World economy

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Economy of the world
Statistics
Population7.095 billion (July 2013 est.)[1]
GDPNominal: US$71.83 trillion (2012 est.)[1]
PPP: US$84.97 trillion (2012 est.)[1]
GDP growth3% (2012)
GDP per capitaNominal: US$7,178
PPP: US$12,700 (2012 est.)
Millionaires (US$)~10 million i.e. ~0.15% (2009)
Billionaires (US$)1,011 (2010)[2]
People paid below US$2 per day~3.25 billion (~50%)
Unemployment9% (2012 est.)
note: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%-12% unemployment (2007 est.)

During 2012 unless otherwise stated. Trailing-ten-years. Most numbers are from The World Factbook for 2012, some numbers exclude certain countries for lack of information.

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars
 
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Economy of the world
Statistics
Population7.095 billion (July 2013 est.)[1]
GDPNominal: US$71.83 trillion (2012 est.)[1]
PPP: US$84.97 trillion (2012 est.)[1]
GDP growth3% (2012)
GDP per capitaNominal: US$7,178
PPP: US$12,700 (2012 est.)
Millionaires (US$)~10 million i.e. ~0.15% (2009)
Billionaires (US$)1,011 (2010)[2]
People paid below US$2 per day~3.25 billion (~50%)
Unemployment9% (2012 est.)
note: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%-12% unemployment (2007 est.)

During 2012 unless otherwise stated. Trailing-ten-years. Most numbers are from The World Factbook for 2012, some numbers exclude certain countries for lack of information.

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars

The world economy, or global economy, generally refers to the economy, which is based on economies of all of the world's countries' national economies. Also global economy can be seen as the economy of global society and national economies – as economies of local societies, making the global one. It can be evaluated in various kind of ways. For instance, depending on the model used, the valuation that is arrived at can be represented in a certain currency, such as 2006 US dollars.

It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth, and is therefore something of a misnomer, since, while definitions and representations of the "world economy" vary widely, they must at a minimum exclude any consideration of resources or value based outside of the Earth. For example, while attempts could be made to calculate the value of currently unexploited mining opportunities in unclaimed territory in Antarctica, the same opportunities on Mars would not be considered a part of the world economy—even if currently exploited in some way—and could be considered of latent value only in the same way as uncreated intellectual property, such as a previously unconceived invention. Beyond the minimum standard of concerning value in production, use, and exchange on the planet Earth, definitions, representations, models, and valuations of the world economy vary widely.

It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and other black market goods, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is by definition no legal market of any kind.

However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish a monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy, since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect worldwide value, for example in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government.

Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real US dollars or euros. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 7.01 billion people have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.

In 2011, the largest economies in the world with more than $2 trillion, €1.25 trillion by nominal GDP were the United States, China, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Russia, and Italy. The largest economies in the world with more than $2 trillion, €1.25 trillion by GDP (PPP) are the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and France.

Economy – overview[edit]

Countries that contribute the most to the World Economy according to IMF.

Twenty Largest Economies in the World by GDP at Given Years[edit]

The following is a list of the twenty largest economies by nominal GDP at a specific year according to International Monetary Fund.

IMF GDP Figures[3]
Rank1970197519801985199019952000200520102015
1 United States United States United States United States United States United States United States United States United States United States
2 Soviet Union Soviet Union Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan China China
3 West Germany Japan Soviet Union Soviet Union West Germany Germany Germany Germany Japan Japan
4 Japan West Germany West Germany West Germany France France United Kingdom United Kingdom Germany Germany
5 France France France France Italy United Kingdom France China France France
6 United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Italy China France United Kingdom United Kingdom
7 Italy Italy Italy Italy Soviet Union Brazil Italy Italy Brazil Russia
8 China Canada Canada Canada Canada China Canada Canada Italy Brazil
9 Canada China China China Spain Spain Brazil Spain India Italy
10 India Brazil Spain India Brazil Canada Mexico Brazil Canada Canada
Rank1970197519801985199019952000200520102015
11 Australia Spain Mexico Brazil China South Korea Spain Mexico Russia India
12 Spain Australia Brazil Mexico Australia Netherlands South Korea South Korea Spain Australia
13 Mexico India India Australia India Australia India India Australia Mexico
14 Brazil Mexico Netherlands Spain Netherlands Russia Australia Russia Mexico Spain
15 Sweden Netherlands Saudi Arabia Netherlands Mexico India Netherlands Australia South Korea South Korea
16 Netherlands Sweden Australia Iran South Korea  Switzerland Taiwan Netherlands Netherlands Turkey
17 Argentina Belgium Sweden Sweden Sweden Mexico Argentina Turkey Turkey Indonesia
18 Poland  Switzerland Belgium Saudi Arabia  Switzerland Belgium Turkey Belgium Indonesia Netherlands
19 Belgium Turkey Argentina  Switzerland Belgium Republic of China Russia  Switzerland  Switzerland Saudi Arabia
20 Turkey Argentina  Switzerland South Korea Turkey Argentina  Switzerland Sweden Saudi Arabia  Switzerland

The following is a list of twenty largest economies by GDP (PPP) at a specific year according to International Monetary Fund[4] and the World Bank.[5][6]

Rank19801985199019952000200520102015
1 United States United States United States United States United States United States United States United States
2 Soviet Union Soviet Union Soviet Union Japan Japan China China China
3 Japan Japan Japan China China Japan Japan India
4 West Germany West Germany West Germany Germany Germany Germany India Japan
5 France France France France India India Germany Germany
6 Italy Italy Italy United Kingdom France United Kingdom Russia Russia
7 United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Italy United Kingdom France United Kingdom Brazil
8 Brazil Brazil China India Italy Russia Brazil United Kingdom
9 Mexico China Brazil Brazil Brazil Italy France France
10 India India India Russia Russia Brazil Italy Mexico
Rank19801985199019952000200520102015
11 Spain Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Italy
12 Canada Canada Spain Spain Spain Spain South Korea South Korea
13 China Spain Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada
14 Saudi Arabia Australia South Korea South Korea South Korea South Korea Spain Indonesia
15 Netherlands Iran Turkey Indonesia Turkey Turkey Indonesia Spain
16 Poland Turkey Australia Turkey Australia Indonesia Turkey Turkey
17 Australia Netherlands Netherlands Australia Indonesia Australia Iran Australia
18 Argentina Poland Indonesia Netherlands Netherlands Iran Australia Iran
19 Iran South Korea Iran Iran Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Saudi Arabia
20 Turkey Indonesia Poland Taiwan Iran Netherlands Saudi Arabia Taiwan

1980 – 1990 - European Union, United States and Japan lead expansion[edit]

At exchange rates, the economic output of 112 markets expanded by $10.7 trillion from 1980 to 1990. The economic output of 34 markets contracted by $276.9 billion from 1980 to 1990. The five largest contributors to global output contraction are Argentina at 24%, Saudi Arabia at 17%, Nigeria at 11%, Venezuela at 8%, and Vietnam at 8%. At purchasing power parity, the economic output of 145 markets expanded by $12.1 trillion from 1980 to 1990. The economic output of 2 markets contracted by $3.5 billion from 1980 to 1990. The two contributors to global output contraction are Lebanon at 70% and Libya at 30%. The following two tables are lists of twenty largest economies by incremental GDP from 1980 to 1990 by International Monetary Fund.

List of Economies by Incremental Nominal GDP from 1980 to 1990[7]List of Economies by Incremental GDP (PPP) from 1980 to 1990[8]
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World11,490.451100.00%
 European Union3,392.63629.53%
1 United States3,117.07527.13%
2 Japan2,016.71117.55%
3 Germany720.8846.27%
4 Italy670.1955.83%
5 France556.0914.84%
6 United Kingdom482.1064.20%
7 Canada320.2422.79%
8 Brazil316.0892.75%
9 Spain296.0472.58%
10 South Korea206.0201.79%
11 Australia160.9121.40%
12 India137.4901.20%
13  Switzerland131.4991.14%
14 Taiwan122.7491.07%
15 Netherlands118.3731.03%
16 Sweden111.6150.97%
17 Turkey108.2880.94%
18 China86.9140.76%
18 Finland86.1800.75%
20 Austria85.0590.74%
Remaining Countries1,639.91214.27%
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World12,326.006100.00%
 European Union3,161.58425.65%
1 United States3,117.07525.29%
2 Japan1,374.13811.15%
3 Germany683.3435.54%
4 China663.9045.39%
5 France489.3933.97%
6 India468.4303.80%
7 United Kingdom466.5543.79%
8 Italy466.2683.78%
9 Brazil339.4452.75%
10 Mexico285.7702.32%
11 Canada279.2572.27%
12 Spain278.8572.26%
13 South Korea248.3522.01%
14 Turkey175.2421.42%
15 Indonesia169.3451.37%
16 Australia159.6071.29%
17 Taiwan137.5321.12%
18 Netherlands132.1801.07%
19 Iran132.0231.07%
20 Thailand113.3390.92%
Remaining Countries2,145.95217.41%

1990 – 2000 - United States dominates expansion[edit]

At exchange rates, the economic output of 122 markets expanded by $10.7 trillion from 1990 to 2000. The economic output of 29 markets contracted by $94.2 billion from 1990 to 2000. The five largest contributors to global output contraction are Italy at 37%, Finland at 18%, Bulgaria at 9%, Algeria at 8%, and the Democratic Republic of Congo at 5%.

At purchasing power parity, the economic output of 148 markets expanded by $16.9 trillion from 1990 to 2000. The economic output of 3 markets contracted by $17.8 billion from 1990 to 2000. The three contributors to global output contraction are Bulgaria at 64%, the Democratic Republic of Congo at 29% and Sierra Leone at 7%.

List of Economies by Incremental Nominal GDP from 1990 to 2000[7]List of Economies by Incremental GDP (PPP) from 1990 to 2000[8]
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World10,321.649100.00%
1 United States4,310.17541.76%
2 Japan1,627.50015.77%
 European Union1,492.89014.46%
3 China808.1987.83%
4 United Kingdom472.0484.57%
5 Mexico393.5703.81%
6 Germany344.9083.34%
7 South Korea262.9802.55%
8 Brazil179.7301.74%
9 Taiwan161.1881.56%
10 India147.2961.43%
11 Canada144.8391.40%
12 Argentina143.0641.39%
13 Poland109.1791.06%
14 Hong Kong93.6210.91%
15 Netherlands90.6340.88%
16 France82.8710.80%
17 Saudi Arabia78.1150.76%
18 Australia75.8030.73%
19 Israel71.0800.69%
20 Venezuela68.7530.67%
Remaining Countries656.0976.36%
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World19,059.703100.00%
1 United States4,310.17522.61%
 European Union3,925.59920.60%
2 China2,105.84011.05%
3 Japan881.3034.62%
4 India828.7234.35%
5 Germany695.3173.65%
6 United Kingdom599.5013.15%
7 France503.7222.64%
8 Mexico454.9212.39%
9 Brazil447.1382.35%
10 South Korea440.0602.31%
11 Italy426.3582.24%
12 Canada351.3601.84%
13 Spain348.1181.83%
14 Taiwan250.7991.32%
15 Indonesia223.8721.17%
16 Turkey221.1941.16%
17 Australia219.1081.15%
18 Netherlands190.8871.00%
19 Iran190.0561.00%
20 Poland173.0210.91%
Remaining Countries5,198.23027.27%

2000 – 2010 – Rise of Developing and Emerging Economies[edit]

2000 – 2006 – United States still leads, but China is catching up

At exchange rates, the economic output of 176 markets expanded by $17.4 trillion from 2000 to 2006. The five largest contributors to global output expansion are the United States at 20%, China at 9%, Germany at 6%, the United Kingdom at 6%, and France at 5%. The economic output of 4 markets contracted by $94.2 billion from 2000 to 2006. The three largest contributors to global output contraction are Japan at 80%, Argentina at 19%, and Uruguay at 1%.

At purchasing power parity, the economic output of 180 markets expanded by $19.2 trillion from 2000 to 2006. The five largest contributors to global output expansion are the United States at 18%, China at 17%, India at 6%, Japan at 5%, and Russia at 4%.

2007 – China leads expansion

The economic output by nominal GDP of 183 markets expanded by $6.4 trillion during 2007. China accounted for 12% while the United States accounted for 10%, Germany accounted for 6%, and the United Kingdom accounted for 6% of the global output expansion.

2008 – credit crisis begins

The economic output of 171 markets expanded by $5.8 trillion during 2008. China accounted for one-sixth of the global output expansion. The economic output of 11 markets contracted by $267 billion during 2008. The United Kingdom accounted for one-half while South Korea accounted for two-fifth of the global output contraction. Though the crisis first affected most countries in 2008, it was not yet deep enough to reverse growth.

2009 – credit crisis spreads

At exchange rates, the economic output of 127 markets contracted by $4.1 trillion during 2009. The United Kingdom was the largest victim accounting for 12% while Russia accounted for 11% and Germany accounted for 8% of the global output contraction. The economic output of 56 markets expanded by $767.1 billion during 2009. China accounted for 61% while Japan accounted for 20% and Indonesia accounted for 4% of the global output expansion.

At purchasing power parity, the economic output of 79 markets contracted by $1.4 trillion during 2009. The United States was the largest victim accounting for 18% while Japan accounted for 17% and Russia accounted for 10% of the global output contraction. The economic output of 104 markets expanded by $1.5 trillion during 2009. China accounted for 56% while India accounted for 17% and Indonesia accounted for 3% of the global output expansion.

2010 – recovery

At exchange rates, the economic output of 148 markets expanded by $5.3 trillion during 2010. The five largest contributors to global output expansion are China at 17%, the United States at 10%, Brazil at 9%, Japan at 8%, and India at 5%. The economic output of 35 markets contracted by $338.5 billion during 2010. The five largest contributors to global output contraction are France at 22%, Italy at 18%, Spain at 17%, Venezuela at 10%, and Germany at 7%.

At purchasing power parity, the economic output of 169 markets expanded by $4.2 trillion during 2010. The five largest contributors to global output expansion are China at 25%, the United States at 13%, India at 10%, Japan at 5%, and Brazil at 4%. The economic output of 14 markets contracted by $17.8 billion during 2010. The five largest contributors to global output contraction are Greece at 67%, Venezuela at 19%, Romania at 5%, Haiti at 3%, and Croatia at 2%.

IMF's economic outlook for 2010 noted that banks faced a "wall" of maturing debt, which presents important risks for the normalization of credit conditions. There has been little progress in lengthening the maturity of their funding and, as a result, over $4 trillion in debt is due to be refinanced in the next 2 years.[9]`

While there have been some encouraging signs of economic recovery, especially in the United States, the global economic growth seems to be losing momentum. According to the IMF's World Economic Outlook report puplished in April 2012, "global growth is projected to drop from about 4 percent in 2011 to about 3½ percent in 2012 because of weak activity during the second half of 2011 and the first half of 2012."[10]

The following two tables are lists of twenty largest economies by incremental GDP from 2000 to 2010 by International Monetary Fund.

List of Economies by Incremental Nominal GDP from 2000 to 2010[11]List of Economies by Incremental GDP (PPP) from 2000 to 2010[12]
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World31,136.426100.00%
 European Union7,827.14225.03%
1 China4,731.91615.13%
2 United States4,668.57514.93%
3 Brazil1,498.1714.79%
4 Germany1,418.6664.54%
5 Russia1,265.2134.05%
6 France1,239.5983.96%
7 India1,236.4273.95%
8 Italy951.9423.04%
9 Canada874.6212.80%
10 Australia847.6202.71%
11 Spain805.3792.58%
12 United Kingdom800.3242.56%
13 Japan764.1882.44%
14 Indonesia544.5221.74%
15 South Korea481.5051.54%
16 Turkey464.5841.49%
17 Netherlands392.4031.25%
18 Mexico354.6821.13%
19 Saudi Arabia332.0031.06%
20 Iran322.6781.03%
Remaining Countries7,276.83823.27%
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World32,233.279100.00%
1 China7,020.39621.78%
2 United States4,668.57514.48%
 European Union4,582.38014.22%
3 India2,547.6107.90%
4 Russia1,099.5223.41%
4 Japan1,090.5433.38%
6 Brazil931.1302.89%
7 Germany778.9572.42%
8 United Kingdom686.2572.13%
9 South Korea678.5542.11%
10 France579.3001.80%
11 Indonesia523.8521.63%
12 Mexico515.7731.60%
13 Iran504.0071.56%
14 Spain457.4411.42%
15 Canada448.2891.39%
16 Turkey448.2851.39%
17 Saudi Arabia381.5041.18%
18 Italy377.0371.17%
19 Taiwan364.8631.13%
20 Australia346.2291.07%
Remaining Countries7,785.15524.15%

2010 – 2018 China will lead economic growth.[edit]

At exchange rates, the economic output of the world is expected to expand by US$32.9 trillion, €24.2 trillion from 2010 to 2018.[13] The following two tables are predictive lists of the fifty largest economies by incremental GDP from 2010 to 2018 by International Monetary Fund.

Predictive List of Economies by Incremental Nominal GDP from 2010 to 2018[14]Predictive List of Economies by Incremental GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) from 2010 to 2018[15]
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World32,913.442100.0%
1 China7,830.04223.8%
2 United States6,597.74720.0%
 European Union5,087.28815.5%
3 Russia1,485.5064.5%
4 Germany1,049.9903.2%
5 United Kingdom948.0142.9%
6 France852.5822.6%
7 India770.1782.3%
8 South Korea687.2252.1%
9 Mexico683.0732.1%
10 Canada659.7472.0%
11 Brazil587.3271.8%
12 Turkey548.6811.7%
13 Indonesia502.4391.5%
14 Australia454.5631.4%
15 Japan448.0031.4%
16 Italy436.2051.3%
17 Saudi Arabia344.1661.0%
18 Taiwan268.6500.8%
19 Sweden262.4210.8%
20 Kazakhstan249.0160.8%
21 Thailand239.0430.7%
22 Argentina221.5250.7%
23 Philippines220.9340.7%
24 Poland217.0030.7%
25 Colombia210.3540.6%
26  Switzerland207.6600.6%
27 Iraq206.1910.6%
28 Nigeria204.9790.6%
29 Malaysia195.9320.6%
30 Egypt191.3370.6%
31 Hong Kong190.6440.6%
32 Netherlands190.5650.6%
33 Chile189.8690.6%
34 Norway189.2070.6%
35 Spain189.0850.6%
36 United Arab Emirates180.2010.5%
37 Vietnam155.8390.5%
38 Peru151.1720.5%
39 Austria146.8800.4%
40 Qatar141.9860.4%
41 Belgium140.0550.4%
42 Venezuela132.5300.4%
43 Israel125.6960.4%
44 Bangladesh124.5760.4%
45 Singapore116.8780.4%
46 Pakistan112.4230.3%
47 Ukraine103.5890.3%
48 South Africa101.0870.3%
49 Finland98.8480.3%
50 Kuwait87.7320.3%
Remaining Countries2,264.0476.9%
RankCountryIncremental GDP (billions of US$)Share of Global Incremental GDP
  World40,836.598100.0%
1 China10,690.13626.2%
2 United States6,597.74716.2%
 European Union4,204.63510.3%
3 India3,268.4498.0%
4 Japan1,172.1002.9%
5 Russia1,111.6662.7%
6 Brazil956.9902.3%
7 Germany871.7002.1%
8 Indonesia861.5072.1%
9 Mexico813.4092.0%
10 South Korea772.8541.9%
11 United Kingdom700.3171.7%
12 Turkey621.5571.5%
13 France597.1991.5%
14 Canada516.2141.3%
15 Saudi Arabia516.1301.3%
16 Taiwan436.5451.1%
17 Australia399.9991.0%
18 Nigeria362.5350.9%
19 Thailand356.8000.9%
20 Argentina335.0610.8%
21 Italy325.0930.8%
22 Poland321.8820.8%
23 Malaysia314.5560.8%
24 Philippines292.6960.7%
25 Colombia283.5300.7%
26 Pakistan277.5160.7%
27 Iran260.0250.6%
28 South Africa250.0910.6%
29 Egypt238.0610.6%
30 Bangladesh235.7120.6%
31 Peru230.0370.6%
32 Spain226.7260.6%
33 Vietnam226.4520.6%
34 Iraq207.8520.5%
35 Hong Kong192.4030.5%
36 Chile187.4850.5%
37 Netherlands158.9560.4%
38 Kazakhstan157.3270.4%
39 Singapore156.4790.4%
40 Venezuela154.3050.4%
41 Qatar146.8190.4%
42 Sweden129.8160.3%
43 Algeria128.9250.3%
44 United Arab Emirates128.0240.3%
45 Israel124.1310.3%
46  Switzerland111.9830.3%
47 Belgium103.5490.3%
48 Romania102.8460.3%
49 Austria101.8420.2%
50 Morocco101.5230.2%
Remaining Countries3,001.0417.3%

Statistical indicators[edit]

Economy[edit]

Employment[edit]

World GDP per capita between 1500–2000 (log scale)
World GDP per capita between 1500–2003
GDP increase, 1990–1998 and 1990–2006, in major countries.

Industries[edit]

Energy[edit]

Cross-border[edit]

Gift economy[edit]

Communications[edit]

Telephones – main lines in use: 843,923,500 (2007)
4,263,367,600 (2008)

Transport[edit]

Transportation infrastructure worldwide includes:

Military[edit]

Economic Studies[edit]

To promote exports, many government agencies publish on the web economic studies by sector and country. Among these agencies include the USCS (US DoC) and FAS (USDA) in the United States, EDC and AAFC in Canada, Ubifrance in France, UKTI in the UK, HKTDC and JETRO in Asia, Austrade and NZTE in Oceania. Through Partnership Agreements, The Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies from several of these agencies (USCS, FAS, AAFC, UKTI, HKTDC), as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website GlobalTrade.net.

See also[edit]

Regional economies:

Events:

Lists:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  2. ^ "Forbes rich list: the billionaires you've never heard of". The Daily Telegraph. 11 March 2010. 
  3. ^ IMF Historical Data (October 2013)
  4. ^ "IMF historical GDP (PPP) Data (April 2011)". Imf.org. 2011-04-11. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  5. ^ "GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $) | Data | Table". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  6. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP_PPP.pdf
  7. ^ a b [1] IMF nominal GDP Data (September 2011)
  8. ^ a b [2] IMF GDP (PPP) Data (September 2011)
  9. ^ "p.11" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  10. ^ http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/pdf/text.pdf
  11. ^ [3] IMF nominal GDP Data (October 2013)
  12. ^ [4] IMF GDP (PPP) Data (October 2013)
  13. ^ "IMF World GDP Data (October 2012)". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  14. ^ [5] IMF nominal GDP Data (October 2013)
  15. ^ [6] IMF GDP (PPP) Data (October 2013)
  16. ^ "IMF World Economic Outlook, Crisis and Recovery, April 2009". Imf.org. 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  17. ^ B. Milanovic (January 2002). "True World Income Distribution, 1988 and 1993: First Calculation Based on Household Surveys Alone". Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  18. ^ global cellphone penetration reaches 50 percent
  19. ^ "World Internet Usage Statistics News and World Population Stats". Internetworldstats.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  20. ^ http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2013/03

External links[edit]