William Paterson (judge)

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William Paterson
William Paterson copy.jpg
Paterson as a Supreme Court Justice
Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court
In office
March 4, 1793 – September 9, 1806
Nominated byGeorge Washington
Preceded byThomas Johnson
Succeeded byHenry Brockholst Livingston
2nd Governor of New Jersey
In office
October 29, 1790 – March 30, 1793
Preceded byElisha Lawrence
as Acting Governor
Succeeded byThomas Henderson
as Acting Governor
United States Senator
from New Jersey
In office
March 4, 1789 – November 13, 1790
Preceded byNone (new seat)
Succeeded byPhilemon Dickinson
Personal details
Born(1745-12-24)December 24, 1745
County Antrim, Northern Ireland
DiedSeptember 9, 1806(1806-09-09) (aged 60)
Albany, New York
Alma materPrinceton University
ReligionPresbyterian
 
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William Paterson
William Paterson copy.jpg
Paterson as a Supreme Court Justice
Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court
In office
March 4, 1793 – September 9, 1806
Nominated byGeorge Washington
Preceded byThomas Johnson
Succeeded byHenry Brockholst Livingston
2nd Governor of New Jersey
In office
October 29, 1790 – March 30, 1793
Preceded byElisha Lawrence
as Acting Governor
Succeeded byThomas Henderson
as Acting Governor
United States Senator
from New Jersey
In office
March 4, 1789 – November 13, 1790
Preceded byNone (new seat)
Succeeded byPhilemon Dickinson
Personal details
Born(1745-12-24)December 24, 1745
County Antrim, Northern Ireland
DiedSeptember 9, 1806(1806-09-09) (aged 60)
Albany, New York
Alma materPrinceton University
ReligionPresbyterian

William Paterson (December 24, 1745 – September 9, 1806) was a New Jersey statesman, a signer of the U.S. Constitution, and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, who served as the 2nd governor of New Jersey, from 1790 to 1793.

Biography[edit]

William Paterson was born in County Antrim, now in Northern Ireland, moved to what is now the United States at the age of two, and entered the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) at age 14. After graduating, he studied law with the prominent lawyer Richard Stockton and was admitted to the bar in 1768. He also stayed connected to his alma mater, helping found the Cliosophic Society with Aaron Burr.[1]

He was selected as Somerset County, New Jersey delegate for the first three provincial congresses of New Jersey, where, as secretary, he recorded the 1776 New Jersey State Constitution.

After Independence, Paterson was appointed as the first Attorney General of New Jersey, serving from 1776 to 1783, maintaining law and order and establishing himself as one of the state's most prominent lawyers. He was sent to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he proposed the New Jersey Plan for a unicameral legislative body with equal representation from each state. After the Great Compromise (for two legislative bodies: a Senate with equal representation for each state, and a House of Representatives with representation based on population), the Constitution was signed. Paterson went on to become one of New Jersey's first US. senators (1789–90). He was a strong nationalist who supported the Federalist party. As a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, he played an important role in drafting the Judiciary Act of 1789 that established the federal court system. The first nine sections of this very important law are in his handwriting.

He resigned from the U.S. Senate in 1790 in order to succeed fellow signer William Livingston as governor of New Jersey. As governor, he pursued his interest in legal matters by codifying the English statutes that had been in force in New Jersey before the Revolution in Laws of the State of New Jersey. He also published a revision of the rules of the chancery and common law courts in Paterson, later adopted by the New Jersey Legislature.

George Washington nominated Paterson for the Supreme Court on February 27, 1793, to the seat vacated by Thomas Johnson. The nomination was withdrawn by the President the following day – Washington had realized that since the law creating the Supreme Court had been passed during Paterson's current term as a Senator, the nomination was a violation of Article I, Section 6 of the Constitution. Washington re-nominated Paterson to the Court on March 4, 1793, after his term as Senator had expired. He was immediately confirmed by the Senate, and received his commission.

He resigned the governorship to become an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1793–1806). On circuit he presided over the trials of individuals indicted for treason in the Whiskey Rebellion, a revolt by farmers in western Pennsylvania over the federal excise tax on whiskey, the principal product of their cash crop. Militia sent out by President George Washington successfully quelled the uprising, and for the first time the courts had to interpret the provisions of the Constitution in regard to the use of troops in civil disturbances. Here, and in fact throughout his long career, Paterson extolled the primacy of law over governments, a principle embodied in the Constitution he helped write.[1]

Paterson served on the Supreme Court until his death (from the lingering effects of a coach accident suffered in 1803 while on circuit court duty in New Jersey) on September 9, 1806, aged 60. He was on his way to Ballston Springs, New York to "take the waters" when he died at the Albany, New York home of his daughter and Van Renssalaer son-in-law. He was laid to rest in the Van Renssalaer family vault in 1806, and remained until the property was acquired by the city. His remains were relocated to Albany Rural Cemetery Menands, Albany County, New York, United States of America. He shares this cemetery with Associate Justice Rufus W. Peckham and President Chester A. Arthur.[2][3][4]

Paterson, New Jersey, and William Paterson University are named after him.

See also[edit]

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Legal offices
FirstNew Jersey Attorney General
1776–1783
Succeeded by
Joseph Bloomfield
Preceded by
Thomas Johnson
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
March 4, 1793 – September 9, 1806
Succeeded by
Henry Brockholst Livingston
United States Senate
New seatUnited States Senator (Class 2) from New Jersey
1789–1790
Served alongside: Jonathan Elmer
Succeeded by
Philemon Dickinson
Political offices
Preceded by
Elisha Lawrence
Acting Governor
Governor of New Jersey
1790–1793
Succeeded by
Thomas Henderson
Acting Governor