Whale Wars

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Whale Wars
Whalewars titlecard.jpg
Title screenshot of season 2.
GenreReality
FormatNTSC
Developed byCharlie Foley
StarringPaul Watson
Narrated byJason Hildebrandt
Theme music composerBilly Corgan
Opening theme"Bullet with Butterfly Wings" by The Smashing Pumpkins
Country of originUnited States
Language(s)English
No. of seasons5
No. of episodes56 (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)Elizabeth Bronstein
Jason Carey
Dee Bagwell Haslam
Location(s)Southern Ocean
CinematographyRobert G. Case
Running time43 minutes
Production company(s)RIVR Media
Lizard Trading Company
Broadcast
Original channelAnimal Planet
Original runNovember 7, 2008 (2008-11-07) – present
External links
Website
 
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Whale Wars
Whalewars titlecard.jpg
Title screenshot of season 2.
GenreReality
FormatNTSC
Developed byCharlie Foley
StarringPaul Watson
Narrated byJason Hildebrandt
Theme music composerBilly Corgan
Opening theme"Bullet with Butterfly Wings" by The Smashing Pumpkins
Country of originUnited States
Language(s)English
No. of seasons5
No. of episodes56 (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)Elizabeth Bronstein
Jason Carey
Dee Bagwell Haslam
Location(s)Southern Ocean
CinematographyRobert G. Case
Running time43 minutes
Production company(s)RIVR Media
Lizard Trading Company
Broadcast
Original channelAnimal Planet
Original runNovember 7, 2008 (2008-11-07) – present
External links
Website

Whale Wars is a weekly American documentary-style reality television series that premiered on November 7, 2008 on the Animal Planet cable channel. The program follows Paul Watson, founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, as he and his crew aboard their various vessels harass Japanese whalers off the coast of Antarctica.[1] On December 27, 2011, Animal Planet renewed the series for a fifth season.[2]

Contents

History

In 2007, Paul Watson persuaded the Discovery Channel to make a reality show about the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society's campaign against Japanese whaling in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary off the coast of Antarctica.[3] The Japanese claim that their whaling is legally research, which Sea Shepherd and others contend is a cover for banned commercial whaling.[4] Sea Shepherd has been both criticized and praised for tactics of direct action sabotage which include throwing stink bombs of butyric acid, as well as ramming, boarding, and otherwise attempting to disable the Japanese vessels.[5]

The program premiered on November 7, 2008, on the Animal Planet cable channel and follows events on the vessel Steve Irwin as the group attempts to deter the hunting of Minke, Humpback and Fin whales in the Southern Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and North Atlantic.[3] The show came at a time when Animal Planet was being rebranded to attract broader audiences and compete with non-animal-centric programming.[6]

Episodes

SeasonEpisodesOriginal air datesNote(s)
Season premiereSeason finale
00017November 7, 2008 (2008-11-07)December 19, 2008 (2008-12-19)N/A
000211June 5, 2009 (2009-06-05)August 21, 2009 (2009-08-21)N/A
000314June 4, 2010 (2010-06-04)August 27, 2010 (2010-08-27)Season includes one special episode[7]
000412June 3, 2011 (2011-06-03)August 12, 2011 (2011-08-12)Season includes two special episodes[7]
000Viking Shores5April 27, 2012 (2012-04-27)May 18, 2012 (2012-05-18)Spin-off series
00058June 1, 2012 (2012-06-01)July 20, 2012 (2012-07-20)N/A
Other episodes2N/AN/AN/A

Synopsis

Season one

MY Steve Irwin arriving in Melbourne, 2008.

The 2007–08 Antarctic campaign was named Operation Migaloo, after the only known albino humpback in the world. This campaign was the focus of the first season of Whale Wars, which premiered on November 7, 2008.

On January 15, 2008, after attempting to entangle the whaling vessel's propeller and throwing containers of butyric acid onto the decks,[8] two Sea Shepherd members, Benjamin Potts and Giles Lane, from the Sea Shepherd vessel MV Steve Irwin boarded the Japanese whaling vessel Yushin Maru No. 2 from a rigid-hulled inflatable boat. The pair were delivering a letter advising the Japanese that they were "whaling illegally"[9] with the hope of creating an international incident.[10] The Japanese responded by saying that the men would be held until Sea Shepherd stopped what they called "dangerous and illegal activities."[11]

The crew of the Yushin Maru No. 2 detained the men for two days, before turning them over to the Australian customs vessel MV Oceanic Viking on the orders of Japanese authorities;[9] subsequently, the Steve Irwin rendezvoused with the Oceanic Viking and the two crewmembers were returned to Sea Shepherd.[8][12][13] On April 9, first mate Peter Brown was described in a newspaper article as saying that the incident only became a hostage situation because the Sea Shepherd vessel left the scene, so the Japanese would be forced to hold the two crewmen longer. He was quoted as saying, "It's all giant street theater."[14]

On March 3, Sea Shepherd members threw bottles of butyric acid and packages of slippery methyl cellulose powder onto the Japanese vessel Nisshin Maru. Australian foreign minister Stephen Smith condemned Sea Shepherd's actions for potentially causing injury[15] The Japanese Government called in the Australian and Dutch ambassadors to protest the actions and urge those countries to prevent any violence.[16] Watson said: "They are so full of crap. We filmed and photographed the entire thing. Not a single thing landed anywhere near their crew ... It is their way of trying to get sympathy."[17]

The International Whaling Commission issued a statement on March 8, 2008 that "called upon the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society to refrain from dangerous actions that jeopardise safety at sea, and on vessels and crews concerned to exercise restraint."[18] The statement also reiterated earlier IWC resolutions from May and July 2007 that read in part, "The commission and its contracting governments do not condone and in fact condemn any actions that are a risk to human life and property in relation to the activities of vessels at sea."[19][20] The Australian Government also called for all parties to "exercise restraint" and "responsible behaviour" in the Southern Ocean.[21]

On March 17, 2008 Paul Watson claimed that he was shot by the Japanese crew or coast guard personnel during the campaign. The incident is heavily documented during the show in the final episode, and the first six episodes are covered as a buildup to what is portrayed as the major incident during the campaign. The footage in Whale Wars shows Watson standing on the deck of the Steve Irwin while Sea Shepherd crew throws glass bottles filled with butyric acid at the Nisshin Maru whaling vessel.[22] The Japanese respond by throwing flashbang devices. Watson is then shown reaching inside his jacket and bullet-proof vest and remarking "I've been hit." Back inside the bridge of the Steve Irwin, a metal fragment is found inside the vest.[23] The Institute of Cetacean Research has dismissed Sea Shepherd's statements as lies. The Institute and Coast Guard said that they used seven flashbang devices designed to flash and make noise in the air without causing harm.[24] Neither of the two conflicting accounts have been independently verified. The Australian Foreign Affairs Department had condemned "actions by crew members of any vessel that cause injury". Two media releases were made on the same day from the office. One said that the Australian Embassy in Tokyo had been informed by the Japanese that the whalers had "fired warning shots"[25] while the updated version used the phrase "'warning balls' – also known as 'flashbangs' – had been fired", and that no gunshots had occurred.[26]

Season two

The 2008/09 Antarctic campaign was named Operation Musashi after the 17th-century Japanese strategist Miyamoto Musashi.[27] On December 4, 2008, actress Daryl Hannah joined Sea Shepherd's crew aboard the Steve Irwin to take part in this season's operation.[28]

On February 6, 2009, Watson reported that the Steve Irwin had collided with the Yushin Maru 2 as the Steve Irwin tried to block its attempt to prevent the transfer of a dead whale up the slipway of the factory ship Nisshin Maru. As Watson explained the incident, "We were in the process of blocking the transfer from the Yushin Maru 2 when the Yushin Maru 1 moved directly in front of the bow to block us. I could not turn to starboard without hitting the Yushin Maru 1. I tried to back down but the movement of the Yushin Maru 2 made the collision unavoidable."[29] The Japanese whalers blamed Sea Shepherd for the crash, characterizing the incident as a "deliberate ramming."[30][31] The collision was filmed by cameramen for the Whale Wars reality series,[32] and formed part of a multi-day conflict during which Sea Shepherd attempted to prevent the Japanese fleet from harpooning whales, respectively tried to block whales from being transferred to the factory ship for processing by blockading the Japanese' vessel's slipway. The Japanese made extensive use of LRADs to deter Sea Shepherd. They were also accused of aiming the device at the Steve Irwin's helicopter while in flight, something the group especially condemned, seeing that the helicopter was only engaged in filming, and could have crashed if the pilot had lost control.[33]

Season three

The Ady Gil docked in Hobart, Tasmania.

At the start of the campaign, Marjorie Kaplan, president and general manager of Animal Planet, said in a news release: "The issues surrounding whaling in the southern ocean are important and complex. The majesty of these beautiful creatures and the lengths to which the Sea Shepherds will go in order to prevent whaling has made Whale Wars intense and vital television." She also said that Japan had denied requests to film on their vessels.[34]

In June 2009, Sea Shepherd announced its 2009/10 Antarctic campaign, called Operation Waltzing Matilda.[35] The campaign would include the record-breaking Earthrace vessel, now renamed Ady Gil in honor of the benefactor who helped acquire the vessel for Sea Shepherd.[36] The Ady Gil was a futuristic styled ship that held the world record for circumnavigation of the globe by a motorized vessel. The eco-friendly vessel usually ran on a low emission fuel "derived mainly from animal fat, soybeans or other forms of bio-diesel"[37] but was forced by operational reasons to switch to petroleum diesel.[38] Pete Bethune, the operator, said that an agreement was reached with Sea Shepherd for the boat to adopt a support role.[39][40]

Paul Watson and his crew of 40 left with the Steve Irwin and Ady Gil from Fremantle, Australia, and from Hobart, Tasmania, respectively, last December. It was well publicized that the Sea Shepherds had added more vessel firepower to keep up with the larger, faster and more numerous whaling vessels. What they kept secret, however, was that Bob Barker, famous for "The Price Is Right" and one of the best-known personalities in the world of animal activism, donated funds to purchase a third vessel to add to the Sea Shepherd's fleet. Ironically, the ship is a former Norwegian whaling vessel but has since been renamed and refitted. With a crew of 26 and led by Chuck Swift and first officer and Whale Wars veteran Peter Hammarstedt, the Bob Barker was docked off the coast of Africa on the island nation of the Republic of Mauritius, until it was ready to join its Sea Shepherd colleagues and engage in a surprise "engagement" to stop whaling.

Season four

The Gojira docked in Hobart, Tasmania.

In season four, Sea Shepherd's "Operation No Compromise"[41] started with the whaling season in early December 2010, and lasted through February 2011 at which point the Japanese ceased whaling operations.[42] The episodes began airing on Animal Planet on June 3, 2011. The campaign included a new interceptor vessel joining the Sea Shepherd fleet – MV Gojira (or Godzilla) – replacing the role of the Ady Gil.[43][44] Sea Shepherd pilot Chris Aultman also received a larger, faster, and longer range MD 500 5-seat helicopter to replace his previous aircraft, a 3-seat Sikorsky S-300.

Season five

On December 27, 2011, Animal Planet renewed the series for a fifth season[2] for the Antarctic / Southern Ocean campaign dubbed "Operation Divine Wind", which ran from December 16, 2011 to March 14, 2012.[45] The campaign (Season 5) was televised in June 2012 on Animal Planet. It debuted on June 1, 2012 and was preceded by a one-hour documentary called Whale Wars: Battle Scars which highlighted the previous seasons and set the stage for the new season.

Cast

NameNationalityRole in the programNotes
Watson, PaulPaul Watson CanadaCaptain of the Steve Irwin and "Admiral" of the fleetFounder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. One source claims that he did not hold a valid captain's license as of November 2007.[46]
Hammarstedt, PeterPeter Hammarstedt Sweden/ United KingdomFirst mate on the Bob Barker
Monteiro, PedroPedro Monteiro USASecond MateJoined when Peter Hammarstedt moved up ranks.
Van Horn, LukeLuke Van Horn USACommunications Officer
Aultman, ChrisChris Aultman USARecon Helicopter PilotFormer U.S. Marine Corps avionics technician.
Dukes, GarryGarry Dukes AustraliaReplacement Helicopter PilotReplaced Chris Aultman as pilot of the Sea Shepherds' helicopter in Season 5 when Aultman was unavailable for the campaign.
Gray, KenKen Gray AustraliaReplacement Helicopter PilotTook over for Garry Dukes as replacement helicopter pilot for the latter half of Season 5.
Holland, MalcolmMalcolm Holland AustraliaQuartermaster, later Sailing Master
Hunter, EmilyEmily Hunter CanadaQuartermasterDaughter of Greenpeace co-founder Robert Hunter.
Mann, ShannonShannon Mann Canada[47]Quartermaster
Paarman, AmberAmber Paarman South AfricaQuartermaster, Cook
Perry, AndrewAndrew Perry AustraliaQuartermaster, Leading Deckhand & CoxswainMinisterial Head of Office to Nick McKim,[48] Leader of the Tasmanian Greens.
Dakin, LauraLaura Dakin BermudaChief CookFormer personal chef for Anthony Kiedis of the Red Hot Chili Peppers.
Pottsy" Potts, Benjamin "Benjamin " Pottsy" Potts AustraliaChief Cook & Helicopter Assistant, later bosun on the Bob BarkerOne of the two crewmembers who boarded a Japanese whaling vessel Yūshin Maru № 2.
Lane, GilesGiles Lane United KingdomHelicopter assistantOne of the two crewmembers who boarded a Japanese whaling vessel Yushin Maru № 2.
Avery, SimonSimon Avery United KingdomBosun's Mate & Coxswain
Jennings, DavidDavid Jennings USABosun's Mate
Feuerhahn, ArneArne Feuerhahn GermanyDeckhand
de Groot, LaurensLaurens de Groot NetherlandsDeckhandFormer Dutch police officer. One of the crew of six onboard the Ady Gil when it collided with the Japanese security vessel Shonan Maru #2.
Kehoe Jr., DonDon Kehoe Jr. USADeckhandRetired Long Beach California police officer.
Kendall, MollyMolly Kendall AustraliaDeckhandMarried Andrew Perry at the end of Season 2 on Scott Island, Antarctica.
Roest, StephenStephen Roest United KingdomDeckhand
Bell, ScottScott Bell AustraliaDoctor
Redenbach, MerrynMerryn Redenbach AustraliaDoctor
Hutchings, CharlesCharles Hutchings United KingdomChief engineer
Villa, DanDan Villa USAAssistant engineer
Westhead, LukeLuke Westhead United KingdomAssistant engineer
van der Werf, WietseWietse van der Werf NetherlandsShip's Carpenter
Kristof, VeronikaVeronika Kristof Hungary
Brown, PeterPeter Brown USASecond MateInvolved with Sea Shepherd since 1982. Left halfway through Season 2, resulting in Peter Hammarsted, who was then Second Officer, to move up the First Officer, resulting in Pedro Monteiro, becoming Second Officer. Returned to the campaign in 2011 as Second Mate.
Emko, TodTod Emko USACommunications Officer
McCoy, KimKim McCoy USAQuartermaster
Verkleij, WilfredWilfred Verkleij NetherlandsCommunications Officer
Taylor, JaneJane Taylor USANavigation OfficerFormer U.S. Navy Lieutenant
Swift, ChuckChuck Swift USACaptain of the MY Bob Barker (2010)
Bethune, PetePete Bethune New ZealandFormer Captain of the Ady Gil (2010)Detained after boarding the Shonan Maru 2 to conduct a citizen's arrest on the Captain for the destruction of his vessel, the Ady Gil.
Thomson, DaveDave Thomson CanadaDeckhand
Cornelissen, AlexAlex Cornelissen NetherlandsCaptain of the MY Bob BarkerJoined in 2002 and was Captain of the Farley Mowat, currently captain of the MY Bob Barker
MacLean, LockhartLockhart MacLean FranceCaptain of the GojiraFormer first mate of the Steve Irwin
Translator, UnnamedUnnamed Translator JapanTranslator on board the Steve IrwinIdentity has been concealed due to fears of retribution towards his/her family in Japan.
Cullivan, MarkMark Cullivan USAHelicopter TechnicianFormer USAF UH-1N Helicopter Crew Chief
May, MikeyMikey May New ZealandQuartermaster
Holland, CampbellCampbell Holland AustraliaChief Engineer
Gordon, AndreaAndrea Gordon USAShip Manager
Kunneke, RosieRosie Kunneke South AfricaDeckhand
Sielen, SamSam Sielen USAPhotographer
Beasley, MichaelMichael Beasley AustraliaDeckhand
Jahnel, BenjaminBenjamin Jahnel EcuadorQuartermaster
Keltie, SaraSara Keltie AustraliaDeckhand
Stokes, GaryGary Stokes United KingdomPhotographer
O'Neil, DougDoug O'Neil AustraliaCommunications Officer
Chakravarty, SiddharthSiddharth Chakravarty IndiaFirst Officer

Critical reception

Whale Wars became a hit for the channel and has received mostly positive reviews. While discussing the high ratings, the president and general manager of Animal Planet said that the show was a "great example of where we wanted to go into competitive adult TV."[6] Review aggregation site MetaCritic has scored Whale Wars 71 out of 100 based on 6 reviews.[49] Neil Genzlinger of the New York Times wrote: "Whale Wars splashes across the increasingly exhausted genre of people-at-work reality series like icy seawater, jolting you awake with a frothy, briny burst of — well, you get the idea. This is one spunky show."[50]

The show has also been criticized for being biased, and the Sea Shepherd crew has been ridiculed. Nancy Dewolf Smith of The Wall Street Journal wrote: "What is shocking at first is how unprepared most of these people are for their self-appointed mission as planet savers. Although the word "deadly" is used often to underscore the risks the crew face, alone out in the wild Antarctic seas – their own incompetence can seem the most frightening."[51] The satirists of South Park spoofed the show and the Japanese whalers in the 11th episode of season 13, as "Whale Whores." When one of the South Park characters takes command of the ship, a fake news headline states: "Whale Wars Gets Better: Things Actually Happen!"[52][53][54][55] David Hinckley of the New York Daily News wrote: "Because the cameras obviously operate from the conservation ship – named the Sea Shepherd and, for this voyage, also called the Steve Irwin – we get all the drama on this side and virtually none on the other."[56] Marjorie Kaplan, president and general manager of Animal Planet, says that they have requested access to the Japanese ships for filming but have repeatedly been declined.[34]

Spin-offs

In March 2012, Animal Planet announced a five-part spin-off titled Whale Wars: Viking Shores which followed Sea Shepherd operations to stop traditional whaling in the Faroe Islands in a mission dubbed "Operation Ferocious Isles" by Sea Shepherd. The series premiered on April 27, 2012.[57] It was preceded by a single-episode documentary called Operation Bluefin which followed Sea Shepherd as they attempted to intervene in what they claimed was illegal poaching of Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean Sea during the Libyan civil war in 2011.

A second documentary, Seal Wars, followed members of Sea Shepherd as they attempted to intervene against seal hunting activities on the beaches of Namibia. It aired on the evening of June 8, 2012 prior to the second episode in the fifth season of Whale Wars.

References

  1. ^ "Whale Wars: About the Series". Animal Planet. http://animal.discovery.com/tv/whale-wars/about/. Retrieved November 4, 2008. 
  2. ^ a b "'Whale Wars' Renewed for 5th Season". Reuters. December 27, 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/27/idUS396220464120111227. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Paul Watson: Sea Shepherd eco-warrior fighting to stop whaling and seal hunts". London: Telegraph.co.uk. April 17, 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/5166346/Paul-Watson-Sea-Shepherd-eco-warrior-fighting-to-stop-whaling-and-seal-hunts.html. Retrieved July 15, 2009. 
  4. ^ Larter, Paul (February 8, 2008). "Australia condemns bloody killing of whale and calf by Japanese fleet". London: Times Newspapers Ltd. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3325580.ece. 
  5. ^ Parry, Lloyd (February 9, 2007). "Whalers aid in Antarctic rescue of environmentalists". London: Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article1358479.ece. Retrieved June 8, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Kaufman, Amy (June 4, 2010). "'Whale Wars' Captain Paul Watson swims with the pod". The Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/la-et-whalewars-20100604,0,2757293,full.story. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
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  9. ^ a b Canada.com http://www.canada.com/theprovince/news/story.html?id=c7ce489e-4757-460a-ab8c-4d7b8aee655b Accessed 090906
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  26. ^ Incident in the Southern Ocean – Update (media release, website of the Australian Minister of Foreign Affairs, March 7, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
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  30. ^ "Tensions high as protest boat, whalers collide in Antarctic sea". CBC News. Associated Press. February 6, 2009. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2009/02/06/protest-whalers.html. Retrieved June 15, 2009. 
  31. ^ 2009.2.6 Dutch vessel rams Japanese ship for second time (Part.2) New footage from the Yushin Maru No.3's crow nest (video). Institute of Cetacean Research. 2009. http://www.icrwhale.org/eng/090206SS3.wmv. 
  32. ^ Thomas, Pete (February 6, 2009). "Whale war between Japan and Sea Shepherd becomes increasingly confrontational". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/outposts/2009/02/ive-been-all-is.html. Retrieved June 15, 2009. 
  33. ^ Sea Shepherd Battles Japanese Whalers in the Ross SeaSundance Channel, February 7, 2009
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  35. ^ Alexander, Cathy (June 25, 2009). "Sea Shepherd ships to track whalers". WA Today. http://www.watoday.com.au/breaking-news-national/sea-shepherd-ships-to-track-whalers-20090625-cxzv.html. 
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  37. ^ "Earthrace on round-the-world record bid". Arabnews.com. http://arabnews.com/?page=4&section=0&article=111516&d=5&m=7&y=2008. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  38. ^ http://www.mycleansky.com/?a=earthrace
  39. ^ "Futuristic boat to join whale protest". The Age. June 29, 2009. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/06/29/2611001.htm. Retrieved September 30, 2009. 
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  41. ^ SeaShepherd.org Press Release "Defending the Integrity of the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary" – Aug 23, 2010
  42. ^ Guardian "Japan suspends whale hunt after 'harassment' by activists" – Retrieved June 25, 2011
  43. ^ GrindTV.com – "Japanese whalers to face new enemy in Godzilla" – Nov 29, 2010
  44. ^ Jerga, Josh (November 29, 2010). "Japanese whalers to be chased by Godzilla". The Daily Telegraph. AAP. http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/national/japanese-whalers-to-be-chased-by-godzilla/story-e6freuzr-1225962906703?from=public_rss. Retrieved December 3, 2011. 
  45. ^ SeaShepherd.org – Operation Divine Wind: 2011–2012 Antarctic Whale Defense Campaign – March 14, 2012
  46. ^ Khatchadourian, Raffi (2007-11-05). "Neptune's Navy: Paul Watson's Wild Crusade to Save the Oceans". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/11/05/071105fa_fact_khatchadourian?currentPage=all. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  47. ^ Shannon Mann: Meet the Crew
  48. ^ "Tasmanian Government Directory: Office of the Hon. Nick McKim MP". http://www.directory.tas.gov.au/cgi/ousearch.pl?ou=ou!Ministerial+Portfolios,ou!Minister+for+Education+and+Skills%3B+Minister+for+Corrections+and+Consumer+Protection%3B+Minister+for+Sustainable+Transport. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Whale Wars – Reviews from Metacritic". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/tv/shows/whalewars. Retrieved June 7, 2009. 
  50. ^ Genzlinger, Neil (November 9, 2008). "Television Review: 'Whale Wars' – Hunting the People Who Hunt the Whales". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/07/arts/television/07whal.html. 
  51. ^ Dewolf Smith, Nancy (November 7, 2008). "Television – Surprising Adventures". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122601826253807043.html. 
  52. ^ Murphy, Dan (October 29, 2009). "South Park puts spotlight on Paul Watson and his "Whale Wars"". Christian Science Monitor. http://features.csmonitor.com/globalnews/2009/10/29/south-park-puts-spotlight-on-paul-watson-and-his-whale-wars/. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  53. ^ "Whale Whores". South Park. episode 11. season 13. Comedy Central. 
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