Winston-Salem, North Carolina

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Winston-Salem, North Carolina
City
City of Winston-Salem
Winston-Salem Skyline
Winston-Salem Skyline
Flag of Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Flag
Official seal of Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Seal
Official logo of Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Logo
Nickname(s): City of Arts & Innovation, Twin City, Camel City, Winston, The Dash
Motto: Urbs Condita Adiuvando (A city founded on cooperation)
Location in North Carolina
Location in North Carolina
Coordinates: 36°6′9.95″N 80°15′37.77″W / 36.1027639°N 80.2604917°W / 36.1027639; -80.2604917Coordinates: 36°6′9.95″N 80°15′37.77″W / 36.1027639°N 80.2604917°W / 36.1027639; -80.2604917
CountryUnited States
StateNorth Carolina
CountiesForsyth County
Founded1766 (Salem),
1849 (Winston)
Consolidated1913 (Winston-Salem)
Government
 • MayorAllen Joines (D)[1]
 • City ManagerLee D. Garrity
Area
 • Total132.4 sq mi (343 km2)
 • Land129.6 sq mi (336 km2)
 • Water2.8 sq mi (7 km2)
Elevation970 ft (300 m)
Population (2012)[2][3]
 • Total234,349 (US: 85th)
 • Density1,400.7/sq mi (559.0/km2)
 • MSA647,697
 • CSA1,611,243
DemonymTwin Citian[4]
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)336
WebsiteCity of Winston-Salem, NC
 
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Winston-Salem, North Carolina
City
City of Winston-Salem
Winston-Salem Skyline
Winston-Salem Skyline
Flag of Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Flag
Official seal of Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Seal
Official logo of Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Logo
Nickname(s): City of Arts & Innovation, Twin City, Camel City, Winston, The Dash
Motto: Urbs Condita Adiuvando (A city founded on cooperation)
Location in North Carolina
Location in North Carolina
Coordinates: 36°6′9.95″N 80°15′37.77″W / 36.1027639°N 80.2604917°W / 36.1027639; -80.2604917Coordinates: 36°6′9.95″N 80°15′37.77″W / 36.1027639°N 80.2604917°W / 36.1027639; -80.2604917
CountryUnited States
StateNorth Carolina
CountiesForsyth County
Founded1766 (Salem),
1849 (Winston)
Consolidated1913 (Winston-Salem)
Government
 • MayorAllen Joines (D)[1]
 • City ManagerLee D. Garrity
Area
 • Total132.4 sq mi (343 km2)
 • Land129.6 sq mi (336 km2)
 • Water2.8 sq mi (7 km2)
Elevation970 ft (300 m)
Population (2012)[2][3]
 • Total234,349 (US: 85th)
 • Density1,400.7/sq mi (559.0/km2)
 • MSA647,697
 • CSA1,611,243
DemonymTwin Citian[4]
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)336
WebsiteCity of Winston-Salem, NC

Winston-Salem is a city in the state of North Carolina, with a 2012 estimated population of 234,349. Winston-Salem is the county seat and largest city of Forsyth County and the fifth largest city[3] in the state.[5]

Winston-Salem is the second largest municipality in the Piedmont Triad region and is home to the tallest office building in the region, 100 North Main Street, formerly the Wachovia Building and now known locally as the Wells Fargo Center. Winston-Salem is called the "Twin City" for its dual heritage and "City of the Arts and Innovation" for its dedication to fine arts and theater and technological research. "Camel City" is a reference to the city's historic involvement in the tobacco industry related to locally based R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company's popular Camel cigarettes. Winston-Salem is also known for its traditional furniture company. Many locals refer to the city as "Winston" in informal speech. "The Dash" is referenced from the hyphen between Winston and Salem and was popularized by the nickname of the local minor league baseball team, the Winston-Salem Dash.

In 2013, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget reconfigured the Winston-Salem MSA by adding the Thomasville–Lexington micropolitan statistical area. The official 2010 Census population for the redefined Winston-Salem, North Carolina MSA was 640,595; according to 2012 Census estimates, the population was 647,697. The Greensboro – Winston-Salem – High Point combined statistical area (CSA), popularly referred to as the Piedmont Triad, had a population of 1,611,243 according to 2012 Census estimates.

History[edit]

The Old Salem district (1766) and related Historic Bethabara (1753) and Bethania (1759) sites are the city's oldest historical attractions. Also of historical interest is Reynolda Village (which includes Reynolda Gardens and the Reynolda House Museum of American Art). Other sites of interest include the Horne Creek Historic Farm, Tanglewood Park, the SciWorks educational facility, and SECCA, the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art. The city's major sports and entertainment venues are organized in a group known as the Winston-Salem Entertainment-Sports Complex.

The Winston-Salem metropolitan area (MSA) has an estimated population of 468,124 according to the 2008 estimate by the U.S. Census Bureau. As of 2008, the combined statistical area (CSA) of Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point, the Piedmont Triad, has a population of 1,603,101, making it the 30th-largest metropolitan area in the USA.[6]

In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS Money Watch.[7]

Salem[edit]

The origin of the town of Salem dates to January 1753, when Bishop August Gottlieb Spangenberg, on behalf of the Moravian Church, selected a settlement site in the three forks of Muddy Creek. He called this area "die Wachau" (Latin form: Wachovia) named after the ancestral estate of Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. The land, just short of 99,000 acres (400 km2), was subsequently purchased from John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville.

On November 17, 1753, the first settlers arrived at what would later become the town of Bethabara. This town, despite its rapid growth, was not designed to be the primary settlement on the tract. Some residents expanded to a nearby settlement called Bethania in 1759. Finally, lots were drawn to select among suitable sites for the location of a new town.

The town established on the chosen site was given the name of Salem (from the Hebrew Shalom for "peace") chosen for it by the Moravians' late patron, Count Zinzendorf. On January 6, 1766, the first tree was felled for the building of Salem. Salem was a typical Moravian settlement congregation with the public buildings of the congregation grouped around a central square, today Salem Square. These included the church, a Brethren's House and a Sisters' House for the unmarried members of the Congregation, which owned all the property in town. For many years only members of the Moravian Church were permitted to live in the settlement. This practice had ended by the American Civil War. Many of the original buildings in the settlement have been restored or rebuilt and are now part of Old Salem Museums & Gardens.[8]

Salem was incorporated as a town in December, 1856.[9] Salem Square and "God's Acre", the Moravian Graveyard, since 1772 are the site each Easter morning of the world-famous Moravian sunrise service. This service, sponsored by all the Moravian church parishes in the City, attracts thousands of worshipers each year and has earned the name of "the Easter City" for Winston-Salem.[citation needed]

Winston[edit]

In 1849, the Salem congregation sold land north of Salem to the newly formed Forsyth County for a county seat. The new town was called "the county town" or Salem until 1852 when it was named Winston for a local hero of the Revolutionary War, Joseph Winston. For its first two decades, Winston was a sleepy county town. In 1868, work began by Salem and Winston business leaders to connect the town to the North Carolina Railroad.[10] That same year, Thomas Jethro Brown of Davie County rented a former livery stable and established the first tobacco warehouse in Winston. That same year, Pleasant Henderson Hanes, also of Davie, built his first tobacco factory a few feet from Brown's warehouse. In 1875, Richard Joshua Reynolds, of Patrick County, Virginia, built his first tobacco factory a few hundred feet from Hanes's factory. By the 1880s, there were almost 40 tobacco factories in the town of Winston. Hanes and Reynolds would compete fiercely for the next 25 years, each absorbing a number of the smaller manufacturers, until Hanes sold out to Reynolds in 1900 to begin a second career in textiles.

C. E. Bennett's Bottling Works in Salem

Winston-Salem[edit]

In the 1880s, the US Post Office began referring to the two towns as Winston-Salem. In 1899, after nearly a decade of contention, the United States Post Office Department established the Winston-Salem post office in Winston, with the former Salem office serving as a branch. After a referendum the towns were officially incorporated as "Winston-Salem" in 1913. The USPS Address Information System (AIS) does not recognize the hyphen.[11]

The Reynolds family, namesake of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, played a large role in the history and public life of Winston-Salem. By the 1940s, 60% of Winston-Salem workers worked either for Reynolds or in the Hanes textile factories.[12] The Reynolds company imported so much French cigarette paper and Turkish tobacco for Camel cigarettes that Winston-Salem was designated by the United States federal government as an official port of entry for the United States, despite the city being 200 miles (320 km) inland.[12] Winston-Salem was the eighth-largest port of entry in the United States by 1916.[12]

In 1917, the company bought 84 acres (340,000 m2) of property in Winston-Salem and built 180 houses that it sold at cost to workers, to form a development called "Reynoldstown."[12] By the time R.J. Reynolds died in 1918, his company owned 121 buildings in Winston-Salem.

In 1929, the Reynolds Building was completed in Winston-Salem. Designed by William F. Lamb from the architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, the Reynolds Building is a 314 ft (96m) skyscraper that has 21 floors. When completed as the headquarters of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, it was the tallest building in the United States south of Baltimore, Maryland, and it was named the best building of the year by the American Institute of Architects. The building is well known for being the predecessor and prototype for the much larger Empire State Building that was built in 1931 in New York City. Every year the staff of the Empire State Building sends a Father's Day card to the staff at the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem to pay homage to its role as predecessor to the Empire State Building.

Notable early businesses[edit]

The Winston-Tower, formerly the Wachovia Building

Geography and climate[edit]

Winston-Salem is in northwest Piedmont area of North Carolina. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 132.4 square miles (343 km2), of which, 129.6 square miles (336 km2) of it is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2) of it (0.81%) is water.

Surrounding areas[edit]

Some minor outlying areas and surrounding municipalities are:

Some nearby major cities are:

Climate[edit]

The city of Winston-Salem has a humid subtropical climate characterized by cool, sometimes moderately cold winters, and hot, humid summers. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfa.[13] The average high temperatures range from 51 °F (11 °C) in the winter to around 89 °F (32 °C) in the summer. The average low temperatures range from 28 °F (−2 °C) in the winter to around 67 °F (19 °C) in the summer.[14]

Climate data for Winston-Salem, North Carolina
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)79
(26)
83
(28)
91
(33)
93
(34)
101
(38)
104
(40)
104
(40)
104
(40)
102
(39)
96
(36)
84
(29)
79
(26)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C)49.5
(9.7)
52.0
(11.1)
60.6
(15.9)
69.9
(21.1)
78.8
(26)
85.8
(29.9)
87.8
(31)
86.2
(30.1)
81.3
(27.4)
71.8
(22.1)
60.1
(15.6)
50.3
(10.2)
69.5
(20.8)
Daily mean °F (°C)39.1
(3.9)
41.2
(5.1)
49.0
(9.4)
57.7
(14.3)
66.8
(19.3)
74.7
(23.7)
77.3
(25.2)
76.0
(24.4)
70.4
(21.3)
59.5
(15.3)
48.1
(8.9)
39.9
(4.4)
58.31
(14.6)
Average low °F (°C)28.8
(−1.8)
30.3
(−0.9)
37.5
(3.1)
45.7
(7.6)
54.9
(12.7)
63.6
(17.6)
66.8
(19.3)
65.7
(18.7)
59.5
(15.3)
47.1
(8.4)
36.2
(2.3)
29.5
(−1.4)
47.1
(8.4)
Record low °F (°C)−10
(−23)
−1
(−18)
12
(−11)
21
(−6)
22
(−6)
40
(4)
43
(6)
47
(8)
36
(2)
21
(−6)
7
(−14)
−3
(−19)
−10
(−23)
Precipitation inches (mm)3.30
(83.8)
3.38
(85.9)
3.82
(97)
3.45
(87.6)
3.92
(99.6)
3.83
(97.3)
4.70
(119.4)
4.46
(113.3)
3.38
(85.9)
3.01
(76.5)
2.63
(66.8)
3.51
(89.2)
43.4
(1,102.4)
Snowfall inches (cm)3.0
(7.6)
2.5
(6.4)
1.6
(4.1)
0.3
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.5)
1.7
(4.3)
9.3
(23.6)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)9910910911107679106
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center (normals and extremes 1899–present)[15]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1870443
18804,194846.7%
189010,729155.8%
190013,65027.2%
191022,70066.3%
192048,395113.2%
193075,27455.5%
194079,8156.0%
195087,88110.1%
1960111,13526.5%
1970133,68320.3%
1980131,885−1.3%
1990143,4858.8%
2000185,77629.5%
2010229,61723.6%
Est. 2012234,3492.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[16]
2012 Estimate[17]

Winston-Salem's population grew by 23.6% from 2000 to 2010,[18] making it the fourth largest city in North Carolina. As of the census of 2010,[19] the population is 229,617, with 90,245 households and a population density of 1,733.6 people per square mile.

Winston-Salem is 53.0% female, and 27.8% of its firms are owned by women. The median age is 35 years. 24.6% of the population is under 18 years old, and 12.5% of the population is 65 years or older.[18]

The racial composition of the city in 2010 was 51.2% White, 34.7% Black or African American, 2% Asian American, 0.1% Native American, 0.08% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific native alone,[18] and 2.4% two or more races. In addition, 14.7% was Hispanic or Latino, of any race.

38.4% are married couples living together, 17.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% are non-families. 33.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.38 and the average family size is 3.06.[18]

The median income for a household in the city is $41,228, and the median income for a family is $53,222. The mean income for a household in the city is $60,637, and the mean income for a family is $74,938. Males have a median income of $41,064 versus $33,683 for females. The per capita income for the city is $24,728. 20.6% of the population and 15.7% of all families are below the poverty line. 26.2% of Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.2% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.[20]

Economy[edit]

It is the location of the corporate headquarters of BB&T (Branch Banking and Trust Company), HanesBrands, Inc., Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc., Lowes Foods Stores, ISP Sports, Reynolds American (parent of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company), Reynolda Manufacturing Solutions, Southern Community Bank,[citation needed] K&W Cafeterias,[21][22] and TW Garner Food Company (makers of Texas Pete).[citation needed] Wachovia Corporation was based in Winston-Salem until it merged with First Union Corporation in September 2001; the corporate headquarters of the combined company was located in Charlotte, until it was purchased by Wells Fargo in December 2008. PepsiCo has its Customer Service Center located in Winston-Salem.

Although traditionally associated with the textile and tobacco industries, Winston-Salem is transforming itself to be a leader in the nanotech, high-tech and bio-tech fields. Medical research is a fast-growing local industry, and Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center is the largest employer in Winston-Salem. Blue Rhino, the nation's largest propane exchange company and a division of Ferrellgas, is also headquartered in Winston-Salem. In December 2004, the city landed a deal with Dell, Inc. providing millions of dollars in incentives to build a computer assembly plant nearby in southeastern Forsyth County. However Dell closed its Winston-Salem facility in January 2010 due to the poor economy. A portion of downtown Winston-Salem has been designated as the Piedmont Triad Research Park for biomedical and information technology research and development. Currently, the research park is undergoing an expansion, with hopes of jump-starting the city's economy.[citation needed]

Largest employers[edit]

According to the Winston-Salem Business Inc.'s 2010–2011 data report on major employers,[23] the ten largest employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center12,837
2Novant Health8,145
3Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools6,692
4City/County Government4,689
5Reynolds American, Inc.3,000
6Wells Fargo2,800
7Hanesbrands Inc.2,251
8BB&T2,200
9Wake Forest University1,680
10Lowe's Foods1,500

Major industries[edit]

According to the Winston-Salem Business Inc.'s 2010–2011 data report on major industries,[24] the major industries in the city are by percentage:

#Employment by Sector % Percentage
1Health Care and Social Assistance17%
2Manufacturing12%
3Retail Trade11%
4Educational Services10%
5Accommodations and Food Service8%
5Local Government8%
7Administrative and Waste Services7%
8Finance and Insurance6%
9Transportation and Warehousing4%
9Construction4%
9Professional and Technical Services4%
9Public Administration4%
13Wholesale Trade3%
14Management of Companies and Enterprises2%

Attractions[edit]

Museums[edit]

Museums are an important portion of Winston-Salem's heritage. Most famous of Winston-Salem's museums is Old Salem, a living history museum centered on the main Moravian settlement founded in 1766. Along with the original 18th century buildings, Old Salem is also home to the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA), a gallery of 18th and 19th century furniture, ceramics, and textiles.

The Reynolda House Museum of American Art (built by the founder of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and now affiliated with Wake Forest University) is another of Winston-Salem's premier museums.

The Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA) is a nationally known art center.

The Wake Forest University Museum of Anthropology is an anthropological museum, maintained by Wake Forest University, that has many artifacts and other pieces of history.

The city also offers places oriented for children.

SciWorks is an interactive museum for children, teaching basics in all areas of science, and offering experiments and educational tours.

The Children's Museum of Winston-Salem offers engaging exhibits and programs designed to develop creative thinking, strengthen language skills, and encourage curiosity for children ages birth to eight.

Art[edit]

Winston-Salem is often referred to[by whom?] as the "City of the Arts", partly because of it created the first arts council in the United States, founded in 1949, and because of the local art schools and attractions. These include the University of North Carolina School of the Arts, Twin City Stage, Winston-Salem Theatre Alliance, the Piedmont Opera Theater, the Winston-Salem Symphony, the Stevens Center for the Performing Arts, and the Sawtooth Center for Visual Arts.

There are many galleries and workshops in the city's art district centered at Sixth and Trade streets.

The city plays host to the National Black Theatre Festival, the RiverRun International Film Festival and the Reynolda Film Festival.

Winston-Salem is also the home of the Art-o-mat and houses nine of them throughout the city.

The city is also home to Carolina Music Ways, a grassroots arts organization focussing on the area's diverse, interconnected music traditions, including bluegrass, blues, jazz, gospel, old-time stringband, and Moravian music.

Once a year the city is also the home of the Heavy Rebel Weekender music festival, featuring over 70 bands, primarily rockabilly, punk and honky tonk, over three days.

Gardens[edit]

Reynolda Gardens is a 4-acre (16,000 m2) formal garden set within a larger woodland site, originally part of the R. J. Reynolds country estate.

Shopping[edit]

Winston-Salem is home to Hanes Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in North Carolina. The area surrounding the mall along Stratford Road and Hanes Mall Boulevard has become the city's largest shopping district. Other shopping areas exist in the city, including Thruway Shopping Center, Hanes Point Shopping Center, Hanes Commons, Pavilions, Stone's Throw Plaza, Silas Creek Crossing, and the Marketplace Mall.

Movies filmed in Winston-Salem[edit]

Sports[edit]

Winston-Salem provides a number of athletic attractions.

The Dash is a Class A Minor-League baseball team currently affiliated with the Chicago White Sox. After 52 years at historic Ernie Shore Field, the Dash now plays its home games at the new BB&T Ballpark, which opened in 2010. Previous names for the team include the Winston-Salem Cardinals, Twins, Red Sox, Spirits and, most recently, the Winston-Salem Warthogs.[31] Its players have included Vinegar Bend Mizell, Earl Weaver, Bobby Tiefenauer, Harvey Haddix, Stu Miller, Ray Jablonski, Don Blasingame, Gene Oliver, Rico Petrocelli, Jim Lonborg, George Scott, Sparky Lyle, Bill "Spaceman" Lee, Dwight Evans, Cecil Cooper, Butch Hobson, Wade Boggs, Carlos Lee, Joe Crede, Jon Garland, and Aaron Rowand, all of whom have played extensively at the major league level.

Wake Forest University is an original member of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). Wake Forest's football team plays its games at BB&T Field (formerly Groves Stadium), which seats 32,500. Also Wake Forest's soccer program made four consecutive final four appearances (2006–2009) and were NCAA champions in 2007. Their women's field hockey team won three consecutive national championships between 2002 and 2004.

The Lawrence Joel Veterans' Memorial Coliseum is home to Wake Forest and some Winston-Salem State basketball games.

NASCAR Dodge Weekly Series racing takes place from March until August at city-owned Bowman Gray Stadium. It is NASCARs longest running racing series, dating to the 1940s. In the fall, the stadium is used for Winston-Salem State Rams football games.

Winston-Salem offers a variety of community and children's sports programs and has an active YMCA presence. Several community pools are available for membership.

Winston-Salem hosts an ATP tennis tournament every year.

Education[edit]

Public[edit]

Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools has most of its schools inside Winston-Salem. WS/FC Schools include 51 elementary schools, 25 middle schools and 13 high schools.

Private[edit]

Private and parochial schools also make up a significant portion of Winston-Salem's educational establishment.

Post-secondary institutions[edit]

Winston-Salem also has a number of colleges and universities, including:

Media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

The Winston-Salem Journal is the main daily newspaper in Winston-Salem. Yes! Weekly is a free weekly paper covering news, opinion, arts, entertainment, music, movies and food. The Winston-Salem Chronicle is a weekly newspaper that focuses on the African-American community.[33]

Radio stations[edit]

These radio stations are located in Winston-Salem, and are listed by call letters, station number, and name. Many more radio stations can be picked up in Winston-Salem that are not located in Winston-Salem.

Television stations[edit]

Winston-Salem makes up part of the Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point television designated market area. These stations are listed by call letters, channel number, network and city of license.

Cable-Only

Transportation[edit]

Public transportation[edit]

The Winston-Salem Transit Authority (WSTA) has the responsibility of providing public transportation. It took over from the Safe Bus Company, founded in the 1920s as the largest black owned transportation company in the United States, in 1972. Operating out of the Clark Campbell Transportation Center at 100 West Fifth Street, WSTA has 26 daily routes, which run between 5:30am and 12:00 midnight Monday through Friday and from 6:30am through 6:30pm on Saturday. WSTA makes nearly 3 million passenger trips annually. In February 2010 WSTA added 10 diesel-electric buses to its fleet.

The Piedmont Authority for Regional Transportation (PART) operates a daily schedule from the Campbell center connecting Winston-Salem to Boone, Mt. Airy and Greensboro, where other systems provide in-state routes to points east.

Greyhound lines also provides interstate transportation from the Campbell Center.

Thoroughfares[edit]

Business Interstate 40 at the US 52 interchange in downtown Winston-Salem.

US 52 (which runs concurrent with NC 8) is the predominant north-south freeway through Winston-Salem; it passes near the heart of downtown. Business 40 is the main east-west freeway through downtown Winston-Salem. In 1993 a bypass loop of I-40 was built. I-74 links Winston-Salem to High Point (southeast) and US 311 follows I-40 and US 52 through the Winston-Salem business district. US 421, which shares Business 40 through downtown, splits in the western part of the city onto its own freeway west (signed north) toward Wilkesboro, North Carolina and Boone, North Carolina.

US 421 highway near Winston-Salem.

The Winston-Salem Northern Beltway is a proposed freeway that will loop around the city to the north, providing a route for the Future I-74 on the eastern section and the Future Auxiliary Route I-274 on the western section. The NCDOT plans for this project to begin after 2010.

By 2014, US 52 south of I-40 will be signed as Spur Route I-285. The Winston-Salem Department of Transportation also plans for the US 311 freeway to be extended north along the east side of the city to Business I-40 by 2030, according to the Long Range Plan.

Major thoroughfares in Winston-Salem include NC 67 (Silas Creek Parkway & Reynolda Road), NC 150 (Peters Creek Parkway), US 158 (Stratford Road), University Parkway, Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, North Point Boulevard, and Hanes Mall Boulevard.

The Winston-Salem Civil Air Patrol Composite Squadron patch

Aviation[edit]

Winston-Salem is served by Greensboro's Piedmont Triad International Airport. The airport also serves much of the surrounding Piedmont Triad area, including High Point, North Carolina.

A smaller airport, known as Smith Reynolds Airport, is located within the city limits, just northeast of downtown. It is mainly used for general aviation and charter flights. Every year, Smith Reynolds Airport hosts an air show for the general public. The Smith Reynolds Airport is home to the Winston-Salem Civil Air Patrol Composite Squadron, also known as NC-082. The Civil Air Patrol is a non-profit volunteer organization.

Rail[edit]

Amtrak runs a thruway motorcoach, twice daily in each direction, between Winston-Salem and the Amtrak station in nearby High Point. Buses depart from the Winston-Salem Transportation Center, then stop on the university campus before traveling to High Point. From the High Point station, riders can board the Crescent line or the Carolinian and Piedmont lines. These lines run directly to local North Carolina destinations as well as cities across the Southeast, as far west as New Orleans and as far north as New York City.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Winston-Salem has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: [36][37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ the City of Winston-Salem, Mayor of. "City of Winston-Salem, NC :: Meet the Mayor". Winston-Salem, City of. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  2. ^ City of Winston-Salem – 2007 City Questions State Population Estimate
  3. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  4. ^ Kyff, Rob (November 10, 1993). "What Do You Call Folks Who Live Here?". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved July 14, 2012. 
  5. ^ Young, Wesley (June 28, 2012). "Durham replaces Winston-Salem as NC's fourth-largest city". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  6. ^ Source: US Bureau of the Census, Estimates of the Population, Table CBSA-EST2007-02
  7. ^ The 10 Best Places to Retire
  8. ^ Shirley, Michael (1997). From Congregation Town to Industrial City. NYU Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8147-8086-2. 
  9. ^ Michael and Martha Hartley. Town of Salem Survey. 1999. Prepared for NC Division of Archives and History.
  10. ^ Hartley. 1999.
  11. ^ USPS Pub 28, section 354, Special Characters. 
  12. ^ a b c d Tursi, Frank (1994). Winston-Salem: A History. John F. Blair, publisher. pp. 110–11, 183. ISBN 978-0-89587-115-2. 
  13. ^ Climate Summary for Winston-Salem, North Carolina
  14. ^ "Average Weather for Winston-Salem, NC – Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. July 27, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  15. ^ "General Climate Summary Tables – Winston Salem Reynol, North Carolina". Southeast Regional Climate Center. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  16. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c d http://factfinder2.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_DP/DPDP1/1600000US3775000
  19. ^ "Winston-Salem (city), North Carolina". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  20. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/11_5YR/DP03/1600000US3775000
  21. ^ "Group Sales." K&W Cafeterias. Retrieved on January 31, 2012. "K&W Corporate Office P.O. Box 25048 Winston-Salem, NC 27114-5048"
  22. ^ Daniel, Fran (January 15, 2012). "K&W turns 75". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved January 15, 2012.  – "Headquarters: 1391 Plaza West Road, off Healy Drive in Winston-Salem"
  23. ^ "Leading Employers" (PDF). Retrieved September 2011. 
  24. ^ "Major Industries" (URL). Retrieved September 2011. 
  25. ^ SciWorks, The Science Center and Environmental Park of Forsyth County
  26. ^ Mesda – Welcome — MESDA
  27. ^ Bethabara Park – Winston-Salem – Reviews of Bethabara Park – TripAdvisor
  28. ^ Old Salem Museums and Gardens | Home
  29. ^ Reynolda House
  30. ^ Children's Museum of Winston-Salem – Winston-Salem – Reviews of Children's Museum of Winston-Salem – TripAdvisor
  31. ^ Outfield Gets Grass At Future Home Of 'Dash' | digtriad.com
  32. ^ Living Arts Institute, 2012-08-15
  33. ^ "About Us". The Winston-Salem Chronicle. Retrieved September 18, 2012. 
  34. ^ Wake Radio
  35. ^ Hall, Melissa (December 8, 2012). "Rusty Mills, film animator, dies at 49". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  36. ^ Sister Cities Winston-Salem. City of Winston-Salem.
  37. ^ Winston-Salem, NC. Interactive City Directory. Sister Cities International, Inc.

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