Woodstock

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Woodstock
Woodstock poster.jpg
Arnold Skolnick (who designed the logo) says that the dove on the guitar was actually designed to resemble a catbird (and it was originally perched on a flute).[1]
GenreRock and folk, including blues rock, folk rock, jazz fusion, hard rock, latin rock, and psychedelic rock styles.
Datesscheduled: August 15–17, 1969, but ran over to August 18
Location(s)White Lake, New York
(site of original festival)
Years activeOriginal festival held in 1969; namesake events held in 1979, 1989, 1994, 1999 and 2009.
Founded byMichael Lang, John P. Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Artie Kornfeld
Website
The Woodstock Festivals
 
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This article is about the 1969 music festival. For other uses, see Woodstock (disambiguation).
Woodstock
Woodstock poster.jpg
Arnold Skolnick (who designed the logo) says that the dove on the guitar was actually designed to resemble a catbird (and it was originally perched on a flute).[1]
GenreRock and folk, including blues rock, folk rock, jazz fusion, hard rock, latin rock, and psychedelic rock styles.
Datesscheduled: August 15–17, 1969, but ran over to August 18
Location(s)White Lake, New York
(site of original festival)
Years activeOriginal festival held in 1969; namesake events held in 1979, 1989, 1994, 1999 and 2009.
Founded byMichael Lang, John P. Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Artie Kornfeld
Website
The Woodstock Festivals

The Woodstock Music & Art Fair—informally, the Woodstock Festival or simply Woodstock—was a music festival, billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music". It was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre (240 ha; 0.94 sq mi) dairy farm in the Catskills near the hamlet of White Lake in the town of Bethel, New York, from August 15 to 18, 1969. Bethel, in Sullivan County, is 43 miles (69 km) southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York, in adjoining Ulster County.

During the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors before an audience of 400,000 young people.[2] It is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history. Rolling Stone listed it as one of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll.[3]

The festival is also widely considered to be the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation.[4][5]

The event was captured in the 1970 documentary movie Woodstock, an accompanying soundtrack album, and Joni Mitchell's song "Woodstock", which commemorated the event and became a major hit for Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.

Planning and preparation[edit]

Woodstock was initiated through the efforts of Michael Lang, John Roberts, Joel Rosenman, and Artie Kornfeld. Roberts and Rosenman financed the project. Lang had experience as a promoter and had already organized the largest festival on the East Coast at the time, the Miami Pop Festival, where an estimated 100,000 people attended the two-day event. Roberts and Rosenman placed the following advertisement in The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal under the name of Challenge International, Ltd.: "Young men with unlimited capital looking for interesting, legitimate investment opportunities and business propositions."[6]

Lang and Kornfeld noticed the ad, and the four got together originally to discuss a retreat-like recording studio in Woodstock. The idea evolved into an outdoor music and arts festival, although even that was initially envisioned on a smaller scale, perhaps featuring some big-name artists who lived in the Woodstock area (such as Bob Dylan and The Band). There were differences in approach among the four: Roberts was disciplined and knew what was needed for the venture to succeed, while the laid-back Lang saw Woodstock as a new, relaxed way of bringing entrepreneurs together.[6] There were further doubts over the venture, as Roberts wondered whether to consolidate his losses and pull the plug, or to continue pumping his own finances into the project.[6]

In April 1969, newly minted superstars Creedence Clearwater Revival became the first act to sign a contract for the event, agreeing to play for $10,000. The promoters had experienced difficulty landing big-name groups prior to Creedence committing to play. Creedence drummer Doug Clifford later commented, "Once Creedence signed, everyone else jumped in line and all the other big acts came on." Given their 3:00 a.m. start time and omission (at Creedence frontman John Fogerty's insistence) from the Woodstock film, Creedence members have expressed bitterness over their experiences at the famed festival.[7]

Woodstock was designed as a profit-making venture, aptly titled "Woodstock Ventures". It famously became a "free concert" only after the event drew hundreds of thousands more patrons than the organizers had prepared for. Tickets for the three-day event cost $18 in advance and $24 at the gate (equivalent to $120.00 and $150.00 in 2014[8]). Ticket sales were limited to record stores in the greater New York City area, or by mail via a post office box at the Radio City Station Post Office located in Midtown Manhattan. Around 186,000 advance tickets were sold, and the organizers anticipated approximately 200,000 festival-goers would turn up.[9]

Selection of the venue[edit]

The crowd and stage in 1969.

Woodstock was originally scheduled to take place in the 300-acre (120 ha) Mills Industrial Park (41°28′39″N 74°21′49″W / 41.477525°N 74.36358°W / 41.477525; -74.36358 (Mills Industrial Park)) in the town of Wallkill, New York, which Woodstock Ventures had leased for $10,000 in the Spring of 1969.[1] Town officials were assured that no more than 50,000 would attend. Town residents immediately opposed the project. In early July, the Town Board passed a law requiring a permit for any gathering over 5,000 people. On July 15, 1969, the Wallkill Zoning Board of Appeals officially banned the concert on the basis that the planned portable toilets would not meet town code.[10] Reports of the ban, however, turned out to be a publicity bonanza for the festival.[11]

Max Yasgur's dairy farm in 1968.

In his 2007 book Taking Woodstock, Elliot Tiber relates that he offered to host the event on his 15 acres (6.1 ha) motel grounds, and had a permit for such an event. He claims to have introduced the promoters to dairy farmer Max Yasgur.[12] Lang, however, disputes Tiber's account and says that Tiber introduced him to a realtor, who drove him to Yasgur's farm without Tiber. Sam Yasgur, Max's son, agrees with Lang's account.[13] Yasgur's land formed a natural bowl sloping down to Filippini Pond on the land's north side. The stage would be set up at the bottom of the hill with Filippini Pond forming a backdrop. The pond would become a popular skinny dipping destination.

The organizers once again told Bethel authorities they expected no more than 50,000 people.

Despite resident opposition and signs proclaiming, "Buy No Milk. Stop Max's Hippy Music Festival",[14] Bethel Town Attorney Frederick W. V. Schadt and building inspector Donald Clark approved the permits, but the Bethel Town Board refused to issue them formally. Clark was ordered to post stop-work orders.

Free concert[edit]

The late change in venue did not give the festival organizers enough time to prepare. At a meeting three days before the event, organizers felt they had two choices: One option was to improve the fencing and security, which might have resulted in violence; the other involved putting all their resources into completing the stage, which would cause Woodstock Ventures to take a financial hit. The crowd, which was arriving in greater numbers and earlier than anticipated, made the decision for them: The fence was cut the night before the concert.

The festival[edit]

Part of the crowd on the first day of the festival.

The influx of attendees to the rural concert site in Bethel created a massive traffic jam. Fearing chaos as thousands began descending on the community, Bethel did not enforce its codes.[10] Eventually, announcements on radio stations as far away as WNEW-FM in Manhattan and descriptions of the traffic jams on television news discouraged people from setting off to the festival.[15][16] Arlo Guthrie made an announcement that was included in the film saying that the New York State Thruway was closed.[17] The director of the Woodstock museum discussed below said this never occurred.[18] To add to the problems and difficulty in dealing with the large crowds, recent rains had caused muddy roads and fields. The facilities were not equipped to provide sanitation or first aid for the number of people attending; hundreds of thousands found themselves in a struggle against bad weather, food shortages, and poor sanitation.[19]

On the morning of Sunday, August 17, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller called festival organizer John Roberts and told him he was thinking of ordering 10,000 New York State National Guard troops to the festival. Roberts was successful in persuading Rockefeller not to do this. Sullivan County declared a state of emergency.[15] During the festival, personnel from nearby Stewart Air Force Base assisted in helping to ensure order and airlifting performers in and out of the concert venue.[20]

Jimi Hendrix was the last act to perform at the festival. Because of the rain delays that Sunday, when Hendrix finally took the stage it was 8:30 Monday morning. The audience, which had peaked at an estimated 400,000 during the festival, was now reduced to about 30,000 by that point; many of them merely waited to catch a glimpse of Hendrix before leaving during his performance.[21]

Hendrix and his new band, Gypsy, Sun and Rainbows (Introduced as The Experience, but corrected by Jimi) [22]performed a two-hour set. His psychedelic rendition of the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner" occurred about 34 into their set (after which he segued into "Purple Haze"). The song would become "part of the sixties Zeitgeist" as it was captured forever in the Woodstock film;[23] Hendrix's image performing this number wearing a blue-beaded white leather jacket with fringe and a red head scarf, has since been regarded as a defining moment of the 1960s.[21][24]

We were ready to rock out and we waited and waited and finally it was our turn ... there were a half million people asleep. These people were out. It was sort of like a painting of a Dante scene, just bodies from hell, all intertwined and asleep, covered with mud.

And this is the moment I will never forget as long as I live: A quarter mile away in the darkness, on the other edge of this bowl, there was some guy flicking his Bic, and in the night I hear, 'Don't worry about it, John. We're with you.' I played the rest of the show for that guy.

John Fogerty recalling Creedence Clearwater Revival's 3:30 am start time at Woodstock[7]

Although the festival was remarkably peaceful given the number of people and the conditions involved, there were two recorded fatalities: one from what was believed to be a heroin overdose, and another caused in an accident when a tractor ran over an attendee sleeping in a nearby hayfield. There also were two births recorded at the event (one in a car caught in traffic and another in a hospital after an airlift by helicopter) and four miscarriages.[25] Oral testimony in the film supports the overdose and run-over deaths and at least one birth, along with many logistical headaches.

Yet, in tune with the idealistic hopes of the 1960s, Woodstock satisfied most attendees. There was a sense of social harmony, which, with the quality of music, and the overwhelming mass of people, many sporting bohemian dress, behavior, and attitudes helped to make it one of the enduring events of the century.[26]

After the concert, Max Yasgur, who owned the site of the event, saw it as a victory of peace and love. He spoke of how nearly half a million people filled with potential for disaster, riot, looting, and catastrophe spent the three days with music and peace on their minds. He stated, "If we join them, we can turn those adversities that are the problems of America today into a hope for a brighter and more peaceful future..."[6]

Sound[edit]

The Original Woodstock Poster with the Wallkill, New York location

Sound for the concert was engineered by sound engineer Bill Hanley. "It worked very well," he says of the event. "I built special speaker columns on the hills and had 16 loudspeaker arrays in a square platform going up to the hill on 70 feet (21 m) towers. We set it up for 150,000 to 200,000 people. Of course, 500,000 showed up."[27] ALTEC designed marine plywood cabinets that weighed half a ton apiece and stood 6 feet (1.8 m) tall, almost 4 feet (1.2 m) deep, and 3 feet (0.91 m) wide. Each of these enclosures carried four 15-inch (380 mm) JBL D140 loudspeakers. The tweeters consisted of 4×2-Cell & 2×10-Cell Altec Horns. Behind the stage were three transformers providing 2,000 amperes of current to power the amplification setup.[28] For many years this system was collectively referred to as the Woodstock Bins.[29]

Performing artists[edit]

Thirty-two acts performed over the course of the four days:

Friday, August 15 – Saturday, August 16
ArtistTimeNotes
Richie Havens5:07 pm – 7:00 pm
Swami Satchidananda7:10 pm – 7:20 pmGave the opening speech/invocation for the festival.
Sweetwater7:30 pm – 8:10 pm
Bert Sommer8:20 pm – 9:15 pm
Tim Hardin9:20 pm – 9:45 pm
Ravi Shankar10:00 pm – 10:35 pmPlayed through the rain.
Melanie10:50 pm – 11:20 pm
Arlo Guthrie11:55 pm – 12:25 am
Joan Baez12:55 am – 2:00 amWas six months pregnant at the time.
Magazine advertisement promoting the Woodstock Music & Art Fair's "Aquarian Exposition," to be held in Wallkill, NY

.

Saturday, August 16 – Sunday, August 17
ArtistTimeNotes
Quill12:15 pm – 12:45 pm
Country Joe McDonald1:00 pm – 1:30 pmJoe later performs with Country Joe and the Fish.
Santana2:00 pm – 2:45 pm
John Sebastian3:30 pm – 3:55 pmWas not on the bill. He was a festival attendee and was recruited to perform
while the promoters were waiting for many of the performers to arrive.
Keef Hartley Band4:45 pm – 5:30 pm
The Incredible String Band6:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Canned Heat7:30 pm – 8:30 pm
Mountain9:00 pm – 10:00 pm
Grateful Dead10:30 pm – 12:05 amTheir set was cut short after the stage amps overloaded during "Turn On Your Love Light".
Creedence Clearwater Revival12:30 am – 1:20 am
Janis Joplin with The Kozmic Blues Band[30]2:00 am – 3:00 am
Sly and the Family Stone3:30 am – 4:20 am
The Who5:00 am – 6:05 amBriefly interrupted by Abbie Hoffman.
Jefferson Airplane8:00 am – 9:40 amJoined onstage by former Jeff Beck Group piano player Nicky Hopkins.
Sunday, August 17 – Monday, August 18
ArtistTimeNotes
Joe Cocker and The Grease Band2:00 pm – 3:25 pmAfter Joe Cocker's set, a thunderstorm disrupted the events for several hours.
Country Joe and the Fish6:30 pm – 8:00 pmCountry Joe McDonald's second performance.
Ten Years After8:15 pm – 9:15 pm
The Band10:00 pm – 10:50 pm
Johnny Winter12:00 am – 1:05 amWinter's brother, Edgar Winter, is featured on three songs.
Blood, Sweat & Tears1:30 am – 2:30 am
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young3:00 am – 4:00 amAn acoustic and electric set were played. Neil Young skipped most of the acoustic set.
Paul Butterfield Blues Band6:00 am – 6:45 am
Sha Na Na7:30 am – 8:00 am
Jimi Hendrix / Gypsy Sun & Rainbows9:00 am – 11:10 amPerformed to a considerably smaller crowd of fewer than 200,000 people.[31]

Declined invitations and missed connections[edit]

Media coverage[edit]

Very few reporters from outside the immediate area were on the scene. During the first few days of the festival, national media coverage emphasized the problems. Front page headlines in the Daily News read "Traffic Uptight at Hippiefest" and "Hippies Mired in a Sea of Mud". Coverage became more positive by the end of the festival, in part because the parents of concertgoers called the media and told them, based on their children's phone calls, that their reporting was misleading.[15][53]

The New York Times covered the prelude to the festival and the move from Wallkill to Bethel.[14] Barnard Collier, who reported from the event for The New York Times, asserts that he was pressured by on-duty editors at the paper to write a misleadingly negative article about the event. According to Collier, this led to acrimonious discussions and his threat to refuse to write the article until the paper's executive editor, James Reston, agreed to let him write the article as he saw fit. The eventual article dealt with issues of traffic jams and minor lawbreaking, but went on to emphasize cooperation, generosity, and the good nature of the festival goers.[15][53] When the festival was over, Collier wrote another article about the exodus of fans from the festival site and the lack of violence at the event. The chief medical officer for the event and several local residents were quoted as praising the festival goers.[25][54]

Middletown, New York's Times Herald-Record, the only local daily newspaper, editorialized against the law that banned the festival from Wallkill. During the festival a rare Saturday edition was published. The paper had the only phone line running out of the site, and it used a motorcyclist to get stories and pictures from the impassable crowd to the newspaper's office 35 miles (56 km) away in Middletown.[1][55][56][57]

Releases[edit]

Films[edit]

Main article: Woodstock (film)

The documentary film Woodstock, directed by Michael Wadleigh and edited by Thelma Schoonmaker and Martin Scorsese, was released in 1970. Artie Kornfeld (one of the promoters of the festival) came to Fred Weintraub, an executive at Warner Bros., and asked for money to film the festival. Previously, Artie had been turned down everywhere else, but against the express wishes of other Warner Bros. executives, Weintraub put his job on the line and gave Kornfeld $100,000 to make the film. Woodstock helped to save Warner Bros at a time when the company was on the verge of going out of business. The book Easy Riders, Raging Bulls details the making of the film.

Wadleigh rounded up a crew of about 100 from the New York film scene. With no money to pay the crew, he agreed to a double-or-nothing scheme, in which the crew would receive double pay if the film succeeded and nothing if it bombed. Wadleigh strove to make the film as much about the hippies as the music, listening to their feelings about compelling events contemporaneous with the festival (such as the Vietnam War), as well as the views of the townspeople.[58]

Woodstock received the Academy Award for Documentary Feature.[59] The film has been deemed culturally significant by the United States Library of Congress. In 1994, Woodstock: The Director's Cut was released and expanded to include Janis Joplin as well as additional performances by Jefferson Airplane, Jimi Hendrix, and Canned Heat not seen in the original version of the film. In 2009, the expanded 40th Anniversary Edition was released on DVD. This release marks the film's first availability on Blu-ray disc.

Another film on Woodstock named Taking Woodstock was produced in 2009 by Taiwanese American filmmaker Ang Lee.[60]

Albums[edit]

Two soundtrack albums were released. The first, Woodstock: Music from the Original Soundtrack and More, was a 3-LP (later 2-CD) album containing a sampling of one or two songs by most of the acts who performed. A year later, Woodstock 2 was released as a 2-LP album. Both albums included recordings of stage announcements (e.g., "[We're told] that the brown acid is not specifically too good", "Hey, if you think really hard, maybe we can stop this rain") and crowd noises (i.e., the rain chant) between songs. In 1994, a third album, Woodstock Diary was released. Tracks from all three albums, as well as numerous additional, previously unreleased performances from the festival but not the stage announcements and crowd noises, were reissued by Atlantic as a 4-CD box set titled Woodstock: Three Days of Peace and Music.

An album titled Jimi Hendrix: Woodstock also was released in 1994, featuring only selected recordings of Jimi Hendrix at the festival. A longer double-disc set, Live at Woodstock (1999) features nearly every song of Hendrix's performance, omitting just two pieces that were sung by his rhythm guitarist.

In 2009, Joe Cocker released a live album of his entire Woodstock set. The album contained eleven tracks, ten of which were previously unreleased.

In 2009, complete performances from Woodstock by Santana, Janis Joplin, Sly & the Family Stone, Jefferson Airplane, and Johnny Winter were released separately by Legacy/SME Records, and were also collected in a box set titled The Woodstock Experience. Also, in 2009, Rhino/Atlantic Records issued a 6-CD box set titled Woodstock: 40 Years On: Back to Yasgur's Farm, which included further musical performances as well as stage announcements and other ancillary material.[61]

Aftermath[edit]

Peace and Music Woodstock monument with plaques by sculptor Wayne C. Saward[62] and erected in 1984 on the festival site. (Note that John Sebastian's surname is misspelled as "Sabastian"[63])

Max Yasgur refused to rent out his farm for a 1970 revival of the festival, saying, "As far as I know, I'm going back to running a dairy farm." Yasgur died in 1973.[64]

Bethel voters tossed out their supervisor in an election held in November 1969 because of his role in bringing the festival to the town. New York State and the town of Bethel passed mass gathering laws designed to prevent any more festivals from occurring.

In 1984, at the original festival site, land owners Louis Nicky and June Gelish put up a monument marker with plaques called "Peace and Music" by a local sculptor from nearby Bloomingburg, Wayne C. Saward (1957–2009).[62][65]

Attempts were made to prevent people from visiting the site, its owners spread chicken manure, and during one anniversary tractors and state police cars formed roadblocks. Twenty thousand people gathered at the site in 1989 during an impromptu 20th anniversary celebration. In 1997 a community group put up a welcoming sign for visitors. Unlike Bethel, the town of Woodstock made several efforts to cash in on its notoriety. Bethel's stance changed in recent years, and the town now embraces the festival. Efforts have begun to forge a link between Bethel and Woodstock.[66]

Approximately 80 lawsuits were filed against Woodstock Ventures.[by whom?] The movie financed settlements and paid off the $1.4 million of debt Woodstock Ventures had incurred from the festival.[15]

Legacy[edit]

Woodstock site today[edit]

Max Yasgur's Farm in 1999

In 1984 a plaque was placed at the original site commemorating the festival.[67] The field and the stage area remain preserved in their rural setting. A concert hall was erected up on the hill in 2009, and the fields of the Yasgur farm are still visited by people of all generations.[68]

In 1996, the site of the concert and 1,400 acres (5.7 km2) surrounding was purchased by cable television pioneer Alan Gerry for the purpose of creating the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts.[69] The Center opened on July 1, 2006, with a performance of the New York Philharmonic.[70] On August 13, 2006, Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young performed before 16,000 fans at the new Center—37 years after their historic performance at Woodstock.[71]

The Museum at Bethel Woods opened on June 2, 2008.[72] The Museum contains film and interactive displays, text panels, and artifacts that explore the unique experience of the Woodstock festival, its significance as the culminating event of a decade of radical cultural transformation, and the legacy of the Sixties and Woodstock today.[72]

The ashes of the late Richie Havens were scattered across the site on August 18, 2013.[73]

Woodstock 40th anniversary[edit]

There was worldwide media interest in the 40th anniversary of Woodstock in 2009.[74] A number of activities to commemorate the festival took place around the world. On August 15, at the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts overlooking the original site, the largest assembly of Woodstock performing alumni since the original 1969 festival performed in an eight-hour concert in front of a sold-out crowd. Hosted by Country Joe McDonald, the concert featured Big Brother and the Holding Company performing Janis Joplin's hits (she actually appeared with the Kozmic Blues Band at Woodstock, although that band did feature former Big Brother guitarist Sam Andrew), Canned Heat, Ten Years After, Jefferson Starship, Mountain, and the headliners, The Levon Helm Band. At Woodstock, Levon Helm played drums and was one of the lead vocalists with The Band. Paul Kantner was the only member of the 1969 Jefferson Airplane line-up to appear with Jefferson Starship. Tom Constanten, who played keyboard with the Grateful Dead at Woodstock, joined Jefferson Starship on stage for several numbers. Jocko Marcellino from Sha Na Na also appeared, backed up by Canned Heat.[75] Richie Havens, who opened the Woodstock festival in 1969, appeared at a separate event the previous night.[76] Crosby, Stills & Nash and Arlo Guthrie also marked the anniversary with live performances at Bethel earlier in August 2009.

Another event occurred in Hawkhurst, Kent (UK), at a Summer of Love party, with acts including two of the participants at the original Woodstock, Barry Melton of Country Joe and the Fish and Robin Williamson of The Incredible String Band, plus Santana and Grateful Dead cover bands.[77] On August 14 and 15, 2009, a 40th anniversary tribute concert was held in Woodstock, IL and was the only festival to receive the official blessing of the "Father of Woodstock", Artie Kornfeld.[78] Kornfeld later made an appearance in Woodstock[clarification needed] with the event's promoters.

Also in 2009, Michael Lang and Holly George-Warren published The Road to Woodstock, which describes Lang's involvement in the creation of the Woodstock Music & Arts Festival, and includes personal stories and quotes from central figures involved in the event.

Cultural references[edit]

As one of the biggest rock festivals of all time and a cultural touchstone for the late sixties, Woodstock has been referenced in many different ways in popular culture. The phrase "the Woodstock generation" became part of the common lexicon.[79] Tributes and parodies of the festival began almost as soon as the final chords sounded. Cartoonist Charles Schulz named his recurring Peanuts bird character Woodstock in tribute to the festival. In April 1970, Mad magazine published a poem by Frank Jacobs and illustrated by Sergio Aragonés titled "I Remember, I Remember The Wondrous Woodstock Music Fair" that parodies the traffic jams and the challenges of getting close enough to actually hear the music.[80] Keith Robertson's 1970 children's book Henry Reed's Big Show has the title character attempting to emulate the success of the festival by mounting his own concert at his uncle's farm. In 1973, the stage show National Lampoon's Lemmings portrayed the "Woodchuck" festival, featuring parodies of many Woodstock performers.[81]

Contemporary culture continues to remember Woodstock, with Time magazine naming "The Who at Woodstock – 1969" to the magazine's "Top 10 Music-Festival Moments" list on March 18, 2010.[82]

In 2005, Argentine writer Edgar Brau published Woodstock, a long poem commemorating the festival. An English translation of the poem was published in January 2007 by Words Without Borders.[83]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Tiber, Elliot (1994). "How Woodstock Happened... Part 1". Times Herald-Record (Reprint from "Woodstock Commemorative Edition"). Archived from the original on January 27, 2010. 
  2. ^ "State Investigating Handling of Tickets At Woodstock Fair". The New York Times. August 27, 1969. p. 45. (subscription required (help)).  Michael Lang stated 400,000 attended, half of them did not have a ticket.[clarification needed]
  3. ^ "Woodstock in 1969". Rolling Stone. June 24, 2004. Archived from the original on February 9, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2008. 
  4. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (March 17, 2009). "3 Days of Peace and Music, 40 Years Later". Arts. The New York Times. 
  5. ^ "Baby Boomer Generation Fast Facts". CNN. November 6, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d Spitz, Robert Stephen (1979). Barefoot in Babylon. The Viking Press, New York. ISBN 0-670-14801-6. 
  7. ^ a b Bordowitz, Hank (2007). Bad Moon Rising: The Unauthorized History of Creedence Clearwater Revival. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. p. 390. ISBN 1-55652-661-X. 
  8. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  9. ^ "1969: Woodstock music festival ends". On this Day: 1950–2005. BBC News. August 18, 1969. Retrieved April 17, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b Tiber, Elliot (1994). "How Woodstock Happened... Part 3". Times Herald-Record (Reprint from "Woodstock Commemorative Edition"). Archived from the original on January 29, 2010. 
  11. ^ Tiber, Elliot (1994). "How Woodstock Happened... Part 2". Times Herald-Record (Reprint from "Woodstock Commemorative Edition"). Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. 
  12. ^ Tiber, Elliot; Monte, Tom (2007). Taking Woodstock. SquareOne Publishers. ISBN 0-7570-0293-5. 
  13. ^ Bleyer, Bill (August 8, 2009). "The road to Woodstock runs through Sunken Meadow State Park.". Newsday. Retrieved August 25, 2009. 
  14. ^ a b Shepard, Richard F. (July 23, 1969). "Pop Rock Festival Finds New Home". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2009. (subscription required (help)). 
  15. ^ a b c d e Woodstock Now & Then. VH1 (Documentary). 2009. 
  16. ^ Collier, Barnard L. (August 16, 1969). "200,000 Thronging To Rock Festival Jam Roads Upstate". The New York Times. pp. 1, 31. (subscription required (help)).  A state police official said, "We're just going to reroute everybody; Sullivan County is filled up."[clarification needed]
  17. ^ Woodstock (Motion picture). Warner Brothers. 1970. 
  18. ^ Hill, Michael (July 17, 2009). "Happy 40th birthday Woodstock baby, if you exist". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. 
  19. ^ Doyle, Michael William (September 25, 2001). "Statement on the Historical and Cultural Significance of the 1969 Woodstock Festival Site". Woodstock – Preservation Archives. 
  20. ^ Evans, Mike; Kingsbury, Paul, eds. (2010). Woodstock: Three Days That Rocked the World. New York: Sterling. p. 225. ISBN 1402780346. 
  21. ^ a b Shapiro, Harry; Glebbeek, Caesar (1995). Jimi Hendrix, Electric Gypsy. Macmillan. pp. 384–85. ISBN 978-0-312-13062-6. 
  22. ^ Room Full of Mirrors-Cross, p. 270
  23. ^ Cross, p. 272[clarification needed]
  24. ^ Daley, Mark (2006). "Chapter5: Land of the Free. Jimi Hendrix: Woodstock Festival, August 18, 1969". In Inglis, Ian. Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 57. ISBN 0-7546-4057-4. 
  25. ^ a b Collier, Barnard L. (August 18, 1969). "Tired Rock Fans Begin Exodus". The New York Times. 
  26. ^ Warner, Simon (May 2004). Bennett, Andy, ed. Remembering Woodstock. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-0714-3. [page needed]
  27. ^ "Parnelli Innovator Honoree, Father of Festival Sound". Front of House. September 2006. 
  28. ^ Hopkins, Jerry (1970). Festival! The Book of American Music Celebrations. New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-580170-8. 
  29. ^ "From Live Peace in Toronto to the Thin End of Wedgies in Soweto". The Hidden Years. 3rd Ear Music. Retrieved July 30, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Janis Joplin". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 24, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2008. 
  31. ^ https://www.wpi.edu/news/20090/woodstock.html
  32. ^ Dylan, Bob. Chronicles Volume One. p. 116. ISBN 0-7435-4309-2. 
  33. ^ "Title unknown". Woodstock Stories.com. [dead link]
  34. ^ This source is likely inaccurate, as the Plastic Ono Band was not formed until a month later.
  35. ^ "Passing on Woodstock: Who and Why?". Woodstock Story. Retrieved July 30, 2011. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°42′05″N 74°52′49″W / 41.70139°N 74.88028°W / 41.70139; -74.88028