White nationalism

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White nationalism is a political ideology which advocates a racial definition of national identity for white people. It has been argued that white separatism and white supremacism may be considered subgroups within white nationalism.[citation needed] In a 2003 interview, political scientist Carol Swain described research she had done undertaken on the subject, suggesting American white nationalists believed "the interests of each of these groups (Hispanic, black, and white citizens of America) would be better served if each had a separate nation-state of its own". The white nationalist school of thought tends to avoid the term supremacy, because of its negative connotations.[1][2]

The contemporary white nationalist movement in the United States could be regarded as a reaction to what is perceived as a decline in white demographics, politics and culture.[3] According to Samuel P. Huntington, the contemporary white nationalist movement is increasingly cultured, intellectual and academically trained.[4] Some have suggested that rather than espousing violence, white nationalists tend to use statistics and social science data to argue for a self-conscious white identity.[5] By challenging established policies on immigration, civil rights and racial integration, white nationalists seek to build bridges with moderately conservative white citizens.[6]

Contents

Views

White nationalists argue that every nationality feels a natural affection for its own kind.[7] They advocate racial self-preservation and claim that culture is a product of race.[4] According to white nationalist Samuel T. Francis, it is "a movement that rejects equality as an ideal and insists on an enduring core of human nature transmitted by heredity."[8] Jared Taylor, a white nationalist, claims that similar racial views were held by many mainstream American leaders before the 1950s.[8]

Jared Taylor has argued that a natural hierarchy should triumph over the "false promise of egalitarianism",[8] and that the downfall of white dominance spells doom for representative government, the rule of law and freedom of speech.[9]

According to Samuel P. Huntington, white nationalists argue that the demographic shift in the United States towards non-whites brings a new culture that is intellectually and morally inferior.[4] They argue that with this demographic shift comes affirmative action, immigrant ghettos and declining educational standards.[5] Most American white nationalists say immigration should be restricted to people of European ancestry.[10]

White nationalists embrace a variety of religious and non-religious beliefs, including various denominations of Christianity, generally Protestant, although some specifically overlap with white nationalist ideology (Christian Identity, for example, is a family of white supremacist denominations), Germanic Neopaganism (e.g. Wotanism) and atheism.[11]

Definitions of whiteness

Most white nationalists define white people in a restricted way. In the United States, it often though not exclusively implies European ancestry of non-Jewish descent. White nationalists draw primarily on 19th-century racial taxonomy, which neither reached a consensus on racial categories nor is accepted by contemporary geneticists.[12] Some white nationalists, such as Jared Taylor, have argued that Jews can be considered "white".[13] Though most white nationalists oppose Israel and Zionism, several white nationalists (such as William Daniel Johnson) have expressed support for Israel.[14]

Different racial theories, such as Nordicism and Germanism, define different groups as white, both excluding some southern and eastern Europeans because of a perceived racial taint.[15] Pan-Aryanism defines whites as individuals native to Europe, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the Middle East and Central/West Asia who are wholly of Caucasoid descent or are overwhelmingly from the following Caucasoid subraces, or any combination thereof: Indo-European ("Aryan"-including the Iranian peoples but not the Indo-Aryans), Old European (e.g. Basque), or Hamitic (in modern times supposedly confined to Berbers). Other white nationalists use the term Pan-Europeanism to include all European ethnic groups.

History

According to one view, white nationalism is a product of the modern centralized state's emergence in the West, like all nationalisms.[16] The term originated as a self-description by some groups, primarily in the United States[citation needed], to describe their belief in a racially defined collective identity of white people.

In the 19th and early 20th century, racial definitions of the American nation were common, resulting in race-specific immigration restrictions, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. The 1915 film Birth of a Nation is an example of an allegorical invocation of white nationalism during this time.[7]

The Thule-Society developed out of the "Germanic Order" in 1918, and those who wanted to join the Order in 1917 had to sign a special "blood declaration of faith" concerning the lineage: "The signer hereby swears to the best of his knowledge and belief that no Jewish or coloured blood flows in either his or in his wife's veins, and that among their ancestors are no members of the coloured races."[17] And the Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg said on the 29th of May 1938 on the Steckelburg in Schlüchtern: "It is however certain that all of us share the fate of Europe, and that we shall regard this common fate as an obligation, because in the end the very existence of White people depends on the unity of the European continent."[18]

The White Australia ideal was semi-official policy in Australia until 1975. In South Africa, white nationalism was championed by the National Party[19] starting in 1948, as opposition to apartheid heated up.[20]

Starting in the 1960s, white nationalism grew in the United States as the conservative movement developed in mainstream society.[21] Samuel P. Huntington argues that it developed as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European, Anglo-Protestant and English-speaking.[22] The slogan "white power" was coined by American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell, who used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichael of the Black Panther Party, after Carmichael issued a call for "black power".[citation needed]

In recent years, the Internet has provided an expansion of audiences for white nationalism.[23]

Criticism

Anti-racist organizations generally have argued that ideas such as white pride and white nationalism exist merely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy.[24] Kofi Buenor Hadjor argues that black nationalism is a response to racial discrimination, while white nationalism is the expression of white supremacy.[25] Other critics have described white nationalism as a "...somewhat paranoid ideology" based upon the publication of pseudo-academic studies.[26]

Carol M. Swain argues that the unstated goal of white nationalism is to appeal to a larger audience, and that most white nationalist groups promote white separatism and racial violence.[27] Opponents accuse white nationalists of hatred, racial bigotry and destructive identity politics.[3][28] White supremacist groups have a history of perpetrating hate crimes, particularly against people of Jewish or African descent.[29] Examples include the lynching of black people by the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).

Some critics argue that white nationalists — while posturing as civil rights groups advocating the interests of their racial group — frequently draw on the nativist traditions of the KKK and the British National Front.[30] Critics have noted the anti-semitic rhetoric used by white nationalists, as highlighted by the promotion of conspiracy theories such as Zionist Occupation Government.[31]

Notable organizations

Notable individuals

Notable media

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The New Nativism; The Alarming Overlap Between White Nationalists and Mainstream Anti-immigrant Forces", The American Prospect (November 2005)
  2. ^ http://www.whitenationalism.com/wn/wn-06.htm
  3. ^ a b McConnell, Scott (August/September 2002). "The New White Nationalism in America". First Things. http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2047. 
  4. ^ a b c "The Hispanic challenge", Foreign Policy (March 1, 2004)
  5. ^ a b Despite new leaders, and with them new tactics and new ideas, the goal of white separatists remains to convince Americans that racial separation is the only way to survive. National Public Radio (August 14, 2003)
  6. ^ Can We Improve Race Relations by Giving Racists Some of What They Want? The Chronicle of Higher Education July 19, 2002
  7. ^ a b In its darkness, 'Kong' shows the human heart. Newsday (New York: December 15, 2005)
  8. ^ a b c "White Nationalists Seek Respectability in Meeting of 'Uptown Bad Guys'", Newhouse News Service (April 4, 2000)
  9. ^ "Jared Taylor, A Racist In The Guise Of 'Expert'", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pennsylvania January 23, 2005)
  10. ^ Dating the White Way Newsweek August 9, 2004
  11. ^ The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations. Taylor & Francis. http://books.google.com/books?id=rBgn3xB75ZcC&pg=PA493&dq=competing+atheistic+white+racist+movement&hl=en&ei=5uWOTeSkCamw0QH7m92bCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=competing%20atheistic%20white%20racist%20movement&f=false. Retrieved 2011–03–27. "A competing atheistic or panthestic white racist movement also appeared, which included the Church of the Creator/ Creativity (Gardell 2003: 129–134)." 
  12. ^ New York Times: Race Is Seen as Real Guide to Track Roots of Disease, 2002. [1]
  13. ^ Mark Potok and Heidi Beirich (Summer 2006). "Schism Threatens White Nationalist Group". Intelligence Report. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=644&printable=1. Retrieved July 20, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Racism colors judicial bid: Candidate Bill Johnson advocates deportation of ‘non-whites’". http://www.jewishjournal.com/los_angeles/article/racism_colors_judicial_bid_20080528/. 
  15. ^ http://www.white-history.com/refuting_rm
  16. ^ Can Nationalism studies and ethnic, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies July 1, 2004
  17. ^ Rudolf von Sebottendorff, Bevor Hitler kam, 1933, page 42 (original: "Blutbekenntnis": "Unterzeichner versichert nach bestem Wissen und Gewissen, daß in seinen und seiner Frau Adern kein jüdisches oder farbiges Blut fließe und daß sich unter den Vorfahren auch keine Angehörigen der farbigen Rassen befinden.")
  18. ^ "Trotzdem aber bleibt bestehen, daß wir alle unter dem gleichen Schicksal Europas stehen, und daß wir dieses gemeinsame Schicksal als Verpflichtung empfinden müssen, weil am Ende die Existenz des weißen Menschen überhaupt von dieser Einheit des europäischen Kontinents abhängt." Feier anläßlich des 450. Geburtstages von Hutten, 29.5.1938
  19. ^ Apartheid-era party is ending its existence, The International Herald Tribune August 9, 2004
  20. ^ Kani explores a post-apartheid world on stage. ABC Transcripts (Australia: May 11, 2005)
  21. ^ "Black Politics are in a Black Hole", Newsday (New York, January 14, 2005)
  22. ^ "Bush and Kerry Show Opposing Faces of Two Different Americas. Business Day (South Africa: October 21, 2004)
  23. ^ "Patriotism in Black and White", The American Prospect (January 13, 2003)
  24. ^ Moriz, Justin J. "Case 45: 'White Pride' vs. U.S. Patents and Trademarks Office". Adversity.net for Victims of Reverse Discrimination. 2005. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  25. ^ Hadjor, Kofi Buenor (1995). Another America: The Politics of Race and Blame. Haymarket Books. p. 100. ISBN 1-931859-34-5. 
  26. ^ Caliendo, S.M & McIllwan, C.D. (2011). The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity. Taylor & Francis. pp. 233–235. 
  27. ^ Swain, Carol M. (2002). The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-80886-3. 
  28. ^ Wise, Tim, "Making Nice With Racists: David Horowitz and The Soft Pedaling Of White Supremacy", Znet (December 16, 2002)
  29. ^ Swain, C.M., The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration (Cambridge University Press, 2002) pp. 114-117
  30. ^ "BNP: A party on the fringe". BBC News. August 24, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1507680.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  31. ^ Boler, M., Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times, (MIT Press, 2008) pp. 440-443.
  32. ^ "Council of Conservative Citizens". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/CCCitizens.asp?xpicked=3&item=12. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  33. ^ "Nazis, racists join Minuteman Project". Southern Poverty Law Center. April 22, 2005. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/news/item.jsp?aid=13. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  34. ^ "National Alliance". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/N_Alliance.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  35. ^ "Anti-Immigration Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?sid=175. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  36. ^ "White Nationalism". Southern Poverty Law Center. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=790. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  37. ^ "New Century Foundation (American Renaissance)". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/amren.asp?&&MSHiC=1252&L. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 

References