Westport, Connecticut

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Westport, Connecticut
Town
Post Road Bridge, Westport

Flag

Seal
Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°07′24″N 73°20′49″W / 41.12333°N 73.34694°W / 41.12333; -73.34694Coordinates: 41°07′24″N 73°20′49″W / 41.12333°N 73.34694°W / 41.12333; -73.34694
CountryUnited States
StateConnecticut
NECTABridgeport-Stamford
RegionSouth Western Region
IncorporatedMay 28, 1835
Government
 • TypeRepresentative town meeting
 • First SelectmanJim Marpe
 • Second SelectmanAvi Kaner
 • Third SelectwomanHelen Garten
Area
 • Total33.3 sq mi (86.2 km2)
 • Land20.0 sq mi (51.8 km2)
 • Water13.3 sq mi (34.5 km2)
Elevation26 ft (8 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total26,391
 • Density790/sq mi (310/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code06880
Area code(s)203
FIPS code09-83500
GNIS feature ID0213532
Websitehttp://www.westportct.gov/
 
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Westport, Connecticut
Town
Post Road Bridge, Westport

Flag

Seal
Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°07′24″N 73°20′49″W / 41.12333°N 73.34694°W / 41.12333; -73.34694Coordinates: 41°07′24″N 73°20′49″W / 41.12333°N 73.34694°W / 41.12333; -73.34694
CountryUnited States
StateConnecticut
NECTABridgeport-Stamford
RegionSouth Western Region
IncorporatedMay 28, 1835
Government
 • TypeRepresentative town meeting
 • First SelectmanJim Marpe
 • Second SelectmanAvi Kaner
 • Third SelectwomanHelen Garten
Area
 • Total33.3 sq mi (86.2 km2)
 • Land20.0 sq mi (51.8 km2)
 • Water13.3 sq mi (34.5 km2)
Elevation26 ft (8 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total26,391
 • Density790/sq mi (310/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code06880
Area code(s)203
FIPS code09-83500
GNIS feature ID0213532
Websitehttp://www.westportct.gov/

Westport is a coastal town of colonial origin located on Long Island Sound in Fairfield County, Connecticut, 47 miles (76 km) northeast of New York City in the United States.[2] The town had a population of 26,391 according to the 2010 U.S. Census and in 2008 ranked the tenth wealthiest town in the U.S. with populations between 20,000 and 65,000, and second in the state.[1][3]

The Westport area had been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 7,500 years before the first permanent European settlers.[4] Five farmers and their families, subsequently known as the Bankside Farmers, arrived at Machamux in 1693 having followed cattle to the isolated area known to the Pequot as the "beautiful land".[5] As the settlement expanded its name changed: briefly known as "Bankside" in 1693, officially named Green's Farm in 1732 in honor of Bankside Farmer John Green and in 1835 incorporated as the Town of Westport.[4][6]

Agriculture was Westport’s first major industry. By the 19th century, Westport had become a shipping center in part to transport onions to market. In the 20th century a combination of industrialization, and popularity among New Yorkers attracted to fashionable Westport—which had attracted many artists and writers—resulted in farmers selling off their land. Westport changed from a community of farmers to a suburban development.[7][8] Westport's population grew rapidly from the 1950s to 1970s. This expansion was driven by the town's proximity to New York City, its school system's reputation, “chic New York-type fashion shopping” and the "natural beauty of the town".[9][10][11][12][13][14] By the 21st century Westport had developed into a center for finance and insurance (23%), and professional, scientific and technical services (21%).[15]

Westport is home to the Westport Country Playhouse.[4]

History[edit]

Old Map of Westport, CT

Archaeological finds led to what are currently the earliest identified inhabitants of the Westport area that date back 7,500 years.[4] Records from the first white settlers report the Pequot Indians living in the area which they called Machamux translated by the colonialists as beautiful land.[5] Settlement by colonialists dates back to the five Bankside Farmers; whose families grew and prospered into a community that continued expanding. The community had its own ecclesiastical society, supported by independent civil and religious elements, enabling it to be independent from the Town of Fairfield.[16]

During the revolutionary war—on April 25, 1777 a 1,850 strong British force under the command of the Royal Governor of the Province of New York, Major General William Tryon landed on Compo Beach to demolish the Continental Army’s military supplies in Danbury.[17] Minutemen from Westport and the surrounding areas crouched hiding whilst Tryon's troops passed and then launched an offensive from their rear. A statue on Compo beach commemorates this plan of attack with a crouching Minuteman facing away from the beach; looking onto what would have been the rear of the troops.[18]

The Town of Westport was officially incorporated on May 28, 1835 with lands from Fairfield, Weston and Norwalk.[4][19] Daniel Nash led 130 people of Westport in the petitioning of the Town of Fairfield for Westport’s incorporation. The driving force behind the petition was to assist their seaport’s economic viability that was being undermined by neighboring towns’ seaports.[20] For several decades after that, Westport was a prosperous agricultural community distinguishing itself as the leading onion-growing center in the U.S.[21] Blight caused the collapse of Westport's onion industry leading to the mills and factories replacing agricultural as the town's economic engine.[16]

Starting around 1910 the town experienced a cultural expansion.[4][13] During this period artists, musicians, and authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald moved to Westport to be free from the commuting demands experienced by business people.[22] The roots of Westport’s reputation as an arts center can be traced back to this period during which it was known as a "creative heaven."[4]

In the 1950s through to the 1970s baby boomers relocating from New York to the suburbs discovered Westport's culture of artists, musicians and authors.[13] The population grew rapidly assisted by the ease of commuting to New York City and back again to rolling hills and the "natural beauty of the town."[4][9] By this time Westport had “chic New York-type fashion shopping.”[10][12] And a school system with a good reputation all factors contributing to the growth.[11][14]

Geography and environment[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, Westport has a total area of 33.3 square miles (86 km2). 20.0 square miles (52 km2) or 60.02% of it is land and 13.3 square miles (34 km2) or 39.98% is water.

Westport is bordered by Norwalk on the west, Weston to the north, Wilton to the northwest, Fairfield to the east and Long Island Sound to the south.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Westport, Connecticut
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)69
(21)
74
(23)
85
(29)
96
(36)
97
(36)
97
(36)
102
(39)
104
(40)
97
(36)
86
(30)
82
(28)
76
(24)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C)39
(4)
42
(6)
51
(11)
63
(17)
73
(23)
81
(27)
86
(30)
84
(29)
76
(24)
65
(18)
54
(12)
43
(6)
63.1
(17.3)
Average low °F (°C)23
(−5)
25
(−4)
31
(−1)
41
(5)
51
(11)
60
(16)
66
(19)
65
(18)
59
(15)
46
(8)
38
(3)
28
(−2)
44.4
(6.9)
Record low °F (°C)−18
(−28)
−14
(−26)
−6
(−21)
16
(−9)
28
(−2)
35
(2)
43
(6)
37
(3)
28
(−2)
16
(−9)
7
(−14)
−13
(−25)
−18
(−28)
Precipitation inches (mm)4.0
(102)
3.5
(89)
4.7
(119)
4.8
(122)
4.7
(119)
4.6
(117)
4.1
(104)
4.2
(107)
4.9
(124)
4.8
(122)
4.5
(114)
4.4
(112)
53.2
(1,351)
Snowfall inches (cm)7.6
(19.3)
7.8
(19.8)
4.9
(12.4)
0.7
(1.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.6
(1.5)
4.6
(11.7)
26.2
(66.5)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)6.35.96.87.37.77.16.66.56.35.76.46.378.9
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)3.52.91.200000000.11.49.1
Source: The Weather Channel[23][24]

Topology[edit]

Both the train station and a total of 26 percent of town residents live within the 100-year floodplain.[citation needed] The floodplain was breached in 1992 and 1996 resulting in damage to private property, the 1992 flooding of the train station parking lot and the implementation of flood mitigation measures that include town regulations that affect renovations and additions to building within the floodplain zone.[citation needed]

Neighborhoods[edit]

Neighborhoods of Westport, CT
A panoramic view from Saugatuck Bridge, Westport, CT, USA
Panorama from Saugatuck Bridge, Westport, CT, taken in 2012.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
18401,803—    
18502,651+47.0%
18603,293+24.2%
18703,361+2.1%
18803,477+3.5%
18903,715+6.8%
19004,017+8.1%
19104,259+6.0%
19205,114+20.1%
19306,073+18.8%
19408,258+36.0%
195011,667+41.3%
196020,955+79.6%
197027,318+30.4%
198025,290−7.4%
199024,410−3.5%
200025,749+5.5%
201026,391+2.5%
Source: CT.gov

As of the census of 2000, there were 26,644 people, 9,586 households, and 7,170 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,286.7 people per square mile (496.8/km²). There were 10,065 housing units at an average density of 503.0 per square mile (194.2/km²).

According to the 2010 Census, the population of Westport was 92.6% White, 4.0% Asian, 1.2% Black or African American, and 0.1% American Indian. Individuals from other races made up 0.6% of Westport's population while individuals from two or more races made up 1.6%.[27] In addition, Hispanics of any race made up 3.5% of Westport’s population. About 29.8% of Westport residents were younger than age 18 as of 2010; higher than the U.S. average of 24%.

According to the 2000 Census, there were 9,586 households, of which 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.1% were married couples living together, 6.8% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 25.2% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the town the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 2.7% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $147,391, and the median income for a family was $176,740. As of the 2000 Census, males had a median income of $100,000 versus $53,269 for females. The per capita income for the town was $73,664. 2.6% of the population and 1.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 2.7% are under the age of 18 and 2.1% are 65 or older.

Westport was named the fifth top-earning city in the US, with a median family income of $193,540 and median home price of $1,200,000 in July 2008.[28]

Government[edit]

Westport Town Hall on Myrtle Avenue

The town switched to a Representative Town Meeting style governance in 1949. The government consists of a three-member Board of Selectmen, a Representative Town Meeting (RTM), a Board of Finance, a Board of Education, a Planning and Zoning Commission, and various other commissions, boards, and committees.

Taxes[edit]

In 2005, the mill rate for Westport was 12.97[29] and is expected to increase to 17.43 for fiscal year 2013.[30]

Fire Department[edit]

The town of Westport is protected 24/7, 365 by the paid, full-time firefighters of the Westport Fire Department (WFD). Established in 1929, the Westport Fire Department currently operates out of 4 Fire Stations, located throughout the town, and maintains a fire apparatus fleet of 4 Engines, 1 Truck, 1 Rescue, 1 Fireboat, 1 High Water Unit, 1 Utility Unit, and a Shift Commander's Unit. The Westport Fire Department responds to, on average, approximately 4,000 emergency calls annually.[31]

Below is a complete listing of all fire station locations and apparatus in the town of Westport.

Engine companyTruck companySpecial unitCommand unitAddressNeighborhood
Engine 2Truck 1Rescue 3, Fireboat, High Water Unit, Utility UnitCar 3 (Shift Commander)515 Post Rd. E.Downtown
Engine 4555 Riverside Ave.Saugatuck
Engine 566 Center St.Greens Farms
Engine 661 Easton Rd.Coleytown

Education and science[edit]

Education[edit]

View of Staples High School, December 2011
View of Staples High School, December 2011

About Westport's schools (public & private) and library.

High schoolStaples High School, Westport's only public high school, was ranked by Newsweek magazine in 2005 as 452nd on a list of the best 1,000 high schools in the country[32] (Grades 9 to 12) with 1,800 students. In the 2008–2009 school year Staples was also ranked the No. 1 school in Connecticut by Connecticut Magazine.[33][34] The school underwent a $73,900,000.00 renovation that was completed in 2005. In 2011, Staples High School was ranked No. 1 out of 190 high schools in the state of Connecticut, with 87 percent of students meeting or exceeding state goals.[35] This put Westport as the No. 1 high school district out of 134 districts across the state.[35]

Middle schools – The district has two middle schools (Grades 6 to 8) – Bedford Middle School and Coleytown Middle School – with a total of 1,321 students. In September 2009, Bedford Middle School was awarded the government-honored Blue Ribbon Award. In 2011, Out of 298 middle schools, Coleytown Middle and Bedford Middle schools were ranked No. 1 and No. 2 in the state.[35]

Elementary Schools – There are five elementary schools (Kindergarten to Grade 5) with a total of 2,556 students:

Preschools – There are a number of preschools in Westport, including Stepping Stones Pre-school, Greens Farms Nursery School, Saugatuck Nursery School, Earthplace Nursery School and the YMCA Childcare.[41][42][43][44]

For the 2009–10 fiscal year, the school district's adopted budget is $110.6 million.[45] The school district had an estimated $109.1 million budget for the 2009–10 fiscal year, giving it an average per pupil expenditure of $16,266.[46] The average 2010 class size for kindergarten through first grade was 22 students and 25 students for second through fifth grade.[47]

Private schoolsGreens Farms Academy, located in the 1920s Vanderbilt estate overlooking Long Island Sound, is a K-12 private preparatory school located in the Greens Farms section of town. Pierrepont School, opened in 2002 on Sylvan Road, is a private K-12 school for gifted students.

The Westport Library taken from the opposite side of the Saugatuck River.
The Westport Library taken from the opposite side of the Saugatuck River.

The Westport Library features changing displays of art from area artists.

Science[edit]

Townscape[edit]

Culture[edit]

Around 1910 the Town of Westport experienced the beginning of a period during which it attracted artists, musicians, writers, and creative people.[4] These include F. Scott Fitzgerald.[4]

Arts[edit]

Architecture[edit]

'On the National Register of Historic Places in Westport'

Map of National Register of Historic Places in Westport

Pop culture[edit]

In music[edit]

In musicals and onstage[edit]

In television[edit]

Parks and recreation[edit]

A panoramic view looking over Longshore Club Park, Westport, CT.
Panorama of Westport town park: Longshore Club Park, taken in 2011.
A panoramic view looking over Compo Beach, Westport, CT.
Panorama of Compo Beach, Westport, CT, taken in 2012.

In 2011 Paul Newman's estate gifted land to Westport to be managed by the Aspetuck Land Trust.[59]

Media[edit]

Westport's first newspaper dates back to the printing and publication of the first issue of The Saugatuck Journal on December 26, 1828.[22][60]

Westport is served by both English-language newspapers and news websites including Westport News and WestportNow, as well as the Westport Minuteman. The town is also home to a monthly magazine Westport.

Literature and film[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see: List of Literature and films from Westport, Connecticut

Westport has been the subject, inspiration, or location for written and cinematic works.

Notable residents[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see: List of people from Westport, Connecticut

Among the many famous actors, singers and other entertainers who have lived in town is Paul Newman who resided in Westport from 1960 until his death in 2008.[69][70] Fala (1940–1952), President Franklin D. Roosevelt's dog, was an early Christmas gift from Mrs. Augustus G. Kellogg, a town resident.[71] Actress Gene Tierney grew up in Greens Farms.[72] Martha Stewart also lived in Westport at her historic estate of Turkey Hill.[73] Saint Jean Donovan, a lay missioner martyred in El Salvador in 1980 grew up in Westport and graduated from Staples High School. She is honored on the litany of saints by the Lutheran World Federation and by The Anglican Communion. Frankie Vartuli, famous pornstar, is among the list of famous residents in Westport. He graduated from the public high school and holds the Guinness World Record for most STD's and most testicles.

Nonprofit institutions[edit]

Save the Children, Westport, CT, USA 2012

Economy and industry[edit]

There are three periods in Westport's economic and industrial history. First was farming, then industry and manufacturing, and finally services: financial, professional, scientific, and technical.[15][75]

Farming – From 1648 with the settlement and commencement of farming at Bankside for the next two and half centuries Greens Farms flourished as an agricultural area. At its peak From 1861–1865 Westport was the largest onion seller to the U.S. Army during the Civil War in the United States. 75 farmers contributed to the onion industry that saw up to ten dollars for a barrel of white onions sold to the New York City market. 89–95 The onion industry ended with the arrival of the cutworm which wiped out the community's crop.[75]

Industrialization – in the 20th century, Westport's manufacturing activities expanded mills and factories and it became a shipping center.

Service industry – the financial services sector employs 7,171 in Westport; half of whom commute daily to Westport.[15] The financial services industry is a major segment of the local economy. The major financial services companies in Westport now are Bridgewater Associates, a global investment manager and Westport's largest employer, Canaan Partners, a leading early stage venture capital firm focusing on IT and life sciences, and BNY Mellon.[76] Professional, scientific, and technical services companies include Terex, a Fortune 500 company manufacturing industrial equipment and offering professional and technical services around those products, and dLife, a multimedia diabetes education (and marketing) company.

Transportation[edit]

Interstate 95, the Merritt Parkway and U.S. 1, as well as the Saugatuck River, run through Westport.

Westport has two train stations, Green's Farms and Westport on the Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, which serves Stamford and Grand Central Terminal in New York City or New Haven-Union Station. This line is shared with Amtrak trains as it is part of the Northeast Corridor, but no Amtrak services stop at Green's Farms or Westport. The nearest Amtrak stations are at Bridgeport (10 miles) and Stamford (12 miles).

Sister cities[edit]

Westport currently has three sister cities:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Westport town, Connecticut". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  2. ^ Ann Kerns (October 24, 2006). Martha Stewart. Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-0-8225-6613-7. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 
  3. ^ Sherman, Lauren (December 9, 2008). "In Depth: Twenty Most Affluent U.S. Neighborhoods". Forbes. Retrieved November 14, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Woody Klein; Westport Historical Society (Conn.) (May 2000). Westport, Connecticut: the story of a New England town's rise to prominence. Greenwood Press. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-0-313-31126-0. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d Prevost, Lisa (January 7, 2001). "If You're Thinking of Living In/Green's Farms; A Country Atmosphere Near the Sound". New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2011. 
  6. ^ Jennings. p. 148.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ United States. Congress (1871). Congressional edition. U.S. G.P.O. pp. 256–. Retrieved 12December 2011. 
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  10. ^ a b Powell, Mike (2007). "Westport, Conn., Buying Guide". New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b James G. Gimpel; Jason E. Schuknecht (June 14, 2004). Patchwork Nation: Sectionalism and Political Change in American Politics. University of Michigan Press. pp. 217–. ISBN 978-0-472-03030-9. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Ann Kerns (October 24, 2006). Martha Stewart. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-8225-6613-7. Retrieved 12December 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c Time Inc (August 8, 1949). LIFE. Time Inc. pp. 74–. ISSN 00243019. Retrieved 12December 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Michael N. Danielson; Jameson W. Doig (October 3, 1983). New York: The Politics of Urban Regional Development. University of California Press. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-0-520-04551-4. Retrieved 12December 2011. 
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  17. ^ R. H. Howard; Henry E. Crocker (1879). A history of New England: containing historical and descriptive sketches of the counties, cities and principal towns of the six New England states, including, in its list of contributors, more than sixty literary men and women, representing every county in New England. Crocker & co. p. 302. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  18. ^ Mark Mayo Boatner (1975). Landmarks of the American Revolution: a guide to locating and knowing what happened at the sites of independence. Hawthorn Books. pp. 45–47. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  19. ^ Connecticut State Library (1909). Bulletin. p. 50. Retrieved November 20, 2011. 
  20. ^ Woody Klein; Westport Historical Society (Conn.) (May 2000). Westport, Connecticut: the story of a New England town's rise to prominence. Greenwood Press. pp. 85–108. ISBN 978-0-313-31126-0. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  21. ^ James Jay Mapes (1853). Working farmer. Kingman & Cross. Retrieved 21November 2011. 
  22. ^ a b Woody Klein; Westport Historical Society (Conn.) (May 2000). Westport, Connecticut: the story of a New England town's rise to prominence. Greenwood Press. pp. 119–146. ISBN 978-0-313-31126-0. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Weather.com". Weather.com. 
  24. ^ "Historical Weather Westport, CT Weather". Retrieved December 7, 2011. 
  25. ^ Woody Klein; Westport Historical Society (Conn.) (May 2000). Westport, Connecticut: the story of a New England town's rise to prominence. Greenwood Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-313-31126-0. Retrieved November 30, 2011. 
  26. ^ Woody Klein; Westport Historical Society (Conn.) (May 2000). Westport, Connecticut: the story of a New England town's rise to prominence. Greenwood Press. pp. 16–29. ISBN 978-0-313-31126-0. Retrieved December 18, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 14, 2011. 
  28. ^ "25 top-earning towns". CNN. August 7, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  29. ^ Connecticut Mill Rates. Courant.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  30. ^ Smith, Alissa. (1933-02-15) Westport Mill Rate Increases 2.75 Percent. The Westport Daily Voice. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  31. ^ Town of Westport, CT : Fire Department. Westportct.gov (2012-08-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  32. ^ Msn.com Web page listing high schools in Newsweek survey. Retrieved September 5, 2006
  33. ^ WestportNow WestportNow article about Connecticut Magazine cover. Retrieved July 19, 2010
  34. ^ Steele, Charles (November 2008). "Top High Schools". Connecticut Magazine. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c Inzitari, Vanessa. "Westport School District Tops State Rankings". The Westport Daily Voice. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  36. ^ Coleytown Elementary School
  37. ^ King's Highway Elementary School
  38. ^ Green's Farms Elementary School
  39. ^ Saugatuck Elementary School
  40. ^ Long Lots Elementary School
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  43. ^ Directory of Child Day Care Centers: Northeast. Oryx Press. January 1, 1986. pp. 371–. ISBN 978-0-89774-256-6. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  44. ^ Lang, Kirk (November 3, 2011). "Saugatuck Nursery grows to keep up with youngsters". Westport News. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  45. ^ WestportCT.gov Westport 2010–2011 Fiscal Year Budget
  46. ^ Westport School District General information about the district incl. number of enrolled students
  47. ^ Lomuscio, James (September 1, 2010). "Opening Day for Schools Called a ‘Great Kickoff’". WestportNow.com. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  48. ^ Philip S. Harrington (November 30, 2010). Cosmic Challenge: The Ultimate Observing List for Amateurs. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-0-521-89936-9. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  49. ^ Astronomy. AstroMedia Corp. 1982. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  50. ^ a b Morris, Stacey (June 13, 2010). "Westport: The Beverly Hills of the East". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  51. ^ Numbers represent an ordering by significant words. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate National Historic Landmarks and historic districts from other NRHP buildings, structures, sites or objects.
  52. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  53. ^ "Historic Preservation Awards recipients announced for 2009". Town of Westport website. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
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