White Earth Indian Reservation

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"One Called From A Distance" (Midwewinind) of the White Earth Band, wearing beaded sash and vest, 1894

The White Earth Indian Reservation (or Gaa-waabaabiganikaag (lit. "Where there is white clay") in the Ojibwe language) is the home to the White Earth Band, located in northwestern Minnesota. It is the largest Indian reservation in that state by land area. The reservation includes all of Mahnomen County, plus parts of Becker and Clearwater counties in the northwest part of the state, along the Wild Rice and White Earth rivers. It is about 225 miles (362 km) from Minneapolis-St. Paul and roughly 65 miles (105 km) from Fargo-Moorhead.

Community members often prefer to identify as Anishinaabe (in their language) rather than Ojibwe or Chippewa, terms that came to be used by European settlers to refer to them. The reservation's land area is 1,093 sq mi (2,831 km²), and its population was 9,192 as of the 2000 census. The White Earth Indian Reservation is one of six bands that make up the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, their governing body for major administrative needs. The Band issues its own reservation license plates to vehicles.

Reservation flag

The White Earth Reservation was created on March 19, 1867, during a treaty signing in Washington DC. Ten Chippewa Indian chiefs met with President Andrew Johnson at the White House to negotiate the treaty. The chiefs Wabanquot (White Cloud), a Gull Lake Mississippi Chippewa, and Fine Day, of the Removable Mille Lacs Indians, were among the first to move with their followers to White Earth in 1868.

The reservation originally covered 1,300 square miles (3,400 km²). Much of the community's land was improperly sold or seized by outside interests, including the U.S. federal government, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. According to the Dawes Act of 1887, the communal land was to be allotted to individual households recorded in tribal rolls, for cultivation in subsistence farming. Under the act, the remainder was declared surplus and available for sale to non-Native Americans. The Nelson Act of 1889 was a corollary law that enabled the land to be divided and sold to non-Natives. In the latter half of the 20th century, the federal government arranged for the transfer of state and county land to the reservation in compensation for other property that had been lost.

In 1989, Winona LaDuke formed the White Earth Land Recovery Project, which has slowly been pushing for the recovery of more land. The project claims that only 10% of the land within the reservation boundaries is owned by tribal members.

The White Earth Band operates the Shooting Star Casino and Hotel in Mahnomen, Minnesota. It is said to be the largest employer in the region.

Contents

History

Originally, the United States wanted to relocate all Anishinaabe people from Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota to the White Earth Reservation, which was in the western part of the state. They planned to open the land of the vacated reservations to sale and settlement by European Americans. The US government even proposed relocating the Dakota to the White Earth Reservation, although the people had been traditional enemies since the Anishinaabe had invaded their land. The US continued to promote this policy until 1898.

Before the 1889 Nelson Act took effect, groups of Anishinaabe and Dakota peoples began to relocate to the White Earth Reservation from other Minnesota Chippewa and Dakota reservations. The 1920 census details provide data on the origins of the Anishinabe people living on the White Earth Reservation, as they indicated their original bands. There were 4,856 from the Mississippi Band of Chippewa (well over 1,000 had come from Mille Lacs, and many were Dakota); the Pillagers numbered 1,218; the Pembina Band were 472; and 113 were from the Fond du Lac and Superior Chippewa bands.

On July 8, 1889, the United States broke treaty promises by forcing on the Minnesota Chippewa's yet another act of injustice. They told the Minnesota Chippewa's that Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation would remain but the others would be eradicated. They also told them the Chippewa's from the other Reservations would be relocated to White Earth Reservation. Instead of dealing with the Chippewa's of Minnesota on a nation to nation level, the Unites States instead resorted to corrupting the Anishinabe people by clearly telling the Chippewa leaders of the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations, that the decision to accept land allotments and have surplus Reservation land sold to the whites, would be up to individual Chippewa men of voting age. Chippewa leaders were outraged. They knew they could count on the average Anishinabe adult male to obey their orders. However, many Dakotas lived on the White Earth Reservation and Mille Lacs Reservation, and that led to serious problems.

Once the Anishinabe men of voting age commenced to vote, it was the whites who counted the total number of votes and not the Chippewa's. Red Lake leaders warned the United States about reprisals if their Reservation was violated. The White Earth and Mille Lacs Reservations, both overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and have the surplus land sold to the whites. Supposedly the Leech Lake Reservation's men also overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and have the Reservation surplus land sold to the whites. The events of October 1898 indicate otherwise.

At the time (1889), the White Earth Reservation covered 1,093 sq. mi. After the votes were counted, the whites claimed the White Earth Reservation Anishinabe and Dakota men of voting age, overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and have the Reservations surplus land sold to the whites. Only a small portion of the White Earth Reservation remained. It was located in the northeast part of the White Earth Reservation and only a fraction of the original size of the White Earth Reservation. All other Minnesota Chippewa Reservations were eradicated. The Rebellion which occurred on the Leech Lake Reservation in 1898, saved Minnesota's Chippewa Reservations including the White Earth Reservation and probably the Red Lake Reservation as well, and the Chippewa Reservations of Wisconsin. Chief Bugonaygeshig is far more important than the average Anishinabe realizes. Ga-wa-ba-bi-gan-ni-kug is fortunate to still be around, and to be living amidst the new forest.

Communities

White Earth Reservation has many settlements located within its borders. Among those which are predominantly non Indian, are Mahnomen which is the largest settlement on the Reservation; Waubun which is now about predominantly Native American when including the mixed blood population; Ogema which is another settlement which is now about predominantly Native American when including the mixed blood population; and Callaway which is now about predominantly Native American when including the mixed blood population. Predominantly Indian settlements include Elbow Lake; Naytahwaush which is the largest Indian community on the Reservation; Pine Point; Rice Lake; Twin Lakes; and White Earth which is the second largest Indian settlement on the Reservation.

Other tiny settlements which are probably predominantly Native American include Mahkonce which is very rural; Maple Grove Township; Pine Bend which is a tiny settlement; Roy Lake which is a popular tourist and vacationers destination; and the region around Strawberry Lake which is also popular with vacationers. The total citizenship of the White Earth Reservation is near 25,000. Most, however, live off-Reservation. Many are Dakota. They have been forced by the whites to lose their Dakota Nationality.

Demographics

The population of the White Earth Reservation is predominantly white, as the Nelson Acts permitted sales of land to non-Natives. The 2000 census reported a population of 9,192 for the White Earth Reservation. The Native American population was reported as 3,378, much less than that at the Leech Lake Reservation. When including mixed bloods and Hispanics, the Native American population is 4,154. The white population was reported as 5,105. The white population is permanent, or not nomadic, as is much of the white population of the Leech Lake Reservation.

The chairwoman of the White Earth Reservation says that the Indian populations of reservations are higher than counted during censuses. She said that many Reservation families had more than one family sharing the same residence, and these were not always counted. In some cases up to three families shared the same residence. During census counts, the extra families will likely not participate for fear of being evicted from their homes. It may be that the population of the White Earth Band is larger than that of whites on the reservation.

Economy

White Earth Reservation has an economy which is similar to other Native American Reservations. In 2011, the government of the White Earth Reservation employed near 1,750 employees. The tribal payroll was near $21 million. The government of the White Earth Reservation employs non-Indians and likely Chippewa from off the reservation in order to fill its staffing needs. Some reports {{<--whose?--}} claim up to 10,000 citizens of the White Earth Reservation live in the Twin Cities Metro Area.

The White Earth Reservation owns and operates an Event Center, a Hotel, the Shooting Star Casino, the White Housing Authority, the Reservations College, and other business enterprises.

The poverty rate on the White Earth Reservation may be near 50%. The unemployment rate on the White Earth Reservation is near 25%. The White Earth Reservation is classified as the poorest Reservation in the State of Minnesota.

Topography

White Earth Reservation is situated in an area where the prairie meets the boreal forest. About half the Reservation is covered by a forest and lakes, with second-growth trees. In the late 19th century, lumber companies clear cut much of the original forest that covered the Reservation.

The western part of the Reservation is prime prairie land. Many farms are located in the western section of the White Earth Reservation. Another area where numerous farms are located is the extreme northeastern section of the Reservation.

The densest cover of forest is situated between Callaway and Pine Point, on up to just west and north of Mahkonce. The further one goes north, the forest becomes less dense, especially around the Pine Bend and Rice Lake regions. The region between Mahkonce and Pine Bend has a few farms.

Many lakes dot the Reservation's land. Large lakes include Bass Lake; Big Rat Lake; Lower Rice Lake; Many Point Lake; North Twin Lake-South Twin Lake; Roy Lake; Round Lake; Snider Lake; Strawberry Lake; Tulaby Lake; and White Earth Lake. The White Earth Land Recovery Project encourages ownership by members of the White Earth Band, reforestation and revival of the wild rice industry on the reservation's lakes. It sells a reservation brand of wild rice and other products.

The White Earth Reservation holds the 160,000-acre White Earth State Forest. The Reservation's land is still recovering from the effects of the destruction which the lumber companies caused over a century ago. The Reservation is especially beautiful during the spring, summer and autumn.

Climate

Climate conditions on the White Earth Reservation are extreme. Winters are long and cold. During the winter months of December, January, and February average low temperatures are 1, -6, and 0 at Mahnomen. Average high temperatures for the same winter months are 20, 14, and 21. The summer months of June, July, and August have high temperatures that average 76, 81, and 80 at Mahnomen. Average low temperatures during the same summer months are 52, 56, and 54 at Mahnomen. Precipitation is obviously influenced by the forest and many lakes which are located within the Reservations borders. Average yearly precipitation at Mahnomen is over 22 inches a year.

References

External links

Coordinates: 47°13′39″N 95°43′13″W / 47.2275°N 95.72028°W / 47.2275; -95.72028