Wind turbine

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A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind, also called wind energy, into mechanical energy; a process known as wind power. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity, the device may be called wind turbine or wind power plant. If the mechanical energy is used to drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or pumping water, the device is called a windmill or wind pump. Similarly, it may be called wind charger when it is used to charge batteries.

The result of over a millennium of windmill development and modern engineering, today's wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis types. The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging or auxiliary power on boats; while large grid-connected arrays of turbines are becoming an increasingly important source of wind power-produced commercial electricity.

Contents

History

James Blyth's electricity-generating wind turbine, photographed in 1891

Windmills were used in Persia (present-day Iran) as early as 200 B.C.[1] The windwheel of Heron of Alexandria marks one of the first known instances of wind powering a machine in history.[2][3] However, the first known practical windmills were built in Sistan, a region between Afghanistan and Iran, from the 7th century. These "Panemone" were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangular blades.[4] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.[5]

Windmills first appeared in Europe during the middle ages. The first historical records of their use in England date to the 11th or 12th centuries and there are reports of German crusaders taking their windmill-making skills to Syria around 1190.[6] By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine delta.

The first electricity-generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland.[7] Some months later American inventor Charles F Brush built the first automatically operated wind turbine for electricity production in Cleveland, Ohio.[7] Although Blyth's turbine was considered uneconomical in the United Kingdom[7] electricity generation by wind turbines was more cost effective in countries with widely scattered populations.[6]

The first automatically operated wind turbine, built in Cleveland in 1887 by Charles F. Brush. It was 60 feet (18 m) tall, weighed 4 tons (3.6 metric tonnes) and powered a 12 kW generator.[8]

In Denmark by 1900, there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW. The largest machines were on 24-metre (79 ft) towers with four-bladed 23-metre (75 ft) diameter rotors. By 1908 there were 72 wind-driven electric generators operating in the US from 5 kW to 25 kW. Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year, mostly for water-pumping.[9] By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms, mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, and the generators were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers.

A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30-metre (98 ft) tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 per cent, not much different from current wind machines.[10] In the fall of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont. The Smith-Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1,100 hours before suffering a critical failure. The unit was not repaired because of shortage of materials during the war.

The first utility grid-connected wind turbine to operate in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1951 in the Orkney Islands.[7][11]

As of 2012, Danish company Vestas is the world's biggest wind-turbine manufacturer.

Resources

A quantitative measure of the wind energy available at any location is called the Wind Power Density (WPD) It is a calculation of the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, and is tabulated for different heights above ground. Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of wind velocity and air density. Color-coded maps are prepared for a particular area described, for example, as "Mean Annual Power Density at 50 Metres". In the United States, the results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and referred to as "NREL CLASS". The larger the WPD calculation, the higher it is rated by class. Classes range from Class 1 (200 watts per square metre or less at 50 m altitude) to Class 7 (800 to 2000 watts per square m). Commercial wind farms generally are sited in Class 3 or higher areas, although isolated points in an otherwise Class 1 area may be practical to exploit.[12]

Efficiency

Theoretical power captured by a wind turbine

Total wind power could be captured only if the wind velocity is reduced to zero. In a realistic wind turbine this is impossible, as the captured air must also leave the turbine. A relation between the input and output wind velocity must be considered. Using the concept of stream tube, the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine is 59% of the total theoretical wind power[13] (see: Betz' law).

Practical wind turbine power

Further insufficiencies, such as rotor blade friction and drag, gearbox losses, generator and converter losses, reduce the power delivered by a wind turbine. The basic relation that the turbine power is (approximately) proportional to the third power of velocity remains.

Example of a horizontal axis machine Wind Turbine

Types

The three primary types:VAWT Savonius, HAWT towered; VAWT Darrieus as they appear in operation

Wind turbines can rotate about either a horizontal or a vertical axis, the former being both older and more common.[14]

Horizontal axis

Components of a horizontal axis wind turbine (gearbox, rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position
A turbine blade convoy passing through Edenfield, UK

Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator.[15]

Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually positioned upwind of its supporting tower. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted forward into the wind a small amount.

Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of turbulence (mast wake), because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in high winds the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. Since cyclical (that is repetitive) turbulence may lead to fatigue failures, most HAWTs are of upwind design.

Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually three-bladed and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. These have high tip speeds of over 320 km/h (200 mph), high efficiency, and low torque ripple, which contribute to good reliability. The blades are usually colored white for daytime visibility by aircraft and range in length from 20 to 40 metres (66 to 130 ft) or more. The tubular steel towers range from 60 to 90 metres (200 to 300 ft) tall. The blades rotate at 10 to 22 revolutions per minute. At 22 rotations per minute the tip speed exceeds 90 metres per second (300 ft/s).[16][17] A gear box is commonly used for stepping up the speed of the generator, although designs may also use direct drive of an annular generator. Some models operate at constant speed, but more energy can be collected by variable-speed turbines which use a solid-state power converter to interface to the transmission system. All turbines are equipped with protective features to avoid damage at high wind speeds, by feathering the blades into the wind which ceases their rotation, supplemented by brakes.

Vertical axis design

A vertical axis Twisted Savonius type turbine.

Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable, for example when integrated into buildings. The key disadvantages include the low rotational speed with the consequential higher torque and hence higher cost of the drive train, the inherently lower power coefficient, the 360 degree rotation of the aerofoil within the wind flow during each cycle and hence the highly dynamic loading on the blade, the pulsating torque generated by some rotor designs on the drive train, and the difficulty of modelling the wind flow accurately and hence the challenges of analysing and designing the rotor prior to fabricating a prototype.[18]

With a vertical axis, the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground, using a direct drive from the rotor assembly to the ground-based gearbox, hence improving accessibility for maintenance.

When a turbine is mounted on a rooftop, the building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. If the height of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building height, this is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence. It should be borne in mind that wind speeds within the built environment are generally much lower than at exposed rural sites,[19][20] noise may be a concern and an existing house may not adequately resist the additional stress.

Another type of vertical axis is the Parallel turbine similar to the crossflow fan or centrifugal fan it uses the ground effect. Vertical axis turbines of this type have been tried for many years: a large unit producing up to 10 kW was built by Israeli wind pioneer Bruce Brill in 1980s:[21] the device is mentioned in Dr. Moshe Dan Hirsch's 1990 report, which decided the Israeli energy department investments and support in the next 20 years.[citation needed] The Magenn WindKite blimp uses this configuration as well, chosen because of the ease of running.[22]

Subtypes of the vertical axis design include:

Darrieus wind turbine
"Eggbeater" turbines, or Darrieus turbines, were named after the French inventor, Georges Darrieus.[23] They have good efficiency, but produce large torque ripple and cyclical stress on the tower, which contributes to poor reliability. They also generally require some external power source, or an additional Savonius rotor to start turning, because the starting torque is very low. The torque ripple is reduced by using three or more blades which results in greater solidity of the rotor. Solidity is measured by blade area divided by the rotor area. Newer Darrieus type turbines are not held up by guy-wires but have an external superstructure connected to the top bearing.[24]
Giromill
A subtype of Darrieus turbine with straight, as opposed to curved, blades. The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and is self-starting.[25] The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque; a wide, relatively flat torque curve; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation in turbulent winds; and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. Straight, V, or curved blades may be used.[26]
Savonius wind turbine
These are drag-type devices with two (or more) scoops that are used in anemometers, Flettner vents (commonly seen on bus and van roofs), and in some high-reliability low-efficiency power turbines. They are always self-starting if there are at least three scoops.
Twisted Savonius
Twisted Savonius is a modified savonius, with long helical scoops to provide smooth torque. This is often used as a rooftop windturbine and has even been adapted for ships.[27]

Design and construction

Components of a horizontal-axis wind turbine
Size comparison of a five year old child with an Enercon E-70 wind turbine rotor hub.

Wind turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location. Aerodynamic modelling is used to determine the optimum tower height, control systems, number of blades and blade shape.

Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution. Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components:

A 1.5 MW wind turbine of a type frequently seen in the United States has a tower 80 metres (260 ft) high. The rotor assembly (blades and hub) weighs 48,000 pounds (22,000 kg). The nacelle, which contains the generator component, weighs 115,000 pounds (52,000 kg). The concrete base for the tower is constructed using 58,000 pounds (26,000 kg) of reinforcing steel and contains 250 cubic yards (190 m3) of concrete. The base is 50 ft (15 m) in diameter and 8 ft (2.4 m) thick near the center.[32]

Unconventional designs

The corkscrew shaped wind turbine at Progressive Field

One E-66 wind turbine at Windpark Holtriem, Germany, carries an observation deck, open for visitors. Another turbine of the same type, with an observation deck, is located in Swaffham, England. Airborne wind turbines have been investigated many times but have yet to produce significant energy. Conceptually, wind turbines may also be used in conjunction with a large vertical solar updraft tower to extract the energy due to air heated by the sun.

Wind turbines which utilise the Magnus effect have been developed.[33]

The ram air turbine is a specialist form of small turbine that is fitted to some aircraft. When deployed, the RAT is spun by the airstream going past the aircraft and can provide power for the most essential systems if there is a loss of all on–board electrical power.[citation needed]

Small wind turbines

A small Quietrevolution QR5 Gorlov type vertical axis wind turbine in Bristol, England. Measuring 3m in diameter and 5m high, it has a nameplate rating of 6.5kW to the grid.

Small wind turbines may be used for a variety of applications including on- or off-grid residences, telecom towers, offshore platforms, rural schools and clinics, remote monitoring and other purposes that require energy where there is no electric grid, or where the grid is unstable. Small wind turbines may be as small as a fifty-watt generator for boat or caravan use. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) defines small wind turbines as those smaller than or equal to 100 kilowatts.[34] Small units often have direct drive generators, direct current output, aeroelastic blades, lifetime bearings and use a vane to point into the wind.

Larger, more costly turbines generally have geared power trains, alternating current output, flaps and are actively pointed into the wind. Direct drive generators and aeroelastic blades for large wind turbines are being researched.

Wind turbine spacing

On most horizontal windturbine farms, a spacing of about 6-10 times the rotor diameter is often upheld. However, for large wind farms distances of about 15 rotor diameters should be more economically optimal, taking into account typical wind turbine and land costs. This conclusion has been reached by research[35] conducted by Charles Meneveau of the Johns Hopkins University,[36] and Johan Meyers of Leuven University in Belgium, based on computer simulations[37] that take into account the detailed interactions among wind turbines (wakes) as well as with the entire turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. Moreover, recent research by John Dabiri of Caltech suggests that vertical wind turbines may be placed much more closely together so long as an alternating pattern of rotation is created allowing blades of neighbouring turbines to move in the same direction as they approach one another.[38]

Accidents

Several cases occurred where the housings of wind turbines caught fire. As housings are normally out of the range of standard fire extinguishing equipment, it is nearly impossible to extinguish such fires on older turbine units which lack fire suppression systems. In several cases one or more blades were damaged or torn away.[39] In 2010 70 mph (110 km/h; 61 kn) storm winds damaged some blades, prompting blade removal and inspection of all 25 wind turbines in Campo Indian Reservation in the US State of California.[40] Several wind turbines also collapsed.

PlaceDateTypeNacelle heightRotor dia.Year builtReasonDamage and casualties
Ellenstedt, GermanyOctober 19, 2002[41]
Schneebergerhof, GermanyDecember 20, 2003Vestas V8080 m[41]
Wasco, Oregon, USAAugust 25, 2007SiemensHuman error: turbine restarted while blades were locked in maximum wind-resistance mode[42]1 worker killed, 1 injured
Stobart Mill, UKDecember 30, 2007Vestas1982[43]
Hornslet, DenmarkFebruary 22, 2008Nordtank NKT 600-18044.5 m43 m1996Brake failure[44][45]
Searsburg, Vermont, USAOctober 16, 2008Zond Z-P40-FS1997Rotor blade collided with tower during strong wind and destroyed it[46]
Altona, New York, USAMarch 6, 2009Lightning likely [47]
Fenner, New York, USADecember 27, 2009[48]
Kirtorf, GermanyJune 19, 2011DeWind D-668.5 m62 m2001
Ayrshire, ScotlandDecember 8, 2011[49]

Records

Fuhrländer Wind Turbine Laasow, the world's tallest wind turbine
Largest capacity
The Enercon E-126 has a rated capacity of 7.58 MW,[50] has an overall height of 198 m (650 ft), a diameter of 126 m (413 ft), and is the world's largest-capacity wind turbine since its introduction in 2007.[51] At least five companies are working on the development of a 10MW turbine.
Largest swept area
The turbine with the largest swept area is the Siemens SWT-6.0-154, with a diameter of 154 m, giving a total sweep of 18,600 m2[52][53]
Tallest
The tallest wind turbine is Fuhrländer Wind Turbine Laasow. Its axis is 160 meters above ground and its rotor tips can reach a height of 205 meters. It is the only wind turbine in the world taller than 200 meters.[54]
Largest vertical-axis
Le Nordais wind farm in Cap-Chat, Quebec has a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) named Éole, which is the world's largest at 110 m.[55] It has a nameplate capacity of 3.8MW.[56]
Most southerly
The turbines currently operating closest to the South Pole are three Enercon E-33 in Antarctica, powering New Zealand's Scott Base and the United States' McMurdo Station since December 2009[57][58] although a modified HR3 turbine from Northern Power Systems operated at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 1997 and 1998.[59] In March 2010 CITEDEF designed, built and installed a wind turbine in Argentine Marambio Base.[60]
Most productive
Four turbines at Rønland wind farm in Denmark share the record for the most productive wind turbines, with each having generated 63.2 GWh by June 2010[61]
Highest-situated
The world's highest-situated wind turbine is made by DeWind installed by the Seawind Group and located in the Andes, Argentina around 4,100 metres (13,500 ft) above sea level. The site uses a type D8.2 - 2000 kW / 50 Hz turbine. This turbine has a new drive train concept with a special torque converter (WinDrive) made by Voith and a synchronous generator. The WKA was put into operation in December 2007 and has supplied the Veladero mine of Barrick Gold with electricity since then.[62]
Largest floating wind turbine
The world's largest—and also the first operational deep-water large-capacityfloating wind turbine is the 2.3 MW Hywind currently operating 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) offshore in 220-meter-deep water, southwest of Karmøy, Norway. The turbine began operating in September 2009 and utilizes a Siemens 2.3 MW turbine[63][64]

Horizontal axis wind turbines

A list over the different models of wind turbines from the top 10 wind turbine manufacturers by annual market share (installed capacity):

MWNameManufactorMarked dateOffshoreSwept areaRotor diameterGeared
7.580 MWE-126Enercon2011-
7.0 MWV164-7.0 MWVestas2015 Q1x
6.0 MWSWT-6.0-154Siemens Windpower ?-
6.0 MWSL6000Sinovel ?x
5.0 MWSL5000Sinovel ?-
5.0 MWG128-5.0 MWGamesa ?x
4.5 MWG136-4.5 MWGamesa ?-
4.5 MWG128-4.5 MWGamesa ?-
3.6 MWSWT-3.6-120Siemens Windpower ?-
3.6 MWSWT-3.6-107Siemens Windpower ?-
3.05 MWE-101Enercon ?-
3.0 MWSWT-3.0-113Siemens Windpower ?-
3.0 MWSWT-3.0-108Siemens Windpower ?-
3.0 MWSWT-3.0-101Siemens Windpower ?-
3.0 MWV112-3.0 MWVestas ?-
3.0 MWV112-3.0 MW OffshoreVestas ?x
3.0 MWV90-3.0 MWVestas ?-
3.0 MWV90-3.0 MW OffshoreVestas ?x
3.0 MWE-82 E3Enercon ?-
3.0 MWSL3000Sinovel ?-
2.6 MWV100-2.6 MWVestas ?-
2.35 MWE-92Enercon ?-
2.3 MWE-82 E2Enercon ?-
2.3 MWE-70Enercon ?-
2.3 MWSWT-2.3-113Siemens Windpower ?-
2.3 MWSWT-2.3-108Siemens Windpower ?-
2.3 MWSWT-2.3-101Siemens Windpower ?-
2.3 MWSWT-2.3-93Siemens Windpower ?-
2.3 MWSWT-2.3-82Siemens Windpower ?-
2.25 MWS88 MARK II DFIG 2.25 MWSuzlon ?-
2.1 MWS9XSuzlon ?-
2.1 MWS88-2.1 MWSuzlon ?-
2.0 MWE-82 E2Enercon ?-
2.0 MWG114-2.0 MWGamesa ?-
2.0 MWG97-2.0 MWGamesa ?-
2.0 MWG90-2.0 MWGamesa ?-
2.0 MWG87-2.0 MWGamesa ?-
2.0 MWG80-2.0 MWGamesa ?-
1.8/2.0 MWV100-1.8/2.0 MWVestas ?-
1.8 MWV100-1.8 MWVestas ?-
1.8/2.0 MWV90-1.8/2.0 MWVestas ?-
2.0 MWV80-2.0 MWVestas ?-
1.5 MWS82-1.5 MWSuzlon ?-
1.5 MWSL1500Sinovel ?-
1.25 MWS66-1.25 MWSuzlon ?-
1.25 MWS64-1.25 MWSuzlon ?-
0.9 MWE-44Enercon ?-
0.85 MWG58-0.85 MWGamesa ?-
0.85 MWG52-0.85 MWGamesa ?-
0.8 MWE-53Enercon ?-
0.8 MWE-48Enercon ?-
0.6 MWS52-600KWSuzlon ?-

See also

References

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  62. ^ Voith | Voith Turbo
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Further reading

External links