William Westmoreland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

William Westmoreland
Birth nameWilliam Childs Westmoreland
NicknameWesty
Born(1914-03-26)March 26, 1914
Saxon, South Carolina
DiedJuly 18, 2005(2005-07-18) (aged 91)
Charleston, South Carolina
Place of burialWest Point Cemetery
AllegianceUnited States United States of America
Service/branch United States Army United States Army seal
Years of service1936 - 1972
RankUS-O10 insignia.svg General
Commands held

504th Parachute Infantry Regiment
187th Regimental Combat Team
101st Airborne Division
Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy
XVIII Airborne Corps
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam

Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Battles/warsWorld War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
AwardsDistinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg Legion of Merit (3)
Bronze Star ribbon.svg Bronze Star (2)
Air Medal ribbon.svg Air Medal (10)
 
Jump to: navigation, search
William Westmoreland
Birth nameWilliam Childs Westmoreland
NicknameWesty
Born(1914-03-26)March 26, 1914
Saxon, South Carolina
DiedJuly 18, 2005(2005-07-18) (aged 91)
Charleston, South Carolina
Place of burialWest Point Cemetery
AllegianceUnited States United States of America
Service/branch United States Army United States Army seal
Years of service1936 - 1972
RankUS-O10 insignia.svg General
Commands held

504th Parachute Infantry Regiment
187th Regimental Combat Team
101st Airborne Division
Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy
XVIII Airborne Corps
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam

Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Battles/warsWorld War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
AwardsDistinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg Legion of Merit (3)
Bronze Star ribbon.svg Bronze Star (2)
Air Medal ribbon.svg Air Medal (10)

William Childs Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was a United States Army General, who commanded US military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak (1964–68), during the Tet Offensive. He adopted a strategy of attrition against the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam and the North Vietnamese Army. He later served as U.S. Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972.

Contents

Early life

William Westmoreland was born in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, to Eugenia Talley Childs and James Ripley Westmoreland. His upper-middle-class family was involved in the local banking and textile industries. William was an Eagle Scout at Troop 1 Boy Scouts and became an Eagle Scout at the age of 15, and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo from the Boy Scouts of America as a young adult. After spending a year at The Citadel in 1932 he was appointed to attend the West Point Military Academy. His motive for entering West Point was "to see the world." He was a member of a distinguished West Point class that also included Creighton Abrams and Benjamin O. Davis Jr.. Westmoreland graduated as first captain - the highest graduating rank - and received the Pershing Sword, which is given to the most able cadet at the academy.[1][2] Westmoreland also served as the Superintendent of the Protestant Sunday School Teachers.[3] Following graduation in 1936, he became an artillery officer and served in several different commands. In World War II he saw combat in Tunisia, Sicily, France and Germany. He reached the temporary wartime rank of colonel, and on October 13, 1944, was appointed the chief of staff of the 9th Infantry Division.[4]

Westmoreland established a balanced reputation as a stern taskmaster who cared about his men and took a great interest in their welfare. One called him "the most caring officer, for soldiers, that I have ever known".[citation needed] After the war he completed a three month management program at Harvard Business School. As Stanley Karnow noted, "Westy was a corporation executive in uniform."[5]

Vietnam

General Westmoreland, President Lyndon B. Johnson and president of South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu in October 1966.
General Westmoreland with Lyndon B. Johnson decorating a soldier in Vietnam, October 1966.
General Westmoreland with Lyndon B. Johnson in the White House, November 1967.
Press conference outside the White House in April 1968.

In June 1964, he became deputy commander of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), assuming direct control from General Paul D. Harkins. As the head of the MACV he was known for highly publicized, positive assessments of US military prospects in Vietnam. However, as time went on, the strengthening of communist combat forces in the South led to regular requests for increases in US troop strength, from 16,000 when he arrived to its peak of 535,000 in 1968 when he was promoted to Army Chief of Staff.

On April 28, 1967, Westmoreland addressed a joint session of Congress. "In evaluating the enemy strategy," he said, "It is evident to me that he believes our Achilles heel is our resolve ... Your continued strong support is vital to the success of our mission ... Backed at home by resolve, confidence, patience, determination and continued support, we will prevail in Vietnam over the Communist aggressor!"

The 29-minute speech was interrupted nineteen times by applause, but congressional and popular support for the war thereafter continued to decline.

Westmoreland claimed that under his leadership, United States forces "won every battle."[6] The turning point of the war was the 1968 Tet Offensive, in which communist forces, having staged a diversion at the Battle of Khe Sanh, attacked cities and towns throughout South Vietnam. US and South Vietnamese troops successfully fought off the attacks, and the communist forces took heavy losses, but the ferocity of the assault shook public confidence in Westmoreland's previous assurances about the state of the war. Political debate and public opinion led the Johnson administration to limit further increases in US troop numbers in Vietnam. When news of the My Lai Massacre broke, Westmoreland resisted pressure from the Nixon administration for a cover-up,[citation needed] and pressed for a full and impartial investigation by Lieutenant General William R. Peers. Westmoreland also made efforts to investigate the Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat massacre.[7]

Westmoreland was convinced that the Vietnamese communists could be destroyed by fighting a war of attrition that, theoretically, would render the Vietnam People's Army unable to fight. His war strategy was marked by heavy use of artillery and airpower and repeated attempts to engage the communists in large-unit battles, and thereby exploit the anti-communists' vastly superior firepower and technology. However, the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) were able to dictate the pace of attrition to fit their own goals: by continuing to fight a guerrilla war and avoiding large-unit battles, they denied the Americans the chance to fight the kind of war they were best at, and they ensured that attrition would wear down the American public's support for the war faster than them.[citation needed] Westmoreland repeatedly rebuffed or suppressed attempts by John Paul Vann and Lew Walt to shift to a "pacification" strategy[6] Westmoreland had little appreciation of the patience of the US public for his time frame, and was struggling to convince President Lyndon B. Johnson to approve widening the war into Cambodia and Laos in order to interdict the Ho Chi Minh Trail. He was unable to use the absolutist stance, "we can't win unless we expand the war" [into Cambodia and Laos]. Instead he focused on "positive indicators" which ultimately turned worthless when the Tet Offensive occurred, since all his pronouncements of "positive indicators" didn't hint at the possibility of such a last gasp dramatic event. Tet outmaneuvered all of Westmoreland's pronouncements on "positive indicators" in the minds of the American public.[citation needed] Although the communists were severely depleted by the heavy fighting at Khe Sanh when their conventional assaults were battered by American firepower, as well as tens of thousands of deaths in the Tet Offensive, American political opinion and the panic engendered by the communist surprise sapped US support for the war, even though the events of early 1968 put the US and South Vietnam into a much stronger military position.

Post-Vietnam

Westmoreland was replaced by General Creighton Abrams in June 1968, the decision being announced shortly after the Tet Offensive. Although the decision had been made in late 1967, it was widely seen in the media as a punishment for being caught off guard by the communist assault. Westmoreland served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1968 to 1972, then retired from the Army. Many military historians have pointed out that Westmoreland became Chief of Staff at the worst time in history with regard to the Army. Guiding the Army as it transitioned to an all-volunteer force, he issued many directives to try to make Army life better and more palatable for America's youth, e.g. allowing soldiers to wear sideburns and drink beer in the mess hall. However, many hard-liners scorned these as too liberal. Westmoreland ran unsuccessfully for Governor of South Carolina in 1974. He published his autobiography the following year. Westmoreland later served on a task force to improve educational standards in the state of South Carolina. He was mentioned in a Time magazine article as a potential candidate for the 1968 Republican nomination.[8]

In 1986, Westmoreland served as Grand Marshall of the Chicago Vietnam Veteran's parade. The parade, attended by 200,000 Vietnam veterans and more than half a million spectators, did much to repair the rift between Vietnam veterans and the American public.[9][10]

Westmoreland v. CBS: The Uncounted Enemy

Mike Wallace interviewed Westmoreland for the CBS special The Uncounted Enemy: A Vietnam Deception. The documentary, shown on January 23, 1982, and prepared largely by CBS producer George Crile III, alleged that Westmoreland and others had deliberately underestimated Viet Cong troop strength during 1967 in order to maintain US troop morale and domestic support for the war. Westmoreland filed a lawsuit against CBS.

In Westmoreland v. CBS, Westmoreland sued Wallace and CBS for libel, and a lengthy legal process began. While the trial was in progress, Westmoreland suddenly settled with CBS for an apology, no more than CBS had originally offered. Some contend that Judge Leval's instructions to the jury over what constituted "actual malice" to prove libel convinced Westmoreland's lawyers that he was certain to lose.[11][12] Others point out that the settlement occurred after two of Westmoreland's former intelligence officers, Major General Joseph McChristian and Colonel Gains Hawkins, testified to the accuracy of the substantive allegations of the broadcast, which were that Westmoreland ordered changes in intelligence reports on Viet Cong troop strengths for political reasons. Disagreements persist about the appropriateness of some of the methods of CBS' editors.[13]

A deposition by McChristian indicates that his organization developed improved intelligence on the number of irregular Viet Cong combatants shortly before he left Vietnam on a regularly scheduled rotation. The numbers troubled Westmoreland, who feared that the press would not understand them. He did not order them changed, but instead did not include the information in reporting to Washington, which in his view was a decision that the data were not appropriate to report.

Based on later analysis of the information from all sides, it appears clear that Westmoreland could not sustain a libel suit because CBS's principal allegation was that he had caused intelligence officers to suppress facts. Westmoreland's anger was caused by the implication of the broadcast that his intent was fraudulent and that he ordered others to lie.

During the acrimonious trial, Mike Wallace was hospitalized for depression, and despite the legal conflict separating the two, Westmoreland and his wife sent him flowers. Wallace's memoir is generally sympathetic to Westmoreland, although he makes it clear he disagreed with him on issues surrounding the Vietnam War and the Nixon Administration's policies in Southeast Asia.

Views

Herbert Elmer Abrams' portrait of General Westmoreland

In a 1998 interview for George magazine, Westmoreland criticized the battlefield prowess of his opponent North Vietnamese General Vo Nguyen Giap. "Of course, he [Giap] was a formidable adversary," Westmoreland told correspondent W. Thomas Smith, Jr. "Let me also say that Giap was trained in small-unit, guerrilla tactics, but he persisted in waging a big-unit war with terrible losses to his own men. By his own admission, by early 1969, I think, he had lost, what, a half million soldiers? He reported this. Now such a disregard for human life may make a formidable adversary, but it does not make a military genius. An American commander losing men like that would hardly have lasted more than a few weeks."

In the 1974 film Hearts and Minds, Westmoreland opined that "The Oriental doesn't put the same high price on life as does a Westerner...We value life and human dignity. They don't care about life and human dignity."

For the remainder of his life, he maintained that the United States did not lose the war in Vietnam; he stated instead that "our country did not fulfill its commitment to South Vietnam. By virtue of Vietnam, the U.S. held the line for 10 years and stopped the dominoes from falling."

Personal life

While stationed at Fort Sill, he first met the daughter of the post Executive Officer, Katherine (Kitsy) Stevens Van Deusen, 9 years old at the time. They were married in 1947 and had three children: a daughter, Katherine Stevens; a son, James Ripley II; and another daughter, Margaret Childs.[14]

Just hours after Westmoreland was sworn in as Army Chief of Staff on July 7, 1968, his brother-in-law, LTC Frederick Van Deusen (Commander of 2nd Battalion, 47th Infantry Regiment), was killed when his helicopter was shot down in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam.[15]

Westmoreland died on July 18, 2005, at the age of 91 at the Bishop Gadsden retirement home in Charleston, South Carolina. He had suffered from Alzheimer's disease during the final years of his life. He was buried on July 23, 2005, at the West Point Cemetery, United States Military Academy.[16]

The General William C. Westmoreland Bridge in Charleston, South Carolina, is named in his honor.[17]

In 1996, the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution authorized the General William C. Westmoreland award. The award is given each year in recognition to an outstanding SAR Veterans Volunteer.[18]

Dates of rank

U.S. Military Academy COA.png United States Military Academy class of 1936

Second Lieutenant
(Regular Army)
First Lieutenant
(Regular Army)
Major
(Army of the United States)
Lieutenant Colonel
(Army of the United States)
Colonel
(Army of the United States)
O-1O-2O-4O-5O-6
Army-USA-OF-01b.svgArmy-USA-OF-01a.svgArmy-USA-OF-03.svgArmy-USA-OF-04.svgArmy-USA-OF-05.svg
June 1936June 1939February 1942
(temporary)
September 1942
(temporary)
June 1944
(temporary)


Captain
(Regular Army)
Major
(Regular Army)
Brigadier General
(Regular Army)
Lieutenant Colonel
(Regular Army)
Major General
(Regular Army)
O-3O-4O-7O-5O-8
Army-USA-OF-02.svgArmy-USA-OF-03.svgArmy-USA-OF-06.svgArmy-USA-OF-04.svgArmy-USA-OF-07.svg
June 1946July 1948November 1952
(temporary)
July 1953December 1956
(temporary)


Colonel
(Regular Army)
Brigadier General
(Regular Army)
Lieutenant General
(Regular Army)
General
(Regular Army)
General
(Regular Army)
O-6O-7O-9O-10O-10
Army-USA-OF-05.svgArmy-USA-OF-06.svgArmy-USA-OF-08.svgArmy-USA-OF-09.svgArmy-USA-OF-09.svg
June 1961February 1963July 1963August 1964
(temporary)
August 1965

Retired from active service in July 1972.[19]

Awards and decorations

General Westmoreland earned the following U.S. and foreign decorations and awards:

U.S. military decorations
Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg  Distinguished Service Medal with three Oak Leaf Clusters[20]
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg  Legion of Merit with two Oak Leaf Clusters
Bronze Star ribbon.svg  Bronze Star, with one Oak Leaf Cluster
Air Medal ribbon.svg  Air Medal, with nine Oak Leaf Clusters
American Defense Service ribbon.svg  American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg  American Campaign Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon.svg  EAME Campaign Medal with seven campaign stars
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg  World War II Victory Medal
Army of Occupation ribbon.svg  Army of Occupation Medal with Germany clasp
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg  National Defense Service Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster
KSMRib.svg  Korean Service Medal with two campaign stars
Vietnam Service Ribbon.svg  Vietnam Service Medal with seven service stars
Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.svg Presidential Unit Citation (34th Field Artillery Battalion, Tunisia, 1943)
Foreign decorations and awards
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg Légion d'honneur (France)
Croix de guerre 1939-1945 with palm.jpg Croix de guerre with Palm (France)
Taeguk Cordon Medal.png Order of Military Merit Taeguk (Korea)
Tong-il Security Medel Ribbon.png Order of National Security, First Class with Gold Star (Korea)
Gugseon Security Medal Ribbon.png Gugseon Medal (Korea)
PHL Order of Sikatuna - Commander BAR.png Order of Sikatuna, rank of Lankan (Commander) (Philippines)
Noribbon.svg Chuong My Medal (Vietnam)
Noribbon.svg Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Holy Trinity (post-nominal: GCHT) (Ethiopia)[21]
Ribbon bar Grand Cross National Order of Vietnam.gif National Order of Vietnam, First Class (Vietnam)
Vietnam gallantry cross-w-palm-3d.svg Gallantry Cross (Vietnam)
ArmyDSMribbon.png Distinguished Service Order First Class (Army) (Vietnam)
Vietnam Air Force Distinguished Service Order, First Class ribbon.png Distinguished Service Order First Class (Air Force) (Vietnam)
Vietnam Navy Distinguished Service Order, First Class ribbon.png Distinguished Service Order First Class (Navy) (Vietnam)
Vietnam Armed Forces Honor Medal Ribbon.png Armed Forces Honor Medal, First Class (Vietnam)
VCAM Class 1.png Vietnam Civil Actions Medal, First Class
Order of the White Elephant - 1st Class (Thailand) ribbon.png Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant, Knight Grand Cross (First Class) (Thailand)
Noribbon.svg Ordem do Mérito Militar (Order of Military Merit, degree of Great Officer) (Brazil)
Noribbon.svg Guerrillero José Miguel Lanza Gran Official (Bolivia)
United Nations Service Medal for Korea Ribbon.svg United Nations Korea Medal
Vietnam Campaign Medal Ribbon.png Vietnam Campaign Medal
Presidential Unit Citation (Korea).svg Presidential Unit Citation (187th Regimental Combat Team, 1953) (Korea)
VNCivilActionsRibbon-2.svg Civil Actions Medal, First Class (Vietnam)
Noribbon.svg Gallantry Cross Fourragère (Korea)

[22]

Badges, tabs, and patches
Combat Infantry Badge.svg Combat Infantryman Badge
ArmyAvnBadge.gif Army Aviator Badge
US Army Airborne master parachutist badge.gif Master Parachutist Badge
USAAF - Glider Pilot 4.png Glider Badge
GeneralStaffID.gif Army Staff Identification Badge
ViPaBa.jpg Republic of Vietnam Parachutist Badge
Other honors
The Knox Trophy.jpg Knox Trophy Award, USMA highest military efficiency as a cadet at West Point, 1936.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Papers of Gen. William Westmoreland (USCS Autumn 1999)". http://www.sc.edu/library/socar/uscs/99autm/westmor.html. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 
  2. ^ "Obituary: General William Westmoreland". The Independent. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20050720/ai_n14777626. Retrieved 2008-02-01. [dead link]
  3. ^ 1936 Howitzer Yearbook.
  4. ^ {{cite Headquarters Morning Report, 13 Oct 1944, Division Headquarters, 9th Infantry Division. Available on microfilm at National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, MO. (Entry reads: "O-20223 Westmoreland, William C Col, Reld fr asdg HQ 9 Inf Div Arty & asgd to Div Hq 9 Inf Div per par 1, SO 241 HQ 9 Inf Div dtd 12 Oct 44. Joined 12 Oct 44. Detailed in G.S.C. per par 2, GO 87 Hq 9 Inf Div dtd 12 Oct 44. Primary Duty: Chief of Staff".)}}
  5. ^ Stanley Karnow. Vietnam: A History. p. 361.
  6. ^ a b Sheehan, Neil "A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann And America in Vietnam" 1988.
  7. ^ Kim Chang-seok (2000-11-15). ""한국군도 많이 당했다" 채명신 전 주월한국군총사령관 인터뷰… 남베트남군 사령관 만나 사과한 적도". Hankyoreh. http://h21.hani.co.kr/section-021003000/2000/021003000200011150334008.html. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  8. ^ "The Temper of the Times". Time Magazine. 1967-04-14. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,836932-9,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  9. ^ "Vietnam Veterans In Chicago Parade Cheered By Crowds". The New York Times. June 14, 1986. http://www.nytimes.com/1986/06/14/us/vietnam-veterans-in-chicago-parade-cheered-by-crowds.html. 
  10. ^ At peace, at last after 11 years and an emotional parade, Vietnam vets finally feel welcome. Chicago Tribune. August 17, 1986.
  11. ^ "Westmorland v. CBS - further readings". http://law.jrank.org/pages/12756/Westmoreland-v-CBS-Inc.html. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  12. ^ The Tet Offensive: Intelligence failure in war. Cornell University Press. 1994. http://books.google.com/books?id=9IsYIhP_8G4C&pg=PA161&lpg=PA161&dq=westmoreland+v+cbs&source=web&ots=fPkP_7K7jo&sig=pOWzfwlLsEzYdHYZzTwvXbzSWI8. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  13. ^ "Mike Wallace". Museum of Broadcast Communications. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/W/htmlW/wallacemike/wallacemike.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  14. ^ Whitney, Craig R.; Pace, Eric (2005-07-20). "William C. Westmoreland Is Dead at 91". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/20/international/asia/20westmoreland.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  15. ^ "Westy In-law Dies in Viet". 6807PSS.AVN, 68070399.KIA. Pacific Stars and Stripes. 1968-07-07. http://www.flyarmy.org/panel/battle/68070702.HTM. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  16. ^ "General William Westmoreland, Friend of ASA, Dies". American Sportscasters Online. 1991-05-31. http://www.americansportscastersonline.com/westmorelandmemoriam.html. Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  17. ^ "South Carolina General Assembly 109th Session, 1991-1992, Bill 918". South Carolina Senate. 1991-05-31. http://www.scstatehouse.gov/sess109_1991-1992/bills/918.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-16. 
  18. ^ "General William C. Westmoreland Award". National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 2009-10-14. http://www.sar.org/Committees/Veterans/Westmoreland_Award. Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  19. ^ General Westmoreland dates of rank
  20. ^ Military Times Hall of Valor
  21. ^ The Crown Council of Ethiopia
  22. ^ Westmoreland rack

References

External links

General
Obituaries
Military offices
Preceded by
Garrison Holt Davidson
Superintendents of the United States Military Academy
1960–1963
Succeeded by
James Benjamin Lampert
Preceded by
Paul D. Harkins
Commander, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam
1964–1968
Succeeded by
Creighton Abrams
Preceded by
Harold K. Johnson
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1968–1972
Succeeded by
Bruce Palmer, Jr.
(Acting)
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Lyndon Johnson
Time's Man of the Year
1965
Succeeded by
The Generation Twenty-Five and Under