Who Framed Roger Rabbit

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Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Movie poster who framed roger rabbit.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Steven Chorney
Directed byRobert Zemeckis
Produced byFrank Marshall
Robert Watts
Screenplay byJeffrey Price
Peter S. Seaman
Based onWho Censored Roger Rabbit? 
by Gary K. Wolf
StarringBob Hoskins
Christopher Lloyd
Charles Fleischer
Stubby Kaye
Joanna Cassidy
Music byAlan Silvestri
CinematographyDean Cundey
Editing byArthur Schmidt
StudioTouchstone Pictures
Amblin Entertainment
Silver Screen Partners III
Distributed byBuena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc.
Release date(s)
  • June 22, 1988 (1988-06-22)
Running time104 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$70 million[1]
Box office$329,803,958[2]
 
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Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Movie poster who framed roger rabbit.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Steven Chorney
Directed byRobert Zemeckis
Produced byFrank Marshall
Robert Watts
Screenplay byJeffrey Price
Peter S. Seaman
Based onWho Censored Roger Rabbit? 
by Gary K. Wolf
StarringBob Hoskins
Christopher Lloyd
Charles Fleischer
Stubby Kaye
Joanna Cassidy
Music byAlan Silvestri
CinematographyDean Cundey
Editing byArthur Schmidt
StudioTouchstone Pictures
Amblin Entertainment
Silver Screen Partners III
Distributed byBuena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc.
Release date(s)
  • June 22, 1988 (1988-06-22)
Running time104 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$70 million[1]
Box office$329,803,958[2]

Who Framed Roger Rabbit is a 1988 American fantasy comedy film[3] directed by Robert Zemeckis. The film combines live action and animation. The screenplay by Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman is based on Gary K. Wolf's novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit?, which depicts a world in which cartoon characters interact directly with human beings.

Who Framed Roger Rabbit stars Bob Hoskins as private detective Eddie Valiant, who investigates a murder involving the famous cartoon character, Roger Rabbit. The film co-stars Charles Fleischer as the eponymous character's voice; Christopher Lloyd as Judge Doom, the villain; Kathleen Turner as the voice of Jessica Rabbit, Roger's cartoon wife; and Joanna Cassidy as Dolores, the detective's girlfriend.

Walt Disney Productions purchased the film rights to the story in 1981. Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman wrote two drafts of the script before Disney brought in executive producer Steven Spielberg, with his Amblin Entertainment becoming the production company.

Robert Zemeckis was brought on to direct the film. Canadian animator Richard Williams was hired to supervise the animation sequences. Production was moved from Los Angeles to Elstree Studios in England to accommodate Williams and his group of animators. While filming, the production budget began to rapidly expand and the shooting schedule ran longer than expected.

Disney released the film through its Touchstone Pictures division on June 22, 1988 to financial success and positive reviews. Who Framed Roger Rabbit spurred a renewed interest in the Golden Age of American animation and spearheaded the modern era of American animation, especially the Disney Renaissance.[4]

Plot[edit]

In 1947, cartoon characters, commonly called "toons", are living beings who act out cartoons in the same way that human actors make live-action production. Toons interact freely with humans and live in Toontown, an area near Hollywood, California. R. K. Maroon is the human owner of Maroon Cartoon studios; Roger Rabbit is a fun-loving toon rabbit, one of Maroon's stars; Roger's wife Jessica Rabbit is a gorgeous toon woman; and Baby Herman is Roger's costar, a 50-year-old toon who looks like an infant. Marvin Acme is the practical joke-loving owner of Toontown and the Acme Corporation.

Maroon hires private detective Eddie Valiant to investigate rumors that Jessica is having an extramarital affair. Eddie and his brother Teddy used to be friends of the toon community, but Eddie has hated them, and has been drinking heavily, since Teddy was killed by a toon who dropped a piano on him and Eddie a few years earlier. When Eddie shows Roger photographs of Jessica "cheating" on him by playing patty-cake with Acme, Maroon and Eddie suggests that Roger and Jessica should separate, but Roger becomes distraught and runs away. This makes him the prime suspect when Acme is found murdered the next day. At the crime scene, Eddie meets Judge Doom and his Toon Patrol of weasel henchmen. Although toons are impervious to physical abuse, Doom has discovered that they can be killed by submerging them in a mixture of solvents he refers to as "Dip."

Baby Herman insists that Acme's will, which is missing, bequeaths Toontown to the toons. If the will is not found by midnight, Toontown will be sold to Cloverleaf Industries, which recently bought the Pacific Electric system of trolley cars. One of Eddie's photos shows the will in Acme's pocket, proving Baby Herman's claim. After Roger shows up at his office professing his innocence, Eddie investigates the case with help from his girlfriend Dolores while hiding Roger from the Toon Patrol. Jessica tells Eddie that Maroon blackmailed her into compromising Acme, and Eddie learns that Maroon is selling his studio to Cloverleaf. Maroon explains to Eddie that Cloverleaf will not buy his studio unless they can also buy Acme's gag-making factory. His plan was to use the photos to blackmail Acme into selling. Before he can say more, he is killed by an unseen assassin and Eddie sees Jessica fleeing the scene. Thinking that she is the killer, Eddie pursues her into Toontown. When he finds her, she explains that Doom killed Maroon and Acme in an attempt to take over Toontown.

Eddie, Jessica, and Roger are captured by Doom and his weasels and held at the Acme Factory, where Doom reveals his plan. Since he owns Cloverleaf and Acme's will has yet to turn up, he will take control of Toontown and destroy it with a mobile Dip-sprayer to make room for a freeway, then force people to use it by dismantling the trolley fleet and make a fortune through a series of businesses built to appeal to the motorists. With Roger and Jessica tied up, Eddie performs a vaudeville act that makes all but one of the weasels literally die of laughter (the leader, Smart Ass, is subjected to the Dip) and confronts Doom. Doom survives being run over by a steamroller, revealing that he himself is a toon (disguised, wearing a rubber mask), and admits that he killed Teddy. Eddie eventually dissolves Doom in the Dip by opening the drain on the Dip machine. As toons and the police arrive, Eddie discovers that an apparently blank piece of paper on which Roger wrote a love poem to Jessica is actually Acme's will, written in disappearing/reappearing ink. Eddie kisses Roger—proving that he has regained his sense of humor—and the toons celebrate their victory.

Cast[edit]

Bob Hoskins plays the role of Edward "Eddie" Valiant; this would go on to become one of his most notable roles.

Voices[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Walt Disney Productions purchased the film rights to Gary K. Wolf's novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit? shortly after its publication in 1981. Ron W. Miller, then president of The Walt Disney Company saw it as a perfect opportunity to produce a blockbuster.[10] Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman were hired to write the script, penning two drafts. Robert Zemeckis offered his services as director in 1982,[1] but Disney acknowledged that his previous films (I Wanna Hold Your Hand and Used Cars) were box office bombs, and thus let him go.[7] The project was revamped in 1985 by Michael Eisner, the then-new CEO of Disney. Amblin Entertainment, which consisted of Steven Spielberg, Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy, were approached to produce Who Framed Roger Rabbit alongside Disney. The original budget was projected at $50 million, which Disney felt was too expensive.[5]

Roger Rabbit was finally greenlit when the budget went down to $29.9 million, which at the time still made it the most expensive animated film ever greenlit.[5] Walt Disney Studios chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg argued that the hybrid of live action and animation would "save" Disney's animation department. Spielberg's contract included an extensive amount of creative control and a large percentage of the box office profits. Disney kept all merchandising rights.[5] Spielberg convinced Warner Bros., Fleischer Studios, King Features Syndicate, Felix the Cat Productions, Turner Entertainment, and Universal Pictures/Walter Lantz Productions to "lend" their characters to appear in the film with (in some cases) stipulations on how those characters were portrayed; for example, Disney's Donald Duck and Warner's Daffy Duck appear as equally-talented dueling pianists, and Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny also share a scene. Apart from this agreement, Warner Bros. and the various other companies were not involved in the production of Roger Rabbit. However, the producers did not have time to acquire the rights to use Popeye, Tom and Jerry, Little Lulu, Casper the Friendly Ghost or the Terrytoons (except Mighty Mouse) for appearances from their respective owners (King Features, Turner, Western Publishing, Harvey Comics and CBS).[1][7] Terry Gilliam was offered the chance to direct, but he found the project too technically challenging. ("Pure laziness on my part," he later admitted, "I completely regret that decision.")[11] Robert Zemeckis was hired to direct in 1985, based on the success of Romancing the Stone and Back to the Future. Richard Williams was hired to direct the animation sequences.[5]

Writing[edit]

Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman were brought aboard to continue writing the script once Spielberg and Zemeckis were hired. For inspiration, the two writers studied the work of Walt Disney and Warner Bros. Cartoons from the Golden Age of American animation, especially Tex Avery and Bob Clampett cartoons. Chinatown influenced the storyline. The subplot involving "Cloverleaf" was the planned story for the third chapter of a Chinatown trilogy (the trilogy was abandoned following the failure of 1990's The Two Jakes).[1] Price and Seaman said that "the Red Car plot, suburb expansion, urban and political corruption really did happen," Price stated. "In Los Angeles, during the 1940s, car and tire companies teamed up against the Pacific Electric Railway system and bought them out of business. Where the freeway runs in Los Angeles is where the Red Car used to be."[7] In Wolf's novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit?, the Toons were comic strip characters rather than movie stars.[1]

During the writing process, Price and Seaman were unsure of whom to include as the villain. They wrote scripts that had either Jessica Rabbit or Baby Herman as the villain, but they made their final decision with newly created character Judge Doom. Doom was supposed to have an animated vulture sit on his shoulder, but this was deleted due to the technical challenges this posed.[7] Doom also had a suitcase of 12 small animated kangaroos that act as a jury, by having their joeys pop out of their pouches, each with letters, which put together would spell YOU ARE GUILTY. This was also cut for budget and technical reasons.[12] Doom's five-man "Weasel Gang" (Stupid, Smart Ass, Greasy, Wheezy and Psycho) satirizes the Seven Dwarfs (Doc, Grumpy, Happy, Sleepy, Bashful, Sneezy and Dopey) who appeared in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). There were originally seven weasels to mimic the dwarfs' complement, but eventually two of them, Slimey and Flasher, were written out of the script.[7] Further references included The "Ink and Paint Club" resembling the Harlem Cotton Club, while Zemeckis compared Judge Doom's invention of "The Dip" to eliminate all the Toons as Hitler's Final Solution.[1] Judge Doom was originally the hunter that killed Bambi's Mother, but Disney objected to the idea.[12] Benny the Cab was first conceived to be a Volkswagen Beetle before being changed to a Taxicab. Ideas originally conceived for the story also included a sequence set at Marvin Acme's funeral, whose attendees included Eddie, Foghorn Leghorn, Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Tom and Jerry, Heckle and Jeckle, Chip n' Dale, Mighty Mouse, Superman, Popeye, Olive Oyl, Bluto, Clarabelle Cow and The Seven Dwarfs in cameo appearances. However the scene was cut for pacing reasons and never made it past the storyboard stage.[12] Before finally agreeing on Who Framed Roger Rabbit as the film's title, working titles included Murder in Toontown, Toons, Dead Toons Don't Pay Bills, The Toontown Trial, Trouble in Toontown and Eddie Goes to Toontown.[13]

Filming[edit]

Animation director Richard Williams admitted he was "openly disdainful of the Disney bureaucracy"[14] and refused to work in Los Angeles. To accommodate him and his animators, production was moved to Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England. Disney and Spielberg also told Williams that in return for doing Roger Rabbit, they would help distribute his uncompleted film The Thief and the Cobbler.[14] Supervising animators included Dale Baer, James Baxter, David Bowers, Andreas Deja, Chris Jenkins, Phil Nibbelink, Nik Ranieri and Simon Wells. The animation production, headed by associate producer Don Hahn, was split between Richard Williams' London studio and a specialized unit in Los Angeles, set up by Walt Disney Feature Animation and supervised by Dale Baer.[15] The production budget continued to escalate while the shooting schedule lapsed longer than expected. When the budget reached $40 million, Disney president Michael Eisner seriously considered shutting down production, but Jeffrey Katzenberg talked him out of it.[14] Despite the escalating budget, Disney moved forward on production because they were enthusiastic to work with Spielberg.[5]

Judge Doom (Christopher Lloyd) threatens Roger Rabbit before introducing him to "The Dip". Mime artists, puppeteers, mannequins and robotic arms were commonly used during filming to help the actors interact with "open air and imaginative cartoon characters".[8]

VistaVision cameras installed with motion control technology were used for the photography of the live-action scenes which would be composited with animation. Rubber mannequins of Roger Rabbit, Baby Herman and the Weasels would portray the animated characters during rehearsals in order to teach the actors where to look when acting with "open air and imaginative cartoon characters".[8] Many of the live-action props held by cartoon characters were shot on set with either robotic arms holding the props or the props were manipulated by strings, similar to a marionette.[7] The voice of Roger, Charles Fleischer, insisted on wearing a Roger Rabbit costume while on the set, in order to get into character.[8] Filming began on December 2, 1986, and lasted for seven months at Elstree Studios, with an additional four weeks in Los Angeles and at Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) for blue screen effects of Toontown. The entrance of Desilu Studios served as the fictional Maroon Cartoon Studio lot.[16]

Animation[edit]

Post-production lasted for 14 months.[7] First, the animators and lay-out artists rotographed the live action scene. Rotographing is a process where the animators are given black and white stills of the live action scenes (known as "photo stats"), then their animation papers are placed on top of them, and the artists draw in relationship to the live action images. Due to Zemeckis's dynamic camera moves, the animators had to confront the challenge of ensuring the characters were not "slipping and slipping all over the place."[8][7] After rough animation was complete, it would run through the normal process of traditional animation until the cels were shot on the Rostrum camera with no background. The footage of the cartoon characters was then sent to ILM, where technicians would animate three lighting layers (Shadows, Grimm lights and Tone Mattes) separately, later optically printed onto the toons. This made them look more three-dimensional and gave the illusion of the characters being affected by the lights on set.[8] Finally the cartoon characters were optically composited onto the live action footage. One of the most difficult effects in the movie was Jessica's dress in the night club scene because it had flashing sequins, an effect created by filtering light through a plastic bag scratched with steel wool.[1]

Music[edit]

Who Framed Roger Rabbit (Soundtrack from the Motion Picture)
Soundtrack album by Alan Silvestri and the London Symphony Orchestra
ReleasedApril 16, 2002
Recorded1988
GenreSoundtrack
Length45:57
LabelBuena Vista

Regular Zemeckis collaborator Alan Silvestri composed the film score, performed by the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) under the direction of Silvestri. Zemeckis joked that "the British [musicians] could not keep up with Silvestri's jazz tempo". The performances of the music themes written for Jessica Rabbit were entirely improvised by the LSO. The work of American composer Carl Stalling heavily influenced Silvestri's work on Who Framed Roger Rabbit.[8][7] The film's soundtrack was originally released in print by Buena Vista Records on June 22, 1988, and subsequently was re-released by Walt Disney Records on audio CD on April 16, 2002.[17]

No.TitlePerformer(s)Length
1."Maroon Logo"  Alan Silvestri0:19
2."Maroon Cartoon"  Silvestri3:25
3."Valiant & Valiant"  Silvestri4:22
4."The Weasels"  Silvestri2:08
5."Hungarian Rhapsody (Dueling Pianos)"  Tony Anselmo, Mel Blanc1:53
6."Judge Doom"  Silvestri3:47
7."Why Don't You Do Right?"  Amy Irving, Charles Fleischer3:07
8."No Justice for Toons"  Silvestri2:45
9."The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down (Roger's Song)"  Fleischer0:47
10."Jessica's Theme"  Silvestri2:03
11."Toontown"  Silvestri1:57
12."Eddie's Theme"  Silvestri5:22
13."The Gag Factory"  Silvestri3:48
14."The Will"  Silvestri1:10
15."Smile, Darn Ya, Smile!/That's All Folks"  Toon Chorus1:17
16."End Title (Who Framed Roger Rabbit)"  Silvestri4:56

Release[edit]

Michael Eisner, then CEO and Roy E. Disney Vice Chairman of the Walt Disney Company, felt Who Framed Roger Rabbit was too risqué with sexual innuendos.[18] Eisner and Zemeckis disagreed over elements with the film, but since Zemeckis had final cut privilege, he refused to make alterations.[8] Roy E. Disney Head of Animation along with Studio Chief Jeffrey Katzenberg felt it was appropriate to release the film under their Touchstone Pictures banner instead of the traditional Walt Disney Pictures banner.[18] Who Framed Roger Rabbit opened on June 22, 1988, in America, grossing $11,226,239 in 1,045 theaters during its opening weekend. The film went on to gross $156.45 million in North America and $173.35 million internationally, coming to a worldwide total of $329.8 million. At the time of release, Roger Rabbit was the twentieth highest-grossing film of all time.[19] The film was also the second highest grossing film of 1988, behind only Rain Man.[20]

Robert Zemeckis has revealed a 3D reissue could be possible. [21]

Home video releases[edit]

Who Framed Roger Rabbit was first released on VHS on October 12, 1989. A laserdisc edition was also released. A DVD version was first available on September 28, 1999.

On March 25, 2003, Buena Vista Home Entertainment released it as a part of the "Vista Series" line in a two-disc collection with many extra features including a documentary, Behind the Ears: The True Story of Roger Rabbit; a deleted scene, the "pig head" sequence; the three Roger Rabbit shorts, Tummy Trouble, Roller Coaster Rabbit, and Trail Mix-Up; as well as a booklet and interactive games. The only short on the 2003 VHS release was Tummy Trouble.

On March 12, 2013, Who Framed Roger Rabbit was released by Touchstone Home Entertainment on a Blu-ray/DVD combo pack special edition for the film's 25th Anniversary.[22][23]

Critical reception[edit]

Who Framed Roger Rabbit was a critical success and received positive reviews. Roger Ebert gave the film four stars, predicting it would carry "the type of word of mouth that money can't buy. This movie is not only great entertainment but a breakthrough in craftsmanship."[24] Ebert and his Chicago colleague Gene Siskel spent a considerable amount of time in the Siskel & Ebert episode in which they reviewed the film analyzing the movie's painstaking filmmaking. Siskel also loved the film, and ranked it on #2 on the best films of 1988, while Ebert ranked it as #6 on a similar list. Janet Maslin of The New York Times commented that "although this isn't the first time that cartoon characters have shared the screen with live actors, it's the first time they've done it on their own terms and make it look real".[25] Desson Thomson of The Washington Post considered Roger Rabbit to be "a definitive collaboration of pure talent. Zemeckis had Walt Disney Pictures' enthusiastic backing, producer Steven Spielberg's pull, Warner Bros.'s blessing, Canadian animator Richard Williams' ink and paint, Mel Blanc's voice, Jeffrey Price's and Peter S. Seaman's witty, frenetic screenplay, George Lucas' Industrial Light & Magic, and Bob Hoskins' comical performance as the burliest, shaggiest private eye."[26]

In contrast, Richard Corliss, writing for Time, gave a mixed review. "The opening cartoon works just fine, but too fine. The opening scene upstages the movie that emerges from it," he said. Corliss was mainly annoyed by the homages to the Golden Age of American animation.[27] Animation legend Chuck Jones made a rather scathing attack on the film in his book Chuck Jones Conversations. Among his complaints, Jones accused Robert Zemeckis of robbing Richard Williams of any creative input and ruining the piano duel that both he and Williams storyboarded.

As of October 2011, 46 reviews collected by review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes indicated 98% of reviewers enjoyed the film, earning an average score of 8.3/10. The consensus reads: "Who Framed Roger Rabbit is an innovative and entertaining film that features a groundbreaking mix of live action and animation, with a touching and original story to boot."[28] Metacritic calculated an average score of 83, based on 15 reviews.[29]

Awards[edit]

Who Framed Roger Rabbit is the first animated/live action film to win four Academy Awards, and became the first animated film to win multiple Academy Awards since Mary Poppins in 1964. It won Academy Awards for Best Sound Editing, Best Visual Effects and Best Film Editing. Nominations included Best Art Direction (Elliot Scott, Peter Howitt), Best Cinematography and Best Sound (Robert Knudson, John Boyd, Don Digirolamo and Tony Dawe).[30] Richard Williams received a Special Achievement Award "for animation direction and creation of the cartoon characters".[31] Roger Rabbit won the Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, as well as Best Direction for Zemeckis and Special Visual Effects. Bob Hoskins, Christopher Lloyd and Joanna Cassidy were nominated for their performances, while Alan Silvestri and the screenwriters received nominations.[32] The film was nominated for four categories at the 42nd British Academy Film Awards and won an award for its visual effects.[33] Roger Rabbit was nominated the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy), while Hoskins was also nominated for his performance.[34] The film also won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and Kids' Choice Award for Favorite Movie.[35]

American Film Institute Lists

Legacy[edit]

Who Framed Roger Rabbit marks the first time that Disney's Mickey Mouse and Warner Bros.' Bugs Bunny appeared on screen together.

The success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit rekindled an interest in the Golden Age of American animation, and sparked the modern animation scene.[36] In 1991, Walt Disney Imagineering began to develop Mickey's Toontown for Disneyland, based on the Toontown that appeared in the film. The attraction also features a ride called Roger Rabbit's Car Toon Spin.[18] Three theatrical animated shorts were also produced; Tummy Trouble played in front of Honey, I Shrunk the Kids, Roller Coaster Rabbit was shown with Dick Tracy and Trail Mix-Up was included with A Far Off Place,[37][38] all of which were Walt Disney's first theatrical shorts since Goofy's Freeway Trouble in 1965. The film also inspired a short-lived comic book and video game spin-offs, including two PC games, the Japanese version of The Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle (which features Roger instead of Bugs), a 1989 game released on the Nintendo Entertainment System, and a 1991 game released on the Game Boy.[38]

Controversy[edit]

With the film's Laserdisc release, Variety first reported in March 1994 that observers uncovered several scenes of antics from the animators that supposedly featured brief nudity of the Jessica Rabbit character. While undetectable when played at the usual rate of 24 film frames per second, the Laserdisc player allowed the viewer to advance frame-by-frame to uncover these visuals. Whether or not they were actually intended to depict the nudity of the character remains unknown.[39][40] Many retailers said that within minutes of the Laserdisc debut, their entire inventory was sold out. The run was fueled by media reports about the controversy, including stories on CNN and various newspapers.[41] A Disney executive responded to Variety that "people need to get a life than to notice stuff like that. We were never aware of it, it was just a stupid gimmick the animators pulled on us and we didn't notice it. At the same time, people also need to develop a sense of humor with these things."[42]

Another frequently debated scene includes one where Baby Herman extends his middle finger as he passes under a woman's dress and re-emerges with drool on his lip.[43][40] There is also controversy over the scene where Daffy Duck and Donald Duck are playing a piano duel, and during his trademark ranting gibberish, Donald supposedly calls Daffy a "goddamn stupid nigger"; however, this is a misinterpretation, with the line from the script being "doggone stubborn little--."[44][45][46]

Legal issue[edit]

Gary K. Wolf, author of the novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit?, filed a lawsuit in 2001 against The Walt Disney Company. Wolf claimed he was owed royalties based on the value of "gross receipts" and merchandising sales. In 2002, the trial court in the case ruled that these only referred to actual cash receipts Disney collected and denied Wolf's claim. In its January 2004 ruling, the California Court of Appeal disagreed, finding that expert testimony introduced by Wolf regarding the customary use of "gross receipts" in the entertainment business could support a broader reading of the term. The ruling vacated the trial court's order in favor of Disney and remanded the case for further proceedings.[47] In a March 2005 hearing, Wolf estimated he was owed $7 million. Disney's attorneys not only disputed the claim but said Wolf actually owed Disney $500,000–$1 million because of an accounting error discovered in preparing for the lawsuit.[48] Wolf won the decision in 2005, receiving between $180,000 and $400,000 in damages.[49]

Sequel[edit]

With the critical and financial success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Disney and Steven Spielberg felt it was obviously time to plan a second installment. Nat Mauldin wrote a prequel titled Roger Rabbit: The Toon Platoon, set in 1941. Similar to the previous film, Toon Platoon featured many cameo appearances by characters from the golden Age of American animation. It began with Roger Rabbit's early years, living on a farm in the Midwestern United States.[36] With human Richie Davenport, Roger travels west to seek his mother, in the process meeting Jessica Krupnick (his future wife), a struggling Hollywood actress. While Roger and Ritchie are enlisting in the Army, Jessica is kidnapped and forced to make pro-Nazi Germany broadcasts. Roger and Ritchie must save her by going into Nazi-occupied Europe accompanied by several other `toons in their Army platoon. After their triumph, Roger and Ritchie are given a Hollywood Boulevard parade, and Roger is finally reunited with his mother, and father: Bugs Bunny.[36][50]

Mauldin later retitled the script Who Discovered Roger Rabbit. Spielberg left the project when deciding he could not satirize Nazis after directing Schindler's List.[51][52] Michael Eisner commissioned a rewrite in 1997 with Sherri Stoner and Deanna Oliver. Although they kept Roger's search for his mother, Stoner and Oliver changed the story to Roger’s inadvertent rise to stardom on Broadway and Hollywood. Disney was impressed and Alan Menken was hired to write five songs for the film and offered his services as executive producer.[52] One of the songs, "This Only Happens in the Movies", was recorded in 2008 on the debut album of Broadway actress Kerry Butler.[53] Eric Goldberg was set to be the new animation director, and began to redesign Roger's new character appearance.[52]

Spielberg had no interest in the project because he was establishing DreamWorks, although Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy decided to stay on as producers. Test footage for Who Discovered Roger Rabbit was shot sometime in 1998 at the Disney animation unit in Lake Buena Vista, Florida; the results were an unwieldy mix of CGI, traditional animation and live-action that did not please Disney. A second test had the Toons completely converted to CGI; but this was dropped as the film's projected budget escalated well past $100 million. Eisner felt it was best to cancel the film.[52] In March 2003, producer Don Hahn said "don't expect a Roger Rabbit sequel anytime soon. Animation today is completely conquered by computers, and traditional animation just isn't the forefront anymore."[54]

In December 2007, Marshall admitted he was still "open" to the idea,[55] and in April 2009, Zemeckis revealed he was still interested.[56] According to a 2009 MTV News story, Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman were writing a new script for the project, and the cartoon characters will be in traditional 2D, while the rest will be in motion capture.[57] However, in 2010, Zemeckis said that the sequel will remain hand-drawn animated and live-action sequences will be filmed, just like in the original film, but the lighting effects on the cartoon characters and some of the props that the toons handle will be done digitally.[58] Also in 2010, Don Hahn, who was the film's original associate producer, confirmed the sequel's development in an interview with Empire magazine. He stated, "Yeah, I couldn't possibly comment. I deny completely, but yeah... if you're a fan, pretty soon you're going to be very, very, very happy."[59] In 2010, Bob Hoskins stated he was interested in the project, reprising his role as Eddie Valiant.[60] However, he retired from acting in 2012 after being diagnosed with Parkinson's disease a year earlier.[61] Marshall has confirmed that the film is a prequel, similar to earlier drafts, and that the writing was almost complete.[62] During an interview at the premiere of Flight, Zemeckis stated that the sequel is still possible, despite Hoskins’ retirement, and the script for the sequel was sent to Disney for approval from studio executives.[63]

The Roger Rabbit dance[edit]

The Roger Rabbit became a popular dance move in the early 1990s.[64][65] It was named after the floppy movements of the Roger Rabbit cartoon character. In movement, the Roger Rabbit dance is similar to the Running Man, but done by skipping backwards with arms performing a flapping gesture as if hooking one's thumbs on suspenders.

Real world parallels[edit]

One of the themes in the film pertains to the dismantling of public transportation systems by private companies who would profit from an automobile transportation system and freeway infrastructure. Near the end of the film, Judge Doom reveals his plot to destroy Toon Town to make way for the new freeway system. This is an indirect historical reference to the dismantling of public transportation trolley lines by National City Lines during the 1930s in what is also known as the Great American streetcar scandal. The name of Doom's company, Cloverleaf Industries, is a reference to a common freeway-ramp configuration. The assertion that a conspiracy caused the demise of electric urban street railways was the subject of a session at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board entitled "Who Framed Roger Rabbit: Conspiracy Theories and Transportation", which concluded that such systems met their demise for a number of other reasons (economic, cultural, societal, technological, legal) having nothing to do with a conspiracy, even though it was true that National City Lines, Inc. (NCL) was a front company—organized by General Motors' Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. in 1922, reorganized in 1936 into a holding company—for the express purpose of acquiring local transit systems throughout the United States. "Once [NCL] purchased a transit company, electric trolley service was immediately discontinued, the tracks quickly pulled up, the wires dismantled ..." and General Motors buses replaced the trolleys.[66]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Norman Kagan (May 2003). "Who Framed Roger Rabbit". The Cinema of Robert Zemeckis. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 93–117. ISBN 0-87833-293-6. 
  2. ^ Who Framed Roger Rabbit at Box Office Mojo
  3. ^ Erickson, Hal. "Who Framed Roger Rabbit?". Allmovie. Retrieved November 19, 2012. 
  4. ^ King, Susan (21 March 2013). "Classic Hollywood: On the case of 'Roger Rabbit'". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f James B. Stewart (2005). DisneyWar. New York City: Simon & Schuster. p. 86. ISBN 0-684-80993-1. 
  6. ^ Harris, Will (October 12, 2012). "Christopher Lloyd on playing a vampire, a taxi driver, a toon, and more". A.V. Club. Retrieved October 17, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Robert Zemeckis, Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman, Ken Ralston, Frank Marshall, Steve Starkey, DVD audio commentary, 2003, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Robert Zemeckis, Richard Williams, Bob Hoskins, Charles Fleischer, Frank Marshall, Alan Silvestri, Ken Ralston, Behind the Ears: The True Story of Roger Rabbit, 2003, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment
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  64. ^ For example, fitness expert Monica Brant verifies her efforts to learn the dance in the 1990s in Monica Brant, Monica Brant's Secrets to Staying Fit and Loving Life (Sports Publishing LLC, 2005), 4.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]