William Orlando Darby

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William Orlando Darby
William Darby.jpg
Colonel William O. Darby
Born(1911-02-08)February 8, 1911
Fort Smith, Arkansas, USA
DiedApril 30, 1945(1945-04-30) (aged 34)
Torbole, Italy
Allegiance United States
Service/branchUnited States Army seal United States Army
Years of service1933-1945
RankBrigadier General US-O7 insignia.svg
Commands held6615th Ranger Force
179th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division
Battles/warsWorld War II
- Operation Torch;
- Sicily campaign;
- Italian campaign
AwardsDistinguished Service Cross (2)
Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star
Purple Heart (3)
French Croix de Guerre with Silver Star
Russian Order of Kutuzov (3rd degree)
British Distinguished Service Order
 
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"William Darby" redirects here. For other uses, see William Darby (disambiguation).
William Orlando Darby
William Darby.jpg
Colonel William O. Darby
Born(1911-02-08)February 8, 1911
Fort Smith, Arkansas, USA
DiedApril 30, 1945(1945-04-30) (aged 34)
Torbole, Italy
Allegiance United States
Service/branchUnited States Army seal United States Army
Years of service1933-1945
RankBrigadier General US-O7 insignia.svg
Commands held6615th Ranger Force
179th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division
Battles/warsWorld War II
- Operation Torch;
- Sicily campaign;
- Italian campaign
AwardsDistinguished Service Cross (2)
Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star
Purple Heart (3)
French Croix de Guerre with Silver Star
Russian Order of Kutuzov (3rd degree)
British Distinguished Service Order

William O. Darby (8 February 1911 – 30 April 1945) was a United States Army colonel who was killed in action during World War II and posthumously promoted to brigadier general. Darby led the famous Darby's Rangers which evolved into the US Army Rangers which were made famous by the motion picture named Darby's Rangers in 1958.

Early life[edit]

Darby was born in Fort Smith, Arkansas. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point with a bachelor of science degree and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Field Artillery on 13 June 1933.

Army career[edit]

His first assignment was being an assistant executive and supply officer with the 82nd Field Artillery at Fort Bliss, Texas. In July 1934, he transferred to Cloudcroft, New Mexico where he commanded the 1st Cavalry Division detachment. He received intensive artillery training from September 1937 to June 1938 while attending Field Artillery School at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. On 9 September 1940, he was promoted to captain and subsequently served with the 80th Division at Camp Jackson, South Carolina; Fort Benning, Georgia; Camp Beauregard, Louisiana and Fort Des Moines, Iowa.

Army Rangers[edit]

As the Second World War progressed, Darby saw rapid promotion to the grade of lieutenant colonel. He was one of the first U.S. troops sent to Northern Ireland at the outbreak of the war, and during his stay there, he became interested in the British Commandos. His interest was such that, when the U.S. Army decided to establish its Ranger units, he was assigned to direct their organization and training. Many of the original Rangers were volunteers from the Red Bull, the 34th Infantry Division, a National Guard division and the first ground combat troops to arrive in Europe.

“Darby's Rangers” trained with their British counterparts in Scotland and in 1943, the 1st Ranger Battalion made its first assault at Arzew. Darby was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) for his actions on March 21-25 during that operation. The citation stated:

“Lt. Col. Darby struck with his force with complete surprise at dawn in the rear of a strongly fortified enemy position. Always conspicuously at the head of his troops, he personally led assaults against the enemy line in the face of heavy machine gun and artillery fire, establishing the fury of the Ranger attack by his skillful employment of hand grenades in close quarter fighting. On March 22, Lt. Col. Darby directed his battalion in advance on Bon Hamean, capturing prisoners and destroying a battery of self propelled artillery.”

The 1st Ranger Battalion saw further action in the Italian Campaign. Darby received a second award (oak leaf cluster) of the DSC for extraordinary heroism in July 1943, in Sicily:

“Lt. Col. Darby, with the use of one 37mm gun, which he personally manned, managed not only to repulse an enemy attack, but succeeded with this weapon in destroying one tank, while two others were accounted for by well directed hand grenade fire.”

Darby was also awarded the Silver Star for his actions on February 12, 1943:

“Without regard for his personal safety, the day previous to a raid, he reconnoitered enemy positions and planned the attack which he led the following morning. The thorough organization and successful attack led by Lt. Col. Darby revealed his initiative, courage, and devotion to duty which is a credit to the Armed Forces of the United States.”

Promotions and death[edit]

Colonel Darby in 1944

Darby was promoted to full colonel on December 11, 1943. He commanded the 179th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division from February 18 to April 2, 1944. He was ordered to Washington, D.C. for duty with the Army Ground Forces and later with the War Department General Staff at the Pentagon. In March 1945, he returned to Italy for an observation tour with General of the Army Henry H. "Hap" Arnold.

On 23 April 1945, Brigadier General Robinson E. Duff, assistant division commander of the US 10th Mountain Division, was wounded; Darby took over for Duff. “Task Force Darby” spearheaded the breakout of the 5th Army from the Po River valley bridgehead and reached Torbole at the head of Lake Garda.

On 30 April 1945, while Darby was issuing orders for the attack on Trento to cut off a German retreat, an 88 mm shell burst in the middle of the assembled officers and NCOs, killing Darby and a sergeant and wounding several others. Relying on the inspiration of their late commander, “Task Force Darby” continued on with their mission. Two days later, on 2 May 1945, all German forces in Italy surrendered.

Darby, who was 34 at the time of his death, was posthumously promoted to brigadier general on May 15, 1945. He was buried in Cisterna, Italy and was reinterred at Fort Smith National Cemetery in Fort Smith, Arkansas on March 11, 1949.[1]

Legacy[edit]

Darby's medals, military records, and uniforms are on display at the Fort Smith Museum of History in Fort Smith, and his boyhood home is open for tours.

Camp Darby, near Fort Benning, which is home to the second part of the "Benning Phase" of Ranger School, is named after him.

Two U.S. Army installations in Europe were named after Darby; W.O. Darby Kaserne, Fürth, Germany (closed in 1995); and the operational Camp Darby, near Livorno, Italy.

The town of Cisterna, Italy, dedicated its high school to Darby.

A book entitled Onward We Charge: The Heroic Story of Darby's Rangers in World War II by H. Paul Jeffers was published in 2007.

An Admiral Benson Class transport ship, the USS Admiral W. S. Sims (AP-127), was renamed USAT General William O. Darby in the 1940s.[2]

In 1955, the name of Fort Smith Junior High School was changed to William O. Darby Junior School. In 1958, the name of the school’s athletic teams was changed from Cubs to Rangers after the famous Darby's Rangers.

In 1958, the motion picture Darby's Rangers,[3] starring James Garner dramatized Darby's military exploits. Wayde Preston also played a character role based on Darby in the 1968 film Anzio.

In 1992, Darby was inducted into the Ranger Hall of Fame.[4]

Awards and decorations[edit]

Darby's military awards include:[5]

Bronze oak leaf cluster
Distinguished Service Cross with oak leaf cluster
Silver star
Silver star
Croix de Guerre with Silver Star (France)
Order of Kutuzov, 3rd degree (Soviet Union)
Distinguished Service Order (United Kingdom)

See also[edit]

Darby was also awarded a Purple Heart in 1944.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Arkansas Ties ... William O. Darby [1] Retrieved August 3, 2014
  2. ^ NavSource Online
  3. ^ Darby's Rangers (1958) at the Internet Movie Database
  4. ^ U.S. Army Ranger Association, Ranger Hall of Fame [2] Retrieved August 3, 2014
  5. ^ Military Times Hall of Valor, William Orlando Darby [3] Retrieved August 3, 2014