World energy consumption

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World energy consumption refers to the total energy used by all of human civilization. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanity's endeavors across every industrial and technological sector, across every country. Being the power source metric of civilization, World Energy Consumption has deep implications for humanity's social-economic-political sphere.

Institutions such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the European Environment Agency record and publish energy data periodically. Improved data and understanding of World Energy Consumption may reveal systemic trends and patterns, which could help frame current energy issues and encourage movement towards collectively useful solutions.

Fossil energy use increased most in 2000-2008. In October 2012 the IEA noted that coal accounted for half the increased energy use of the prior decade, growing faster than all renewable energy sources.[1] The 1979 Three Mile Island accident and 1986 Chernobyl disaster, along with high construction costs, ended the rapid growth of global nuclear power capacity.[2]

Energy use in terawatt-hours[3]
Change 2000-2008+23.9%+5.4%+20.6%+22.2%

1 terawatt-hour (TWh) = 1 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) = 1012 watt-hours


World primary energy consumption in quadrillion Btu. "International Energy Statistics". Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
Rates of world energy usage [4]
Energy intensity of different economies The graph shows the ratio between energy usage and GDP for selected countries. GDP is based on 2004 purchasing power parity and 2000 dollars adjusted for inflation.[5]
GDP and energy consumption in Japan, 1958–2000 The data shows the correlation between GDP and energy use; however, it also shows that this link can be broken. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 the energy use stagnated while Japan's GDP continued to grow, after 1985, under the influence of the then much cheaper oil, energy use resumed its historical relation to GDP.[6]

The energy consumption growth in the G20 slowed down to 2% in 2011, after the strong increase of 2010. The economic crisis is largely responsible for this slow growth. For several years now, the world energy demand is characterized by the bullish Chinese and Indian markets, while developed countries struggle with stagnant economies, high oil prices, resulting in stable or decreasing energy consumption.[7]

According to IEA data from 1990 to 2008, the average energy use per person increased 10% while world population increased 27%. Regional energy use also grew from 1990 to 2008: the Middle East increased by 170%, China by 146%, India by 91%, Africa by 70%, Latin America by 66%, the USA by 20%, the EU-27 block by 7%, and world overall grew by 39%.

In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules (132,000 TWh). This is equivalent to an average power use of 15 terawatts (2.0×1010 hp).[8] The annual potential for renewable energy is:

Energy consumption in the G20 increased by more than 5% in 2010 after a slight decline of 2009. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years, by −1.1%—equivalent to 130 megatonnes (130,000,000 long tons; 140,000,000 short tons) of oil—as a result of the financial and economic crisis, which reduced world GDP by 0.6% in 2009.[12]

This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends: Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and the CIS, consumptions shrank by 4.5%, 5% and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (up from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total.

Most energy is used in the country of origin, since it is cheaper to transport final products than raw materials. In 2008 the share export of the total energy production by fuel was: oil 50% (1,952/3,941 Mt), gas 25% (800/3,149 bcm), hard coal 14% (793/5,845 Mt) and electricity 1% (269/20,181 TWh).[13]

Most of the world's high energy resources are from the conversion of the sun's rays to other energy forms after being incident upon the planet. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via solar PV/thermal, wind, hydro- or wave power. The total solar irradiance is measured by satellite to be roughly 1,361 watts (1.825 hp) per square meter (see solar constant), though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during the year due to the Earth's varying distance from the sun. This value, after multiplication by the cross-sectional area intercepted by the Earth, is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89 petawatts (1.19×1014 hp), reaches the Earth's surface.[citation needed]

The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4 YJ (1 YJ = 1024J) and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6 to 3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. The total power flux from the sun intercepting the Earth is 5.5 YJ/yr, though not all of this is available for human consumption. The IEA estimates for the world to meet global energy demand for the two decades from 2015 to 2035 it will require investment of $48 trillion and "credible policy frameworks." [14]

According to IEA (2012) the goal of limiting warming to 2 °C is becoming more difficult and costly with each year that passes. If action is not taken before 2017, CO2 emissions would be locked-in by energy infrastructure existing in 2017. Fossil fuels are dominant in the global energy mix, supported by $523 billion subsidies in 2011, up almost 30% on 2010 and six times more than subsidies to renewables.[15]

Regional energy use (kWh/capita & TWh) and growth 1990–2008 (%)[16][17]
kWh/capitaPopulation (million)Energy use (1,000 TWh)
USA89,02187,216– 2%25030522%22.326.620%
Middle East19,42234,77479%13219951%2.66.9170%
Latin America11,28114,42128%35546230%4.06.766%
The World19,42221,28310%5,2656,68827%102.3142.339%
Source: IEA/OECD, Population OECD/World Bank
  • Energy use = kWh/capita* Mrd. capita (population) = 1000 TWh
  • Others: Mathematically calculated, includes e.g. countries in Asia and Australia. The use of energy varies between the "other countries": E.g. in Australia, Japan, or Canada energy is used more per capita than in Bangladesh or Burma.

Energy Supply vs. End Use[edit]

Total world energy supply (or consumption) is different from actual world energy usage due to energy loss. For example, in 2008, total world energy supply was 143,851 TWh, while end use was 98,022 TWh. Energy loss depends on the energy source itself, as well as the technology used. For example, Nuclear Power (as of 2008) loses 67% of its energy to water cooling systems.

In 2008, world nuclear energy was 8,283 TWh (constituting 5.8% of total world energy), while nuclear energy end-use was 2,731 TWh.

Given significant energy supply-to-usage ratios, it is important to note these differences across various energy sources.

One needs to bear in mind that there are different qualities of energy. Heat, especially at a relatively low temperature, is low-quality energy, whereas electricity is high-quality energy. It takes around 3 kWh of heat to produce 1 kWh of electricity. But by the same token, a kilowatt-hour of this high-quality electricity can be used to pump several kilowatt-hours of heat into a building using a heat pump. And electricity can be used in many ways in which heat cannot. So the "loss" of energy incurred when generating electricity is not the same as a loss due, say, to resistance in power lines.


Global warming emissions resulting from energy production are an environmental problem. Efforts to resolve this include the Kyoto Protocol, which is a UN agreement aiming to reduce harmful climate impacts, which a number of nations have signed. Limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, thought to be a risk by the SEI, is now doubtful.

To limit global temperature to a hypothetical 2 degrees Celsius rise would demand a 75% decline in carbon emissions in industrial countries by 2050, if the population is 10 billion in 2050.[18] Across 40 years, this averages to a 2% decrease every year. In 2011, the emissions of energy production continued rising regardless of the consensus of the basic problem. Hypothetically, according to Robert Engelman (Worldwatch institute), in order to prevent collapse, human civilization would have to stop increasing emissions within a decade regardless of the economy or population (2009).[19]

Greenhouse gasses are not the only emissions of energy production and consumption. Large amounts of pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass; the World Health Organisation estimates that 7 million premature deaths are caused each year by air pollution.[20] Biomass combustion is a major contributor,[20][21][22] even though it is typically counted as renewable in energy statistics. In addition to producing air pollution like fossil fuel combustion, most biomass has high CO2 emissions.[23]

Primary energy[edit]

World energy consumption and electricity supply (TWh)[24]
Total energy consumptionElectricity generation
1990102 56911 821
2000117 68715 395
2005133 60218 258
2008143 85120 181
2011[25]N/A22 126
Source: IEA/OECD

2011 World Electricity Generation by fuels (TWh)
Source TypePercentage (%)
Natural Gas21.9
Source: IEA/OECD[25]
*Solar, Wind, Geo-Thermal, Bio & Waste Heat

The United States Energy Information Administration regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources. According to IEA total world energy supply (consumption) was 102,569 TWh (1990); 117,687 TWh (2000); 133,602 TWh (2005) and 143,851 TWh (2008). World power generation (electricity) was 11,821 TWh (1990); 15,395 TWh (2000); 18,258 TWh (2005) and 20,181 TWh (2008). Compared to power supply 20,181 TWh the power end use was only 16,819 TWh in 2008 including EU27: 2 857 TWh, China 2 883 TWh and USA 4 533 TWh. In 2008 energy use per person was in the USA 4.1 fold, EU 1.9 fold and Middle East 1.6 fold the world average and in China 87% and India 30% of the world average.[24]

In 2008 energy supply by power source was oil 33.5%, coal 26.8%, gas 20.8% (fossil 81%), 'other' (hydro, peat, solar, wind, geothermal power, biofuels etc.) 12.9%, and nuclear 5.8%. Oil was the most popular energy fuel. Oil and coal combined represented over 60% of the world energy supply in 2008.

These are also more and more addressed in the international agreements and national Energy Action Plans, like the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive and corresponding national plans. The global renewable energy supply increased from 2000 to 2008 in total 3,155 TWh.[26] However, despite climate agreements, renewable energy targets and energy efficiency improvements, the increases in renewable energy are much smaller than the growth of fossil fuel consumption, as the following figures show.

Energy by power source 2008[27]
TWh %
Oil48 20433.5%
Coal38 49726.8%
Gas30 13420.9%
Nuclear8 2835.8%
Hydro3 2082.2%
Other RE*15 28410.6%
Total143 851100%
Source: IEA *`=solar, wind, geothermal and biofuels
Regional energy use (kWh/cap.)[16][17]
kWh/capitaPopulation (mil)
USA89 02187 216250305
EU-2740 24040 821473499
Middle East19 42234 774132199
China8 83918 6081 1411 333
Latin America11 28114 421355462
Africa7 0947 792634984
India4 4196 2808501 140
The World19 42121 2835 2656 688
Source: IEA/OECD, Population OECD/World Bank
Fuel typeAverage power in TW[28]
Nuclear power0.250.910.93
Geothermal, wind,
solar energy, wood
Source: The USA Energy Information Administration

Fossil fuels[edit]

Main article: Fossil fuel

The twentieth century saw a rapid twentyfold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%.[8] According to the US Energy Information Administration's 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004 was divided as given in the table above, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world's energy:


Main article: Coal
Regional coal supply (TWh), share 2010 (%) and share of change 2000–2010[29][30]
200020082009*2010* %*Change
North America6,6546,7406,3756,47016%-1.2%
Asia excl. China5,0137,4857,3707,80619%18.9%
Source: IEA, *in 2009, 2010 BP*
Change 2000–2009: Region's share of the world change +12,733 TWh from 2000 to 2009

In 2000, China accounted for 28% of world coal consumption, other Asia consumed 19%, North America 25% and the EU 14%. The single greatest coal-consuming country is China. Its share of the world coal production was 28% in 2000 and rose to 48% in 2009. In contrast to China's ~70% increase in coal consumption, world coal use increased 48% from 2000 to 2009. In practice, the majority of this growth occurred in China and the rest in other Asia.[29] China's energy consumption is mostly driven by the industry sector, the majority of which comes from coal consumption.[31]

World annual coal production increased 1,905 Mt or 32% in 6 years in 2011 compared to 2005, of which over 70% was in China and 8% in India. Coal production was in 2011 7,783 Mt, and 2009 6,903 Mt, equal to 12.7% production increase in two years.[32]

If production and consumption of coal continue at the rate as in 2008, proven and economically recoverable world reserves of coal would last for about 150 years. This is much more than needed for an irreversible climate catastrophe. Coal is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. According to IEA Coal Information (2007) world production and use of coal have increased considerably in recent years.[33] According to James Hansen the single most important action needed to tackle the climate crisis is to reduce CO2 emissions from coal.[34]

Indonesia and Australia exported together 57.1% of the world coal export in 2011. China, Japan, South Korea, India and Taiwan had 65% share of all the world coal import in 2011.[35]

Top 10 coal exporters (Mt)[36]
2011 %
6South Africa68706.7%72
Total (Mt)8561,0411,168
Top ten97.8%98.7%


Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading use of electricity, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil.[37] Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world.[38] From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal was the fastest growing fossil fuel.[39]

It is estimated that between 100 and 135 billion tonnes of oil has been consumed between 1850 and the present.[40]


Regional gas supply (TWh) and share 2010 (%)[30][41]
Land200820092010 %
North America7,6217,7798,8398,92527%
Asia excl. China2,7444,0744,3484,79914%
Latin America1,0081,357958ndnd
Source: IEA, in 2009, 2010 BP

In 2009 the world use of gas was 131% compared to year 2000. 66% of this growth was outside EU, North America Latin America and Russia. Others include Middle East, Asia and Africa. The gas supply increased also in the previous regions: 8.6% in the EU and 16% in the North America 2000–2009.[41]

Nuclear power[edit]

As of 7 March 2013, the world had 434 operable reactors with 66 others currently under construction.[42][43] Since commercial nuclear energy began in the mid 1950s, 2008 was the first year that no new nuclear power plant was connected to the grid, although two were connected in 2009.[43][44]

Annual generation of nuclear power has been on a slight downward trend since 2007, decreasing 1.8% in 2009 to 2558 TWh, and another 1.6% in 2011 to 2518 TWh despite in increases in production from most countries worldwide while Germany and Japan showed significant drops in output. Nuclear power meets 13–14% of the world's electricity demand.[45][46][47]

Renewable energy[edit]

Wind, solar, and biomass are three emerging renewable sources of energy.
a survey by isos shows that global support is strongest for solar and wind, followed by (in declining order) hydro, natural gas, coal and nuclear
Global public support for different energy sources (2011).[48]

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.[49] Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[50]

Based on REN21's 2014 report, renewables contributed 19 percent to our energy consumption and 22 percent to our electricity generation in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Both, modern renewables, such as hydro, wind, solar and biofuels, as well as traditional biomass, contributed in about equal parts to the global energy supply. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$ 214 billion in 2013, with countries like China and the United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and biofuels.[51]

Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.[52] In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power.[53] At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond.[54]


Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the kinetic energy of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16% of global electricity consumption, and 12,340 PJ (3,427 TWh) of electricity production in 2010, which continues the rapid rate of increase experienced between 2003 and 2009.[55]

Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 2,600 PJ (721 TWh) of production in 2010, representing around 17% of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam in Brazil, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[55]

Wind power[edit]

Wind power: worldwide installed capacity (not actual power generation)[56]
Main articles: Wind power and Wind farm

Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 238,351 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2011,[57][58][59] and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States.[60][61] Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 21% of stationary electricity production in Denmark,[62] 18% in Portugal,[62] 16% in Spain,[62] 14% in Ireland[63] and 9% in Germany in 2010.[62][64] As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.[64]

Solar energy[edit]

Part of the 354 MW SEGS solar complex in northern San Bernardino County, California.
Main articles: Solar energy and Solar power

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, concentrated solar power and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. The International Energy Agency projected that solar power could provide "a third of the global final energy demand after 2060, while CO2 emissions would be reduced to very low levels."[65]

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.


Main article: Geothermal power

Geothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries.[66] In 2004, 200 petajoules (56 TWh) of electricity was generated from geothermal resources, and an additional 270 petajoules (75 TWh) of geothermal energy was used directly, mostly for space heating. In 2007, the world had a global capacity for 10 GW of electricity generation and an additional 28 GW of direct heating, including extraction by geothermal heat pumps.[67][68] Heat pumps are small and widely distributed, so estimates of their total capacity are uncertain and range up to 100 GW.[66]

Biomass and biofuels[edit]

Main articles: biomass and biofuel

Until the beginning of the nineteenth century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from biomass sources was estimated at 44 GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. A further 220 GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264 GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded.[67]

World production of bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach 33 gigalitres (8.7×109 US gal), with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil.[67] Biodiesel increased by 85% to 3.9 gigalitres (1.0×109 US gal), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.[67]

Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy[edit]

Main article: Marine energy

MHK is a relatively new sector of renewable energy, with most projects still in in the pilot phase, but the theoretical potential is equivalent to 4-18 million ToE.

MHK development in U.S. and international waters includes projects using the following devices:

By country[edit]

The World Bank : Kilograms of oil equivalent (2011)
The World Bank : PPP $ per kg of oil equivalent (2011)

Energy consumption is loosely correlated with gross national product and climate, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as Japan and Germany with an energy consumption rate of 6 kW per person and the United States with an energy consumption rate of 11.4 kW per person. In developing countries, particularly those that are sub-tropical or tropical such as India, the per person energy use rate is closer to 0.7 kW. Bangladesh has the lowest consumption rate with 0.2 kW per person.

The US consumes 25% of the world's energy with a share of global GDP at 22% and a share of the world population at 4.59%.[70] The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China, which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people (19.6% of the world population[70]) is consuming energy at a rate of 1.6 kW per person.

One measurement of efficiency is energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product.


Saudi Arabia, Russia and the United States accounted for 34% of oil production in 2011. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Nigeria accounted for 36% of oil export in 2011.

Top 10 oil producers (Mt)[36]
1Saudi Arabia51950945247151712.9%544
3United States3073003203363468.6%387
Top ten62%62%61 %62%63%
Top 10 oil exporters (Mt)[71]
2011 %
1Saudi Arabia33317.0%
Total (Mt)1,962


Top 10 coal producers (Mt)[36]
20052008200920102011Share %
7South Africa3152362472552533%259
Top ten89%87%88%88%nd90%
* include hard coal and brown coal
Top 10 coal importers (Mt)[72]
3South Korea77100103119129
Top ten69%75%78%79%79%
Import of production16%13%14%15%13%
* 2005-2010 hard coal

Natural gas[edit]

Top 10 natural gas producers (bcm)[71]
8Saudi Arabia70ndnd82922.7%
Top ten67%65%65%65%67%
bcm = billion cubic meters
Top 10 natural gas importers (bcm)[71]
5South Korea29363343475.6%
Top ten70%73%71%69%67%
Import of production29%25%24%25%25%
bcm = billion cubic meters

Wind Power[edit]

Top 10 countries
by nameplate windpower capacity
(2011 year-end)[73]
CountryWindpower capacity
(MW) ǂprovisional
 % world total
United States46,91919.7
United Kingdom6,5402.7
(rest of world)32,44613.8
World total238,351 MW100%
Top 10 countries
by windpower electricity production
(2010 totals)[74]
CountryWindpower production
 % world total
United States95.227.6
United Kingdom10.23.0
(rest of world)48.514.1
World total344.8 TWh100%

By sector[edit]

World energy use per sector[75]
TWh %*
Residential and service30,55535,31937.336.0
Non-energy use7,1198,6888.78.9
Source: IEA 2010, Total is calculated from the given sectors
Numbers are the end use of energy
Total world energy supply (2008) 143,851 TWh

Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) consume about 37% of the total 15 TW. Personal and commercial transportation consumes 20%; residential heating, lighting, and appliances use 11%; and commercial uses (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) amount to 5% of the total.[76]

The other 27% of the world's energy is lost in energy transmission and generation. In 2005, global electricity consumption averaged 2 TW. The energy rate used to generate 2 TW of electricity is approximately 5 TW, as the efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%.[77] The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world's electricity plants.[78]

Total world energy use per sector was in 2008 industry 28%, transport 27% and residential and service 36%. Division was about the same in the year 2000.[75]

European Union[edit]

The European Environmental Agency (EEA) measures final energy consumption (does not include energy used in production and lost in transportation) and finds that the transport sector is responsible for 31.5% of final energy consumption, industry 27.6%, households 25.9%, services 11.4% and agriculture 3.7%.[79] The use of energy is responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions (79%), with the energy sector representing 31%, transport 19%, industry 13%, households 9% and others 7%.[80]

While efficient energy and resource efficiency are growing as public policy issues, more than 70% of coal plants in the European Union are more than 20 years old and operate at an efficiency level of between 32–40%.[81] Technological developments in the 1990s have allowed efficiencies in the range of 40–45% at newer plants.[81] However, according to an impact assessment by the European Commission, this is still below the best available technological (BAT) efficiency levels of 46–49%.[81] With gas-fired power plants the average efficiency is 52% compared to 58–59% with best available technology (BAT), and gas and oil boiler plants operate at average 36% efficiency (BAT delivers 47%).[81] According to that same impact assessment by the European Commission, raising the efficiency of all new plants and the majority of existing plants, through the setting of authorisation and permit conditions, to an average generation efficiency of 51.5% in 2020 would lead to a reduction in annual consumption of 15 km3 (3.6 cu mi) of natural gas and 25 Mt (25,000,000 long tons; 28,000,000 short tons) of coal.[81]

See also[edit]




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  2. ^ International Panel on Fissile Materials (September 2010). "The Uncertain Future of Nuclear Energy". Research Report 9. p. 1. 
  3. ^ Eenergiläget i siffror 2011 figure 49 and 53
  4. ^ BP: Statistical Review of World Energy, Workbook (xlsx), London, 2013
  5. ^ "World Energy Intensity: Total Primary Energy Consumption per Dollar of Gross Domestic Product using Purchasing Power Parities, 1980–2004" (XLS). Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. 23 August 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  6. ^ "Historical Statistics of Japan". Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  7. ^ Global Energy Statistics 2012, Enerdata Publication
  8. ^ a b Energy – Consumption'!A1 "Consumption by fuel, 1965–2008" (XLS). Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, BP. 31 July 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  9. ^ World Energy Assessment (WEA). UNDP, New York
  10. ^ Johansson, T. B., McCormick, K., Neij, L., & Turkenburg, W. (2004). The Potentials of Renewable Energy: Thematic Background Paper. Thematic Paper prepared for the International Conference on Renewable Energies, Bonn. Retrieved 6 July 2008, from$webAll/02DAE4E6199783A9C1256E29004E1250?OpenDocument.
  11. ^ de Vries BJM, van Vuuren DP, Hoogwijk MM (2007). "Renewable energy sources: Their global potential for the first-half of the 21st century at a global level: An integrated approach". Energy Policy 35: 2590–2610. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2006.09.002. 
  12. ^ Global Energy Review in 2011, Enerdata Publication
  13. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 and IEA Key energy statistics 2009 oil page 11, gas p.13, hard coal (excluding brown coal) p. 15 and electricity p. 27
  14. ^ "IEA estimates $48tn investments till 2035 to meet global energy demands". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  15. ^ IEA World Energy Outlook 2012 Executive Summary
  16. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures Table 55 Regional energy use, 1990 and 2008 (kWh per capita)
  17. ^ a b IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Population page 48 forward
  18. ^ Energiläget 2050 by prof. Cristian Azar and Kristian Lindgren Chalmers Göteborg (Swedish)
  19. ^ State of the world 2009, Worldwatch institute, 2009
  20. ^ a b
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures Table for figure 46 Total world energy supply, 1990–2009 and Table for figure 48 World power generation by energy resource, 1990–2008, (TWh)
  25. ^ a b 2013 Key World Energy Statistics, p.24 & 26
  26. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures Table 53 The global supply of renewable energy, 1990–2008, TWh
  27. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures Table 46 Total world energy supply, 1990–2009, Table 53 Global supply of renewable energy, 1990–2008 (TWh)
  28. ^ World Consumption of Primary Energy by Energy Type and Selected Country Groups 31 December 2008 Microsoft Excel file format
  29. ^ a b Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures Table 52 Global supply of coal, 1990–2009 (TWh)
  30. ^ a b Energiläget 2011
  31. ^ Ma, Damien. "China's Coming Decade of Natural Gas". Asia's Uncertain LNG Future, NBR Special Report. November 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
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External links[edit]