World economy

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Economy of the world
Statistics
Population7.095 billion (July 2013 est.)[1]
GDPNominal: US$77.609 trillion (2014 est.)[1]
PPP: US$106.998 trillion (2014 est.)[1]
GDP growth
3% (2012)
GDP per capita
Nominal: US$7,178
PPP: US$12,700 (2012 est.)
~10 million i.e. ~0.15% (2009)
Billionaires (US$)1,594 (2014) [2]
People earn below US$2 per day~3.25 billion (~50%)
Unemployment5.4% (Nov.2014)[3]
note: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%–12% unemployment (2007 est.)
During 2012 unless otherwise stated. Trailing-ten-years. Most numbers are from The World Factbook for 2012, some numbers exclude certain countries for lack of information.

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
 
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Economy of the world
Statistics
Population7.095 billion (July 2013 est.)[1]
GDPNominal: US$77.609 trillion (2014 est.)[1]
PPP: US$106.998 trillion (2014 est.)[1]
GDP growth
3% (2012)
GDP per capita
Nominal: US$7,178
PPP: US$12,700 (2012 est.)
~10 million i.e. ~0.15% (2009)
Billionaires (US$)1,594 (2014) [2]
People earn below US$2 per day~3.25 billion (~50%)
Unemployment5.4% (Nov.2014)[3]
note: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%–12% unemployment (2007 est.)
During 2012 unless otherwise stated. Trailing-ten-years. Most numbers are from The World Factbook for 2012, some numbers exclude certain countries for lack of information.

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The world economy, or global economy, is the economy of the world, considered as an international exchange of goods and services.[4] Global economy is the economy of global society while country economies are focused within the specified country. Combining the country economies the world economy is made.

Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use, and exchange the definitions, representations, models, and valuations of the world economy vary widely. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth.

It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and other black market goods, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is by definition no legal market of any kind.

However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish a monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy, since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect worldwide value, for example in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government.

World share of GDP (PPP) (World Bank, 2011).[5]

Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real US dollars or euros. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 7.13 billion people have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.

In 2013, the largest economies in the world with more than $2 trillion, €1.25 trillion by nominal GDP were the United States, China, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Russia, Italy and India.

Economy – overview[edit]

Current world economic league table of largest economies in the world by GDP and share of global economic growth[edit]

The following three tables list the twenty-five largest economies by GDP (Nominal) in 2014, twenty-five largest economies by GDP (PPP) in 2014, and the twenty-five economies with the largest shares of global economic growth in 2014. Members of the G-20 major economies are in bold.

List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (nominal) in 2014
[6]
List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (PPP) in 2014
[7]
List of the 25 largest economies
by contribution to global economic
growth by GDP (nominal) over 2013-14
[8]
List of the 25 largest economies
by contribution to global economic
growth by GDP (PPP) over 2013-14
[9]
RankCountryValue (Billions
of USD$)
World77,609
 European Union18,399
1 United States17,416
2 China10,355
3 Japan4,770
4 Germany3,820
5 France2,902
6 United Kingdom2,848
7 Brazil2,244
8 Italy2,129
9 Russia2,057
10 India2,048
11 Canada1,794
12 Australia1,483
13 South Korea1,449
14 Spain1,400
15 Mexico1,296
16 Netherlands880
17 Indonesia856
18 Turkey813
19 Saudi Arabia778
20  Switzerland679
21 Nigeria594
22 Sweden559
23 Poland552
24 Argentina536
25 Belgium528
RankCountryValue (Billions
of USD$)
World106,998
 European Union18,124
1 China17,632
2 United States17,416
3 India7,277
4 Japan4,788
5 Germany3,621
6 Russia3,559
7 Brazil3,073
8 France2,587
9 Indonesia2,554
10 United Kingdom2,435
11 Mexico2,143
12 Italy2,066
13 South Korea1,790
14 Saudi Arabia1,652
15 Canada1,579
16 Spain1,534
17 Turkey1,512
18 Iran1,284
19 Australia1,100
20 Nigeria1,058
21 Taiwan1,022
22 Thailand990
23 Egypt945
24 Poland941
25 Argentina927
RankCountryPercentage
(%)
World100.0
 European Union30.5
1 China30.5
2 United States22.3
3 United Kingdom11.1
4 Germany6.3
5 India5.9
6 South Korea5.0
7 France3.3
8 Nigeria2.5
9 Italy2.0
10 Spain1.4
11 Iran1.2
12 Mexico1.2
13 Poland1.2
14 Saudi Arabia1.0
15  Switzerland1.0
16 Netherlands0.9
17 Bangladesh0.9
18 Malaysia0.8
19 Colombia0.7
20 Austria0.7
21 Belgium0.7
22 New Zealand0.7
23 Hong Kong0.6
24 Philippines0.6
25 Vietnam0.6
RankCountryPercentage
(%)
World100.0
1 China29.3
2 United States12.8
 European Union10.8
3 India9.9
4 Indonesia3.3
5 Japan2.4
6 United Kingdom2.3
7 Germany2.1
8 Saudi Arabia1.9
9 South Korea1.8
10 Nigeria1.7
11 Mexico1.7
12 Turkey1.4
13 Russia1.3
14 Canada1.2
15 Brazil1.2
16 Malaysia1.1
17 France1.0
18 Philippines1.0
19 Taiwan1.0
20 Pakistan1.0
21 Australia0.9
22 Spain0.9
23 Poland0.9
24 Bangladesh0.8
25 Colombia0.8

Twenty Largest Economies in the World by Nominal GDP[edit]

The following is a list of the twenty largest economies by nominal GDP at a specific year according to International Monetary Fund.[10]

Rank198019851990199520002005201020152019
1 United States United States United States United States United States United States United States United States United States
2Soviet Union Soviet Union Soviet Union Japan Japan Japan Japan China China China
3 Japan Japan Soviet Union Germany Germany Germany Japan Japan Japan
4 West Germany West Germany West Germany France United Kingdom United Kingdom Germany Germany Germany
5 France France France United Kingdom France China France United Kingdom United Kingdom
6 United Kingdom United Kingdom Italy Italy China France United Kingdom France France
7 Italy Italy United Kingdom Brazil Italy Italy Brazil Brazil India
8 China Canada Canada China Canada Canada Italy India Brazil
9 Canada China Spain Canada Mexico Spain India Italy Russia
10 Argentina India Brazil Spain Brazil South Korea Canada Russia Italy
Rank198019851990199520002005201020152019
11 Mexico Brazil China South Korea Spain Brazil Russia Canada Canada
12 Spain Mexico India Netherlands South Korea Mexico Spain South Korea South Korea
13 Netherlands Spain Australia Australia India India Australia Australia Australia
14 India Australia Netherlands India Netherlands Russia South Korea Spain Mexico
15 Saudi Arabia Netherlands Mexico Mexico Australia Australia Mexico Mexico Spain
16 Australia Sweden South Korea  Switzerland Argentina Netherlands Netherlands Indonesia Indonesia
17 Brazil Argentina  Switzerland Russia Taiwan Turkey Turkey Netherlands Turkey
18 Sweden South Korea Sweden Argentina Turkey  Switzerland Indonesia Turkey Netherlands
19 Belgium Saudi Arabia Turkey Belgium Russia Belgium  Switzerland Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
20  Switzerland  Switzerland Belgium Taiwan  Switzerland Sweden Saudi Arabia  Switzerland Nigeria

Twenty Largest Economies in the World by PPP GDP (IMF and CIA World Factbook)[edit]

The following is a list of twenty largest economies by GDP (PPP) at a specific year according to the CIA World Factbook and the International Monetary Fund.[11][12]

Rank198019851990199520002005201020152019
1 United States United States United States United States United States United States United States China China
2 Soviet Union Soviet Union Soviet Union Japan China China China United States United States
3 Japan Japan Japan China Japan Japan India India India
4 West Germany West Germany West Germany Germany Germany India Japan Japan Japan
5 France France France India India Germany Germany Germany Germany
6 Italy Italy China France France Russia Russia Russia Russia
7 Brazil Brazil Italy Italy Italy France Brazil Brazil Brazil
8 United Kingdom India India Russia Russia Brazil France Indonesia Indonesia
9 Mexico China Brazil Brazil Brazil United Kingdom United Kingdom France France
10 India United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Italy Italy United Kingdom United Kingdom
Rank198019851990199520002005201020152019
11 China Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Indonesia Mexico Mexico
12 Spain Canada Spain Indonesia Spain Indonesia Mexico Italy Italy
13 Canada Spain Canada Spain Indonesia Spain South Korea South Korea South Korea
14 Saudi Arabia Indonesia Indonesia Canada Canada Canada Spain Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
15 Indonesia Iran Saudi Arabia South Korea South Korea South Korea Canada Canada Turkey
16 Argentina Saudi Arabia Turkey Saudi Arabia Turkey Turkey Iran Spain Canada
17 Netherlands Turkey Iran Turkey Iran Iran Saudi Arabia Turkey Spain
18 Poland Australia South Korea Iran Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Turkey Iran Nigeria
19 Iran Netherlands Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Nigeria Iran
20 Australia Argentina Netherlands Thailand Netherlands Thailand Taiwan Australia Australia

Twenty Largest Economies in the World by PPP GDP (World Bank)[edit]

Data from the World Bank differs from the other two sources.[13]

Rank199019952000200520102013
1 United States United States United States United States United States United States
2 Japan Japan China China China China
3 West Germany China Japan Japan India India
4 Russia[14] Germany Germany India Japan Japan
5 China India India Germany Germany Germany
6 Italy Brazil United Kingdom United Kingdom Russia Russia
7 France Italy France Brazil Brazil Brazil
8 India France Brazil France France France
9 Brazil United Kingdom Italy Italy United Kingdom United Kingdom
10 United Kingdom Russia Mexico Russia Italy Indonesia
Rank199019952000200520102013
11 Canada Indonesia Russia Mexico Indonesia Italy
12 Spain Mexico Indonesia Indonesia Mexico Mexico
13 Mexico Canada Canada Spain Spain South Korea
14 Indonesia Spain Spain South Korea South Korea Saudi Arabia
15 South Korea South Korea South Korea Canada Canada Spain
16 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Canada
17 Ukraine[15] Iran Turkey Iran Turkey Turkey
18 Iran Thailand Iran Turkey Iran Iran
19 Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia
20 Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Thailand Taiwan Nigeria

1980 – 1990 – The European Economic Community, the United States and Japan lead expansion[edit]

At exchange rates, the global economic output expanded by US$11.5 trillion from 1980 to 1990. The five largest contributors to global output contraction are Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Venezuela. At purchasing power parity, the global economic output expanded by US$13.7 trillion from 1980 to 1990. The following two tables are lists of the 20 largest contributors to global economic growth from 1980 to 1990 by International Monetary Fund.

List of the 20 Economies with the Largest
Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in nominal GDP from 1980 to 1990
[16]
List of the 20 Economies with the Largest
Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in GDP (PPP) from 1980 to 1990
[17]
RankCountryShare of Contribution to
Global GDP Growth
  World100.0%
 European Economic Community29.7%
1 United States27.1%
2 Japan6.3%
3 West Germany5.8%
4 Italy5.8%
5 France5.0%
6 United Kingdom4.2%
7 Canada2.8%
8 Brazil2.7%
9 Spain2.6%
10 South Korea1.9%
11 Australia1.4%
12 India1.3%
13  Switzerland1.1%
14 Netherlands1.1%
15 Taiwan1.1%
16 Sweden1.0%
17 Turkey0.9%
18 China0.8%
18 Finland0.8%
20 Austria0.7%
Remaining Countries14.0%
RankCountryShare of Contribution to
Global GDP Growth
  World100.0%
 European Economic Community24.8%
1 United States22.7%
2 Japan9.9%
3 China5.8%
4 West Germany5.4%
5 India4.6%
6 France3.9%
7 Italy3.8%
8 United Kingdom3.3%
9 Brazil3.0%
10 Mexico2.3%
11 Indonesia2.3%
12 Spain2.2%
13 Canada2.0%
14 South Korea1.8%
15 Turkey1.6%
16 Iran1.4%
17 Australia1.2%
18 Thailand1.2%
19 Netherlands1.1%
20 Taiwan1.0%
Remaining Countries19.6%

1990 – 2000 – United States dominates expansion[edit]

At exchange rates, the global economic output expanded by US$10.4 trillion from 1990 to 2000. At purchasing power parity, the global economic output expanded by US$22.0 trillion from 1990 to 2000.

List of the 20 Economies with the Largest
Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in nominal GDP from 1990 to 2000
[16]
List of the 20 Economies with the Largest
Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in GDP (PPP) from 1990 to 2000
[17]
RankCountryShare of Contribution to
Global GDP Growth
  World100.0%
1 United States41.6%
2 Japan15.7%
 European Union14.6%
3 China7.6%
4 United Kingdom4.6%
5 Mexico3.7%
6 Germany3.3%
7 South Korea2.7%
8 Brazil1.7%
9 Argentina1.6%
10 Taiwan1.6%
11 India1.4%
12 Canada1.4%
13 Poland1.1%
14 Netherlands0.9%
15 France0.9%
16 Hong Kong0.9%
17 Saudi Arabia0.8%
18 Australia0.7%
19 Israel0.7%
20 Venezuela0.7%
Remaining Countries6.3%
RankCountryShare of Contribution to
Global GDP Growth
  World100.0%
1 United States19.5%
 European Union19.1%
2 China11.4%
3 India5.1%
4 Japan4.0%
5 Germany3.4%
6 United Kingdom2.6%
7 France2.6%
8 Brazil2.5%
9 Mexico2.3%
10 Italy2.2%
11 South Korea2.0%
12 Indonesia1.9%
13 Spain1.7%
14 Canada1.6%
15 Turkey1.3%
16 Iran1.2%
17 Taiwan1.2%
18 Saudi Arabia1.0%
19 Australia1.0%
20 Netherlands1.0%
Remaining Countries30.5%

2000 – 2010 – Rise of Developing and Emerging Economies[edit]

At exchange rates, the global economic output expanded by US$31.6 trillion from 2000 to 2010. At purchasing power parity, the global economic output expanded by US$38.9 trillion from 2010 to 2010.

IMF's economic outlook for 2010 noted that banks faced a "wall" of maturing debt, which presents important risks for the normalization of credit conditions. There has been little progress in lengthening the maturity of their funding and, as a result, over $4 trillion in debt is due to be refinanced in the next 2 years.[18]`

While there have been some encouraging signs of economic recovery, especially in the United States, the global economic growth seems to be losing momentum. According to the IMF's World Economic Outlook report puplished in April 2012, "global growth is projected to drop from about 4 percent in 2011 to about 3½ percent in 2012 because of weak activity during the second half of 2011 and the first half of 2012."[19]

The following two tables are lists of the 20 largest contributors to global economic growth from 2000 to 2010 by International Monetary Fund.

List of the 20 Economies with the Largest
Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in nominal GDP from 2000 to 2010
[20]
List of the 20 Economies with the Largest
Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in GDP (PPP) from 2000 to 2010
[21]
RankCountryShare of Contribution to
Global GDP Growth
  World100.0%
 European Union25.0%
1 China15.0%
2 United States14.8%
3 Brazil4.7%
4 Germany4.5%
5 France4.0%
6 Russia4.0%
7 India3.9%
8 Italy3.0%
9 Canada2.8%
10 Australia2.7%
11 Spain2.5%
12 United Kingdom2.5%
13 Japan2.4%
14 Indonesia1.7%
15 South Korea1.7%
16 Turkey1.5%
17 Netherlands1.4%
18 Mexico1.2%
19 Saudi Arabia1.0%
20 Iran1.0%
Remaining Countries23.6%
RankCountryShare of Contribution to
Global GDP Growth
  World100.0%
1 China21.8%
 European Union12.8%
2 United States12.0%
3 India8.6%
4 Russia3.9%
5 Brazil3.0%
6 Japan2.8%
7 Indonesia2.5%
8 Germany2.1%
9 South Korea1.8%
10 United Kingdom1.7%
11 France1.7%
12 Iran1.6%
13 Saudi Arabia1.6%
14 Nigeria1.5%
15 Mexico1.5%
16 Turkey1.4%
17 Spain1.3%
18 Canada1.1%
19 Italy1.1%
20 Egypt1.0%
Remaining Countries25.9%

2010 – 2019 – China, the United States, the European Union, and India lead economic growth (estimates by IMF)[edit]

At exchange rates, the economic output of the world is expected to expand by US$36.9 trillion, €29.1 trillion from 2010 to 2019.[22] The following two tables are predictive lists of the 50 countries with the largest contribution to global economic growth from 2010 to 2019 by International Monetary Fund.

Predictive List of the 50 Economies with the
Greatest Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in Nominal GDP from 2010 to 2019
[23]
Predictive List of the 50 Economies with the Greatest
Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in GDP (PPP) from 2010 to 2019
[24]
RankCountryIncremental GDP
(billions of US$)
Share of Global
GDP Growth
  World36,881.098100.0%
1 China9,569.20825.9%
2 United States7,183.43719.5%
 European Union5,799.14815.7%
3 India1,473.3704.0%
4 United Kingdom1,407.1693.8%
5 Germany1,245.1973.4%
6 Russia1,069.8242.9%
7 South Korea1,002.1382.7%
8 Brazil749.5432.0%
9 France741.0472.0%
10 Mexico657.1761.8%
11 Australia532.0931.4%
12 Indonesia521.5471.4%
13 Canada508.0251.4%
14 Nigeria456.2781.2%
15 Saudi Arabia435.4281.2%
16 Italy396.9471.1%
17 Turkey350.1750.9%
18 Taiwan322.6350.9%
19 Philippines317.6980.9%
20 Egypt309.9170.8%
21 Malaysia288.2630.8%
22 Poland279.3910.8%
23 United Arab Emirates276.4900.7%
24 Spain262.7310.7%
25 Sweden262.1370.7%
26 Colombia259.8840.7%
27 Kazakhstan238.6780.6%
28 Iraq197.6780.5%
29 Bangladesh188.4130.5%
30  Switzerland187.5870.5%
31 Netherlands186.9220.5%
32 Norway182.9540.5%
33 Hong Kong180.5620.5%
34 Thailand174.3550.5%
35 Qatar172.7290.5%
36 Vietnam168.6430.5%
37 Pakistan164.4340.4%
38 Israel160.2680.4%
39 Chile147.5790.4%
40 Peru146.7270.4%
41 Argentina144.7650.4%
42 Austria143.1850.4%
43 Belgium139.9380.4%
44 Singapore132.6520.4%
45 Romania124.3820.3%
46 Denmark121.8050.3%
47 Algeria114.7170.3%
48 Angola111.7640.3%
49 New Zealand110.1180.3%
50 Kuwait95.5080.3%
Remaining Countries2,266.9876.1%
RankCountryIncremental GDP
(billions of US$)
Share of Global
GDP Growth
  World56,019.645100.0%
1 China14,781.98226.4%
2 United States7,183.43712.8%
 European Union5,600.27410.0%
3 India5,565.3279.9%
4 Indonesia1,854.8423.3%
5 Russia1,212.8942.2%
6 Japan1,210.6332.2%
7 Brazil1,142.2092.0%
8 Germany1,130.8752.0%
9 Mexico1,057.0091.9%
10 Saudi Arabia1,029.8461.8%
11 South Korea920.1351.6%
12 United Kingdom904.8451.6%
13 Nigeria840.8731.5%
14 Turkey795.0511.4%
15 France755.6451.3%
16 Canada591.4891.1%
17 Taiwan535.9941.0%
18 Thailand519.4370.9%
19 Pakistan517.2090.9%
20 Philippines514.5030.9%
21 Australia489.1550.9%
22 Malaysia488.8880.9%
23 Egypt449.1920.8%
24 Poland448.3790.8%
25 Bangladesh430.7640.8%
26 Italy402.8660.7%
27 Spain402.6520.7%
28 Colombia391.2390.7%
29 Iraq373.2970.7%
30 United Arab Emirates363.4070.6%
31 Vietnam363.2910.6%
32 Iran342.3310.6%
33 Kazakhstan286.6220.5%
34 Algeria282.8230.5%
35 South Africa277.8920.5%
36 Qatar270.2500.5%
37 Peru257.0530.5%
38 Chile228.4140.4%
39 Argentina228.1020.4%
40 Burma225.8430.4%
41 Netherlands212.9960.4%
42 Singapore212.8150.4%
43 Hong Kong196.2790.4%
44 Sri Lanka175.0520.3%
45 Sweden168.9460.3%
46 Romania166.4280.3%
47 Morocco157.5500.3%
48  Switzerland146.8280.3%
49 Venezuela140.8030.3%
50 Kuwait138.4170.2%
Remaining Countries4,236.8367.6%

Statistical indicators[edit]

Economy[edit]

Employment[edit]

World GDP per capita between 1500–2000 (log scale)
World GDP per capita between 1500–2003
GDP increase, 1990–1998 and 1990–2006, in major countries.

Industries[edit]

Energy[edit]

Cross-border[edit]

Gift economy[edit]

Communications[edit]

Telephones – main lines in use: 843,923,500 (2007)
4,263,367,600 (2008)

Transport[edit]

Transportation infrastructure worldwide includes:

Military[edit]

Economic Studies[edit]

To promote exports, many government agencies publish on the web economic studies by sector and country. Among these agencies include the USCS (US DoC) and FAS (USDA) in the United States, EDC and AAFC in Canada, Ubifrance in France, UKTI in the UK, HKTDC and JETRO in Asia, Austrade and NZTE in Oceania. Through Partnership Agreements, The Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies from several of these agencies (USCS, FAS, AAFC, UKTI, HKTDC), as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website GlobalTrade.net.

See also[edit]

Regional economies:

Events:

Lists:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "IMF". imf.org. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  2. ^ http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list. Forbes. 
  3. ^ http://www.bls.gov/bls/newsrels.htm#major. BLS. 
  4. ^ "World Economy." - Definition. American English Definition of with Pronunciation by Macmillan Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2015.
  5. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ICPEXT/Resources/ICP_2011.html
  6. ^ [1] IMF nominal GDP Data (October 2014)
  7. ^ [2] IMF GDP (PPP) Data (October 2014)
  8. ^ [3] IMF GDP (nominal) 2013 and 2014 Data (October 2014)
  9. ^ [4] IMF GDP (PPP) 2013 and 2014 Data (October 2014)
  10. ^ "Gross domestic product, current prices". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP; Current international dollar". International Monetary Fund. October 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
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  14. ^ Republic of the Soviet Union
  15. ^ Republic of the Soviet Union
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  24. ^ [10] IMF GDP (PPP) Data (October 2014)
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  28. ^ http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=3&pid=3&aid=1&cid=regions&syid=2008&eyid=2012&unit=BCF
  29. ^ global cellphone penetration reaches 50 percent
  30. ^ "World Internet Usage Statistics News and World Population Stats". Internetworldstats.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  31. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2053.html
  32. ^ http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2013/03

External links[edit]