. Liu Chuanzhi, the founder and president of Lenovo Group Limited, completed his tertiary degree from Xidian University in 1960s.

Education[edit]

Public[edit]

Xi'an Jiaotong University

Military[edit]

Private[edit]

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International events[edit]

World Horticultural Expo 2011[edit]

Xi’an was chosen to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture (AIPH) at its 59th congress, held in Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007. The 2011 World Horti-Expo was held from April 28 to October 28, 2011. The exhibition was located in a new district of the city, Chanba district, and was expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an.[32]

Tourism[edit]

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
Bell Tower
The Great Mosque of Xi'an
Reconstructed Danfeng Gate in Daming Palace National Heritage Park
Pit in underground museum of Han Yang Ling, Mausoleum of Han Emperor Jingdi
Mount Taibai National Forest Park

The number of travelers is often greater during Summer (May–August), although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn.[citation needed]

Sites[edit]

Because of the city's many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity,[1] tourism has been an important component of the local economy, and the Xi'an region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.[1]

The city has many important historical sites, and some are ongoing archaeological projects, such as the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army. There are several burial mounds, tombs of the Zhou Dynasty kings located in the city.[3] Xi'an also contains some 800 royal mausoleums and tombs from the Han Dynasty,[33] with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era.[33] The city has numerous Tang Dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.[33]

Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:

Museums[edit]

National parks[edit]

Sports[edit]

Cuju is a very old football game:

It was improved during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces. The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football became popular among the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.

Professional sports teams in Xi'an include:

Former Professional sports teams in Xi'an:

Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for the national team.

Media[edit]

Television and radio[edit]

Printed media[edit]

Online media[edit]

International relations[edit]

Xi'an's twin towns and sister cities are:

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Xi'an". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  2. ^ It is also called "Sianfu" by many Western authors of the early 20th century. For example, the Catholic Archdiocese of Xian used to be called the Vicariate Apostolic of Sianfu. Adolf S. Waley, The Re-making of China, New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, 1914.
  3. ^ a b c "Xi'an". Encarta. 1993-2008. September 3, 2008. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. 
  4. ^ "http://news.163.com/11/0525/04/74SDV9PL00014AED.html". 西安日报. 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2014-02-12. 
  5. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 28, 2011. Archived from the original on November 8, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2014, 2011. 
  6. ^ Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises
  7. ^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 1540.
  8. ^ Ernest Frank Borst-Smith, Caught in the Chinese Revolution: a record of risks and rescue. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912.
  9. ^ 《史记·留侯世家》
  10. ^ NTSC 国家授时中心简介
  11. ^ a b "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  12. ^ "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  13. ^ a b c d "西安人口 (Xi'an population)". City of Xi'an, in Chinese. Retrieved 2007-05-16. [dead link]
  14. ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码
  15. ^ 《贵阳统计年鉴2011》
  16. ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》
  17. ^ Fleming, Peter (1936) News from Tartary. London: Jonathan Cape; pp. 46-48
  18. ^ Shorrock, Arthur Gostick (1926). Shensi in Sunshine and Shade. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press. 
  19. ^ "Duncan Papers (Mundus Gateway to missionary collections in the United Kingdom)". Angus Library, Regents Park College. 
  20. ^ Burt, Ernest Whitby (1925). Fifty Years in China: The Story of the Baptist Mission in Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi, 1875-1925. London: The Carey Press. 
  21. ^ Glover, Richard (1914). Herbert Stanley Jenkins, medical missionary, Shensi, China: with some notices of the work of the Baptist Missionary Society in that country (1914). London: Carey Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-524-07100-4. 
  22. ^ Duncan, Moir Black (1900). The missionary mail to faithful friends and candid critics (the substance of letters written from Shên His). London: Elliot Stock. 
  23. ^ 中国七大中心城市人口资源大调查 "Population survey of the seven central cities of China", Zhang Zhizhong, National Family Planning Commission
  24. ^ Mosques in Xian from www.muslim2china.com
  25. ^ a b c Walcott, Susan (April 17, 2010). "Xi'an's Maturing Economy". Retrieved 2013-06-01. 
  26. ^ a b c d e "Xi'an ( Shaanxi ) City Information". Aug 29, 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-01. 
  27. ^ "City Report: Xi’an". January 17, 2007. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  28. ^ "Xi’an Economy". The People's Government of Shaanxi. January 1, 2008. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  29. ^ "Xi'an". Lehman, Lee & Xu. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  30. ^ People's Daily
  31. ^ Bureau of Commerce of Xi'an Municipal Government
  32. ^ "Xi'an to Host World Horticultural Expo" China.org.cn
  33. ^ a b c "Xi'an". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  34. ^ "Sister Cities of Kyoto City". City of Kyoto. Archived from the original on 2014-01-21. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  35. ^ "Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008. 
  36. ^ "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh Council. Retrieved 16 January 2009. 
  37. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28. [dead link]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Yin
Capital of China (as Hao)
1046 BC-771 BC
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Xianyang
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
206 BC-25
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Luoyang
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
190-196
Succeeded by
Xuchang
Preceded by
Jiankang
Capital of China (as Daxing)
581-618
Succeeded by
itself, as Chang'an
Preceded by
itself, as Daxing
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
618-907
Succeeded by
Kaifeng