Wonders of the World

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The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (from left to right, top to bottom): Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (also known as the Mausoleum of Mausolus), Colossus of Rhodes, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria as depicted by 16th-century Dutch artist Maarten van Heemskerck.

Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled from antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures.

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the first known list of the most remarkable creations of classical antiquity, and was based on guide-books popular among Hellenic sight-seers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim. The number seven was chosen because the Greeks believed it to be the representation of perfection and plenty and also because it was the number of the five planets known anciently plus the sun and moon.[1] Many similar lists have been made.

Contents

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The Great Pyramid of Giza, the only wonder of the ancient world still in existence
The Colosseum in Rome
The Victoria Falls contain the largest sheet of falling water in the world in terms of area
The Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights
The London sewerage system's original Abbey Mills pumping station

The historian Herodotus (484 – ca. 425 BCE), and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene (ca. 305 – 240 BCE) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of seven wonders. Their writings have not survived, except as references.

The seven wonders were:

The earliest lists had the Ishtar Gate as the seventh wonder of the world instead of the Lighthouse of Alexandria[citation needed].

The list known today was compiled in the Middle Ages—by which time many of the sites were no longer in existence. Today, the only ancient world wonder that still exists is the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Lists from other eras

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, some writers wrote about lists with names such as Wonders of the Middle Ages, Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages, Seven Wonders of the Medieval Mind, and Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages. However it is unlikely that these lists originated in the Middle Ages because the word medieval was not invented until the Enlightenment-era, and the concept of a Middle Age did not become popular until the 16th century. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable refers to them as "later list[s]"[2] suggesting the lists were created after the Middle Ages.

Many of the structures on these lists were built much earlier than the Medieval Ages, but were well known.[3]

Typically representative are:[2][3][4][5]

Other sites sometimes included on such lists:

Recent lists

Following in the tradition of the classical list, modern people and organisations have made their own lists of wonderful things ancient and modern. Some of the most notable lists are presented below.

American Society of Civil Engineers

The American Society of Civil Engineers compiled a list of wonders of the modern world:[10]


WonderDate startedDate finishedLocation
Channel TunnelDecember 1, 1987May 6, 1994Strait of Dover, between the United Kingdom and France
CN TowerFebruary 6, 1973June 26, 1976, tallest freestanding structure in the world 1976–2007.Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Empire State BuildingJanuary 22, 1930May 1, 1931, Tallest structure in the world 1931–1967. First building with 100+ stories.New York, NY, U.S.
Golden Gate BridgeJanuary 5, 1933May 27, 1937Golden Gate Strait, north of San Francisco, California, U.S.
Itaipu DamJanuary 1970May 5, 1984Paraná River, between Brazil and Paraguay
Delta Works/ Zuiderzee Works1920May 10, 1997Netherlands
Panama CanalJanuary 1, 1880January 7, 1914Isthmus of Panama

New7Wonders Foundation

In 2001 an initiative was started by the Swiss corporation New7Wonders Foundation to choose the New7Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments.[11] Twenty-one finalists were announced January 1, 2006.[12] Egyptians were not happy that the only surviving original wonder, the Great Pyramid of Giza, would have to compete with the likes of the Statue of Liberty, the Sydney Opera House, and other landmarks, calling the project absurd. In response, Giza was named an honorary Candidate.[13] The results were announced on July 7, 2007, in Lisbon, Portugal :[14]

WonderDate of constructionLocation
Great Wall of ChinaSince 7th century BC[15]China
Petrac. 100 BCJordan
Christ the RedeemerOpened October 12, 1931Brazil
Machu Picchuc. AD 1450Peru
Chichen Itzac. AD 600Mexico
ColosseumCompleted AD 80Italy
Taj MahalCompleted c. AD 1648India
Great Pyramid of Giza (Honorary Candidate)Completed c. 2560 BCEgypt

USA Today's New Seven Wonders

In November 2006 the American national newspaper USA Today in conjunction with the American television show Good Morning America revealed a list of New Seven Wonders as chosen by six judges.[16] The wonders were announced one per day over a week on Good Morning America. An eighth wonder was chosen on November 24, 2006 from viewer feedback.[17]

NumberWonderLocation
1Potala PalaceLhasa, Tibet, China
2Old City of JerusalemJerusalem[n 1]
3Polar ice capsPolar regions
4Papahānaumokuākea Marine National MonumentHawaii, United States
5InternetEarth
6Mayan ruinsYucatán Peninsula, México
7Great Migration of Serengeti and Masai MaraTanzania and Kenya
8Grand Canyon (viewer-chosen eighth wonder)Arizona, United States

Seven Natural Wonders of the World

Similar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list of seven natural wonders of the world, and there has been debate over how large the list should be. One of the many existing lists was compiled by CNN:[18]

New7Wonders of Nature

New7Wonders of Nature (2007–11), a contemporary effort to create a list of seven natural wonders chosen through a global poll, was organized by the same group as the New7Wonders of the World campaign.

Seven Wonders of the Underwater World

The Seven Underwater Wonders of the World was a list drawn up by CEDAM International, an American-based non-profit group for divers, dedicated to ocean preservation and research.

In 1989 CEDAM brought together a panel of marine scientists, including Dr. Eugenie Clark, to pick underwater areas which they considered to be worthy of protection. The results were announced at The National Aquarium in Washington DC by actor Lloyd Bridges, star of TV's Sea Hunt:[19]

Seven Wonders of the Industrial World

British author Deborah Cadbury wrote Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a book telling the stories of seven great feats of engineering of the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2003 the BBC made a seven-part documentary series on the book, with each episode dramatising the construction of one of the wonders. The seven industrial wonders are:

Other lists of wonders of the world

Numerous other authors and organisations have composed lists of the wonders of the world. Travel writer Howard Hillman published two books on the subject, one with 10 man-made wonders, and one with 10 natural wonders.[20][21] British biographer, science writer, and novelist Ronald W. Clark published a book of man-made and natural wonders titled Wonders of the World, which lists 52 wonders, one for each week of the year.[22]

Seven Wonders of the Solar System

In a 1999 article, Astronomy magazine listed the Seven Wonders of the Solar System. This article was later made into a video.[23]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Both the USA Today article and the Good Morning America broadcast described this wonder as "Jerusalem's Old City, Israel. " However states and scholars alike are divided over the legal status of Jerusalem under international law. See Positions on Jerusalem.

References

  1. ^ Anon. (1993)The Oxford Illustrated Encyclopedia First Edition Oxford: Oxford University
  2. ^ a b I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), page 1163
  3. ^ a b Hereward Carrington (1880–1958), "The Seven Wonders of the World: ancient, medieval and modern", reprinted in the Carington Collection (2003) ISBN 0-7661-4378-3, C&pg=PP15&dq=Carrington+Collection+Seven+Wonders+of+the+Middle+Ages&hl=en&sa=X&ei=cgY-T-3JGsqMiAK21_mgAQ&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false page 14.
  4. ^ Edward Latham. A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things (1904), dm2PkC&pg=PA280&lpg=PA280&dq=%22seven+wonders+of+the+middle+ages%22 page 280.
  5. ^ Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt. America, the Land We Love (1915), page 201.
  6. ^ Palpa, as You Like it, page 67)
  7. ^ The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades (2001, page 153))
  8. ^ The Rough Guide To England (1994, page 596))
  9. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia, v.16 (1913), page 74
  10. ^ "American Society of Civil Engineers Seven Wonders". Asce.org. July 19, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
  11. ^ com/index.php?id=3&L=0 New Seven Wonders[dead link]
  12. ^ com/index.php?id=306 Finalist Page[dead link]
  13. ^ "Egypt Angered at New Wonders Idea". Home. bellsouth.net. January 1, 1985. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Reuters via ABC News Australia "Opera House snubbed as new Wonders unveiled" 7 July 2007". Australia: ABC. July 8, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Great Wall of China". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  16. ^ "New Seven Wonders panel". USA Today. October 27, 2006. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  17. ^ Clark, Jayne (December 22, 2006). "The world's 8th wonder: Readers pick the Grand Canyon". USA Today. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  18. ^ wonders/ "CNN Natural Wonders". CNN. November 11, 1997. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Underwater Wonders of the World". Wonderclub. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 
  20. ^ Hillman, Howard. htm#_vtop "World's top 10 man-made travel wonders". Hillman Quality Publications. Retrieved July 7, 2007. 
  21. ^ Hillman, Howard. htm#_vtop "World's top 10 natural travel wonders". Hillman Quality Publications. Retrieved July 7, 2007. 
  22. ^ Clark, Ronald W. (1980). Wonders of the World. Artus Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 978-0-668-04932-0. 
  23. ^ Seven Wonders of the Solar System Video:

Further reading

  • Ash, Russell, "Great Wonders of the World". Dorling Kindersley. 2000. ISBN 978-0-7513-2886-8
  • Cox, Reg, and Neil Morris, "The Seven Wonders of the Modern World". Chelsea House Publications: Library. October 2000. ISBN 0-7910-6048-9
  • Cox, Reg, Neil Morris, and James Field, "The Seven Wonders of the Medieval World". Chelsea House Publications: Library. October 2000. ISBN 0-7910-6047-0
  • D'Epiro, Peter, and Mary Desmond Pinkowish, "What Are the Seven Wonders of the World? and 100 Other Great Cultural Lists". Anchor. December 1, 1998. ISBN 0-385-49062-3
  • Morris, Neil, "The Seven Wonders of the Natural World". Chrysalis Books. December 30, 2002. ISBN 1-84138-495-X

External links