Wildlife conservation

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Picture of the  Siberian Tiger (head only).
The Siberian tiger is a subspecies of tiger that is critically endangered; three subspecies of tiger are already extinct.

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans.[1] Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes.[2]

Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. The science of extinction is called dirology. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters.

Major threats to wildlife[edit]

Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:[3]

When an ecosystem has been dramatically changed by human activities—such as agriculture, oil and gas exploration, commercial development or water diversion—it may no longer be able to provide the food, water, cover, and places to raise young. Every day there are fewer places left that wildlife can call home. There are three major kinds of habitat loss:

Today, the Endangered Species Act protects some U.S. species that were in danger from over exploitation, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) works to prevent the global trade of wildlife. But there are many species that are not protected from being illegally traded or over-harvested. In order of the sexual lifestyle to continue it is needed to come about with everything that you need especially if a currency of the conservation is initially under consecration and wildliife

North American Model of Wildlife Conservation[edit]

The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is a set of principles that has guided management and conservation decisions in the United States and Canada.[7] Although not formally articulated until 2001,[8] the model has its origins in 19th century conservation movements, the near extinction of several species of wildlife (including the American Bison) and the rise of sportsmen with the middle class.[9][10] Beginning in the 1860s sportsmen began to organize and advocate for the preservation of wilderness areas and wildlife. The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation rests on two basic principles – fish and wildlife are for the non-commercial use of citizens, and should be managed such that they are available at optimum population levels forever. These core principles are elaborated upon in the seven major tenets of the model:

  1. Wildlife as Public Trust Resources.
  2. Elimination of Markets for Game.
  3. Allocation of Wildlife by Law
  4. Wildlife Should Only be Killed for a Legitimate Purpose
  5. Wildlife is Considered an International Resource
  6. Science is the Proper Tool for Discharge of Wildlife Policy
  7. Democracy of Hunting

Wildlife conservation as a government involvement[edit]

The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed "framework" to successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources" (IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)"[11] The strategy aims to "provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions."[11] This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended "users" of the strategy to its very priorities. It even includes a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption and are therefore endangered by over fishing. The main sections are as follows:

The marking off of a sea turtle nest. Anna Maria, FL. 2012.
  1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems.
  2. Preservation of genetic diversity that is flora and fauna.
  3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.
  1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies.
  2. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development.
  3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation.
  1. International action: law and assistance.
  2. Tropical forests and drylands.
  3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas.

Map sections:

  1. Tropical forests
  2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification.

Non-government involvement[edit]

As “major development agencies” became “discouraged with the public sector” of environmental conservation in the late 1980s, these agencies began to lean their support towards the “private sector” or non-government organizations (NGOs).[12] In a World Bank Discussion Paper it is made apparent that “the explosive emergence of nongovernmental organizations” was widely known to government policy makers. Seeing this rise in NGO support, the U.S. Congress made amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act in 1979 and 1986 “earmarking U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds for biodiversity”.[12] From 1990 moving through recent years environmental conservation in the NGO sector has become increasingly more focused on the political and economic impact of USAID given towards the “Environment and Natural Resources”.[13] After the terror attacks on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 and the start of former President Bush’s War on Terror, maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and natural resources became a “priority” to “prevent international tensions” according to the Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002[13] and section 117 of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act.[13] Furthermore in 2002 U.S. Congress modified the section on endangered species of the previously amended Foreign Assistance Act.

Sec. 119.100 Endangered Species:

(a) The Congress finds the survival of many animals and plant species is endangered by over hunting, by the presence of toxic chemicals in water, air and soil, and by the destruction of habitats. The Congress further finds that the extinction of animal and plant species is an irreparable loss with potentially serious environmental and economic consequences for developing and developed countries alike. Accordingly, the preservation of animal and plant species through the regulation of the hunting and trade in endangered species, through limitations on the pollution of natural ecosystems, and through the protection of wildlife habitats should be an important objective of the United States development assistance.

(b) 100 In order to preserve biological diversity, the President is authorized to furnish assistance under this part, notwithstanding section 660,101 to assist countries in protecting and maintaining wildlife habitats and in developing sound wildlife management and plant conservation programs. Special efforts should be made to establish and maintain wildlife sanctuaries, reserves, and parks; to enact and enforce anti-poaching measures; and to identify, study, and catalog animal and plant species, especially in tropical environments.[13]

The amendments to the section also included modifications on the section concerning "PVOs and other Nongovernmental Organizations."[13] The section requires that PVOs and NGOs "to the fullest extent possible involve local people with all stages of design and implementation."[13] These amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act and the recent[when?] rise in USAID funding towards foreign environmental conservation have led to several disagreements in terms of NGOs' role in foreign development.

Active non-government organizations[edit]

Many NGOs exist to actively promote, or be involved with wildlife conservation:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cooperative Alliance for Refuge Enhancement". CARE. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  2. ^ "Wildlife Conservation". Conservation and Wildlife. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  3. ^ From http://animals.about.com/od/animalswildlife101/a/threats.htm
  4. ^ McCallum, M.L. 2010. Future climate change spells catastrophe for Blanchard's Cricket Frog (Acris blanchardi). Acta Herpetologica 5:119 - 130. [1]
  5. ^ McCallum, M.L., J.L. McCallum, and S.E. Trauth. 2009. Predicted climate change may spark box turtle declines. Amphibia-Reptilia 30:259 - 264. [2]
  6. ^ McCallum, M.L. and G.W. Bury. 2013. Google search patterns suggest declining interest in the environment. Biodiversity and Conservation DOI: 10.1007/s10531-013-0476-6 [3]
  7. ^ Organ, J.F.; V. Geist, S.P. Mahoney, S. Williams, P.R. Krausman, G.R. Batcheller, T.A. Decker, R. Carmichael, P. Nanjappa, R. Regan, R.A. Medellin, R. Cantu, R.E. McCabe, S. Craven, G.M. Vecellio, and D.J. Decker (2012). "The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation.". The Wildlife Society Technical Review 12-04. (Bethesda, Maryland: The Wildlife Society). ISBN 978-0-9830402-3-1. 
  8. ^ Geist, V.; S.P. Mahoney, and J.F. Organ. (2001). "Why hunting has defined the North American model of wildlife conservation.". Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 66: 175–185. 
  9. ^ Mahoney, Shane (May–June 2004). "The North American Wildlife Conservation Model". Bugle (Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation) 21 (3). 
  10. ^ "TWS Final Position Statement". Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  11. ^ a b "World Conservation Strategy" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  12. ^ a b Meyer, Carrie A. (1993). "Environmental NGOs in Ecuador: An Economic Analysis of Institutional Change". The Journal of Developing Areas 27 (2): 191–210. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f "The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  14. ^ "About Us - Learn More About The Nature Conservancy". Nature.org. 2011-02-23. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  15. ^ "WWF in Brief". Wwf.panda.org. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 

External links[edit]