Way of St. James

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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Route of Santiago de Compostela
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Map of the Way of St. James in Europe
CountrySpain
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iv, vi
Reference669
UNESCO regionEurope and North America
Inscription history
Inscription1993 (17th Session)
 
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Route of Santiago de Compostela
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Map of the Way of St. James in Europe
CountrySpain
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iv, vi
Reference669
UNESCO regionEurope and North America
Inscription history
Inscription1993 (17th Session)

The Way of St. James or St. James' Way (Spanish: El Camino de Santiago, Galician: O Camiño de Santiago, French: Chemins de Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle, German: Jakobsweg, Basque: Done Jakue bidea) is the pilgrimage route to the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the apostle Saint James are buried.

Contents

Major Christian pilgrimage route[edit]

The Way of St. James was one of the most important Christian pilgrimages during medieval times, together with Rome and Jerusalem, and a pilgrimage route on which a plenary indulgence could be earned;[1] other major pilgrimage routes include the Via Francigena to Rome and the pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

Legend holds that St. James's remains were carried by boat from Jerusalem to northern Spain where he was buried on the site of what is now the city of Santiago de Compostela.

The Way can take one of any number of pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela. Traditionally, as with most pilgrimages, the Way of Saint James began at one's home and ended at the pilgrimage site. However a few of the routes are considered main ones. During the Middle Ages, the route was highly travelled. However, the Black Death, the Protestant Reformation and political unrest in 16th-century Europe led to its decline. By the 1980s, only a few pilgrims per year arrived in Santiago. Later, the route attracted a growing number of modern-day pilgrims from around the globe. The route was declared the first European Cultural Route by the Council of Europe in October 1987; it was also named one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

Whenever St. James's day (25 July) falls on a Sunday, the cathedral declares a Holy or Jubilee Year. Depending on leap years, Holy Years occur in 5, 6 and 11 year intervals. The most recent were 1982, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2010. The next will be 2021, 2027, and 2032.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Monument of the pilgrims, Burgos

The pilgrimage to Santiago has never ceased from the time of the discovery of St. James' remains, though there have been years of fewer pilgrims, particularly during European wars.

During the war of American Independence, John Adams was ordered by Congress to go to Paris to obtain funds for the cause. His ship started leaking and he disembarked with his two sons in Finisterre in 1779. From there he proceeded to follow the Way of St. James in the reverse direction of the pilgrims' route, in order to get to Paris overland. He did not stop to visit Santiago and came to regret this during the course of his journey. In his autobiography, he gave an accurate description of the customs and lodgings afforded to St. James pilgrims in the 18th century and mentioned the legend as it was then told to travellers:[2]

I have always regretted that We could not find time to make a Pilgrimage to Saintiago de Compostella. We were informed, ... that the Original of this Shrine and Temple of St. Iago was this. A certain Shepherd saw a bright Light there in the night. Afterwards it was revealed to an Archbishop that St. James was buried there. This laid the Foundation of a Church, and they have built an Altar on the Spot where the Shepherd saw the Light. In the time of the Moors, the People made a Vow, that if the Moors should be driven from this Country, they would give a certain portion of the Income of their Lands to Saint James. The Moors were defeated and expelled and it was reported and believed, that Saint James was in the Battle and fought with a drawn Sword at the head of the Spanish Troops, on Horseback. The People, believing that they owed the Victory to the Saint, very cheerfully fulfilled their Vows by paying the Tribute. ...Upon the Supposition that this is the place of the Sepulchre of Saint James, there are great numbers of Pilgrims, who visit it, every Year, from France, Spain, Italy and other parts of Europe, many of them on foot.

Pre-Christian history[edit]

The Christian origin of the pilgrimage has been well documented throughout the centuries, but no historical reference has been found for pagan origins.

The main pilgrimage route to Santiago follows an earlier Roman trade route, which continues to the Atlantic coast of Galicia, ending at Cape Finisterre. Although it is known today that Cape Finisterre, Spain's westernmost point, is not the westernmost point of mainland Europe (Cabo da Roca in Portugal is further west), the fact that the Romans called it Finisterrae (literally the end of the world or Land's End in Latin) indicates that they viewed it as such. At night, the Milky Way overhead seems to point the way, so the route acquired the nickname "La Voje Ladee" - the Milky Way. [3]

To this day, many pilgrims continue past Santiago de Compostela to finish their journeys at Cape Finisterre.

Scallop symbol[edit]

St. James pilgrim accessories
St. James the Moor Slayer

The scallop shell, often found on the shores in Galicia, has long been the symbol of the Camino de Santiago. Over the centuries the scallop shell has taken on mythical, metaphorical and practical meanings, even if its relevance may actually derive from the desire of pilgrims to take home a souvenir.

Two versions of the most common myth about the origin of the symbol concern the death of Saint James, who was martyred by beheading in Jerusalem in 44 AD. According to Spanish legends he had spent time preaching the gospel in Spain, but returned to Judea upon seeing a vision of the Virgin Mary on the bank of the Ebro river.[4][5]

Version 1: After James' death, his disciples shipped his body to the Iberian Peninsula to be buried in what is now Santiago. Off the coast of Spain a heavy storm hit the ship, and the body was lost to the ocean. After some time, however, the body washed ashore undamaged, covered in scallops.[citation needed]
Version 2: After James' death his body was mysteriously transported by a ship with no crew back to the Iberian Peninsula to be buried in what is now Santiago. As James' ship approached land, a wedding was taking place on the shore. The young groom was on horseback, and on seeing the ship approaching, his horse got spooked, and the horse and rider plunged into the sea. Through miraculous intervention, the horse and rider emerged from the water alive, covered in seashells.[citation needed]

The scallop shell also acts as a metaphor. The grooves in the shell, which come together at a single point, represent the various routes pilgrims traveled, eventually arriving at a single destination: the tomb of James in Santiago de Compostela. The shell is also a metaphor for the pilgrim. As the waves of the ocean wash scallop shells up on the shores of Galicia, God's hand also guides the pilgrims to Santiago.[citation needed]

The scallop shell also served practical purposes for pilgrims on the Camino de Santiago. The shell was the right size for gathering water to drink or for eating out of as a makeshift bowl.[citation needed]

The pilgrim's staff is a walking stick used by pilgrims to the shrine of Santiago de Compostela in Spain.[6] Generally, the stick has a hook on it so that something may be hung from it. The walking stick sometimes has a cross piece on it.[7]

Medieval route[edit]

The pilgrim route is a very good thing, but it is narrow. For the road which leads us to life is narrow; on the other hand, the road which leads to death is broad and spacious. The pilgrim route is for those who are good: it is the lack of vices, the thwarting of the body, the increase of virtues, pardon for sins, sorrow for the penitent, the road of the righteous, love of the saints, faith in the resurrection and the reward of the blessed, a separation from hell, the protection of the heavens. It takes us away from luscious foods, it makes gluttonous fatness vanish, it restrains voluptuousness, constrains the appetites of the flesh which attack the fortress of the soul, cleanses the spirit, leads us to contemplation, humbles the haughty, raises up the lowly, loves poverty. It hates the reproach of those fuelled by greed. It loves, on the other hand, the person who gives to the poor. It rewards those who live simply and do good works; And, on the other hand, it does not pluck those who are stingy and wicked from the claws of sin.

Codex Calixtinus
Saint James with his pilgrim's staff. The hat is typical, but he often wears his emblem, the scallop shell, on the front brim of the hat or elsewhere on his clothes (it may have been lost due to deterioration of the painting).
Way of St. James pilgrims (1568)

The earliest records of visits paid to the shrine dedicated to St. James at Santiago de Compostela date from the 9th century, in the time of the Kingdom of Asturias. The pilgrimage to the shrine became the most renowned medieval pilgrimage, and it became customary for those who returned from Compostela to carry back with them a Galician scallop shell as proof of their completion of the journey. This practice was gradually extended to other pilgrimages.[citation needed]

The earliest recorded pilgrims from beyond the Pyrenees visited the shrine in the middle of the 11th century, but it seems that it was not until a century later that large numbers of pilgrims from abroad were regularly journeying there. The earliest records of pilgrims that arrived from England belong to the period between 1092 and 1105. However, by the early 12th century the pilgrimage had become a highly organized affair.

One of the great proponents of the pilgrimage in the 12th century was Pope Callixtus II, who started the Compostelan Holy Years.[8] The official guide in those times was the Codex Calixtinus. Published around 1140, the 5th book of the Codex is still considered the definitive source for many modern guidebooks. Four pilgrimage routes listed in the Codex originate in France and converge at Puente la Reina. From there, a well-defined route crosses northern Spain, linking Burgos, Carrión de los Condes, Sahagún, León, Astorga, and Compostela.

The daily needs of pilgrims on their way to and from Compostela were met by a series of hospitals and hospices.[citation needed] These had royal protection and were a lucrative source of revenue. Romanesque architecture, a new genre of ecclesiastical architecture, was designed with massive archways to cope with huge devout crowds. There was also the sale of the now-familiar paraphernalia of tourism, such as badges and souvenirs. Since the Christian symbol for James the Greater was the scallop shell, many pilgrims wore one as a sign to anyone on the road that they were a pilgrim. This gave them privileges to sleep in churches and ask for free meals, but also warded off thieves who dared not attack devoted pilgrims.

The pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela was possible because of the protection and freedom provided by the Kingdom of France, where the majority of pilgrims originated. Enterprising French people (including Gascons and other peoples not under the French crown) settled in towns along the pilgrimage routes, where their names appear in the archives. The pilgrims were tended by people like Domingo de la Calzada, who was later recognized as a saint himself.

Pilgrims walked the Way of St. James, often for months, to arrive at the great church in the main square of Compostela and pay homage to St. James. So many pilgrims have laid their hands on the pillar just inside the doorway of the church that a groove has been worn in the stone.

The popular Spanish name for the astronomical Milky Way is El Camino de Santiago. According to a common medieval legend, the Milky Way was formed from the dust raised by travelling pilgrims.[9] Compostela itself means "field of stars". Another origin for this popular name is Book IV of the Book of Saint James which relates how the saint appeared in a dream to Charlemagne, urging him to liberate his tomb from the Moors and showing him the direction to follow by the route of the Milky Way.

As penance[edit]

Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert

The Church employed a system of rituals to atone for temporal punishment due to sins known as penance. According to this system, pilgrimages were a suitable form of expiation for some temporal punishment, and they could be used as acts of penance for those who were guilty of certain crimes. As noted in the Catholic Encyclopedia:[10]

In the registers of the Inquisition at Carcassone...we find the four following places noted as being the centres of the greater pilgrimages to be imposed as penances for the graver crimes: the tomb of the Apostles at Rome, the shrine of St. James at Compostella [sic], St. Thomas' body at Canterbury, and the relics of the Three Kings at Cologne.

There is still a tradition in Flanders of pardoning and releasing one prisoner every year[11] under the condition that this prisoner walks to Santiago wearing a heavy backpack, accompanied by a guard.

Modern-day pilgrimage[edit]

The modern symbol of the way

Today tens of thousands[12] of Christian pilgrims and many other travellers set out each year from their front doorstep, or popular starting points across Europe, to make their way to Santiago de Compostela. Most travel by foot, some by bicycle, and a few travel as some of their medieval counterparts did, on horseback or by donkey (for example, the British author and humourist Tim Moore). In addition to people undertaking a religious pilgrimage, the majority are travellers and hikers who walk the route for non-religious reasons: travel, sport, or simply the challenge of weeks of walking in a foreign land. Also, many consider the experience a spiritual adventure to remove themselves from the bustle of modern life. It serves as a retreat for many modern "pilgrims".

Routes[edit]

A post marking the way

Pilgrims on the Way of St. James walk for weeks or months to visit the city of Santiago de Compostela. They follow many routes (any path to Santiago is a pilgrim's path) but the most popular route is Via Regia and its last part - the French Way (Camino Francés). Historically, most of the pilgrims came from France, from Paris, Vézelay, Le Puy and Arles and Saint Gilles, due to the Codex Calixtinus. These are today important starting points. The Spanish consider the Pyrenees a starting point. Common starting points along the French border are Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port or Somport on the French side of the Pyrenees and Roncesvalles or Jaca on the Spanish side. (The distance from Roncesvalles to Santiago de Compostella through León is about 800 km.). Another possibility is to do the Northern Route that was first used by the pilgrims in order to avoid travelling through the territories occupied by the Muslims in the Middle Ages. The greatest attraction is its landscape, as a large part of the route runs along the coastline against a backdrop of mountains and overlooking the Cantabrian Sea.

However, many pilgrims begin further afield, in one of the four French towns which are common and traditional starting points: Paris, Vézelay, Arles and Le Puy. Cluny, site of the celebrated medieval abbey, was another important rallying point for pilgrims and, in 2002, it was integrated into the official European pilgrimage route linking Vézelay and Le Puy. Some pilgrims start from even further away, though their routes will often pass through one of the four French towns mentioned. Some Europeans begin their pilgrimage from the very doorstep of their homes just as their medieval counterparts did.

Another popular route is the 227 km long Central Portuguese Way, which starts at Sé Catedral in the city of Porto in the north of Portugal. There are two traditional routes from there, one inland (the Central Way) and the Coastal Way (Caminho da Costa). On the central route, Rates is considered the central site in the Portuguese Way.[13] The way has been used since the Middle Ages and the ancient monastery of Rates gained importance due to the legend of Saint Peter of Rates. The legend holds that Saint James ordained Peter as the first bishop of Braga in 44 AD. One of most tiring parts of the Portuguese Way is in the Labruja hills in Ponte de Lima, which are hard to cross. The camino winds its way inland until it reaches the Spanish border through Valença. The Coastal Way gained importance since the 15th century due to the growing importance of the coastal towns. The route splits from the central way in the countryside of Vila do Conde and enters the town through the Monastery of Santa Clara and the Matriz Church of Vila do Conde was built by king Manuel I of Portugal while in pilgrimage. The rising importance of Póvoa de Varzim imposed this new direction,[14] which also crosses Esposende, Viana do Castelo and Caminha before reaching the Spanish border.

Accommodation[edit]

St. James's shell, a symbol of the route, on a wall in León, Spain
A marker in the pavement indicates the route of the Way of St. James through Navarrete, La Rioja, Spain.

In Spain, France, and Portugal, pilgrim's hostels with beds in dormitories dot the common routes, providing overnight accommodation for pilgrims who hold a credencial (see below). In Spain this type of accommodation is called a refugio or albergue, both of which are similar to youth hostels or hostelries in the French system of gîtes d'étape.

Staying at pilgrim's hostels -known as albergues- usually costs between 5 and 10 euros per night per bed in a dormitory, although a few hostels known as donativos operate on voluntary donations (Municipal albergues cost 5 euros, while private albergues generally cost between 10 and 15 euros per night.) Pilgrims are usually limited to one night's accommodation and are expected to leave by eight in the morning to continue their pilgrimage.

Hostels may be run by the local parish, the local council, private owners, or pilgrims' associations. Occasionally these refugios are located in monasteries, such as the one run by monks in Samos, Spain and the one in Santiago de Compostela.

Credencial or pilgrim's passport[edit]

St. James pilgrim passport stamps in Spain for the Camino Frances
St. James pilgrim passport stamps in France on the Via Turenensis (Tours route) for the Chemin de St. Jacques de Compostelle. The World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France lists the major French towns with stamps.

Most pilgrims carry a document called the credencial, purchased for a few euros from a Spanish tourist agency, a church on the route or from their church back home. The credencial is a pass which gives access to inexpensive, sometimes free, overnight accommodation in refugios along the trail. Also known as the "pilgrim's passport", the credencial is stamped with the official St. James stamp of each town or refugio at which the pilgrim has stayed. It provides walking pilgrims with a record of where they ate or slept, but also serves as proof to the Pilgrim's Office in Santiago that the journey is accomplished according to an official route. The credencial is available at refugios, tourist offices, some local parish houses, and outside Spain, through the national St. James organisation of that country. The stamped credencial is also necessary if the pilgrim wants to obtain a compostela, a certificate of completion of the pilgrimage.

Most often the stamp can be obtained in the refugio, cathedral or local church. If the church is closed, the town hall or office of tourism can provide a stamp, as well as nearby youth hostels or private St. James addresses. Outside Spain, the stamp can be associated with something of a ceremony, where the stamper and the pilgrim can share information. As the pilgrimage approaches Santiago, many of the stamps in small towns are self-service due to the greater number of pilgrims, while in the larger towns there are several options to obtain the stamp.

Compostela[edit]

The compostela is a certificate of accomplishment given to pilgrims on completing the Way. To earn the compostela one needs to walk a minimum of 100 km or cycle at least 200 km. In practice, for walkers, that means starting in the small city of Sarria, for it has good transportation connections via bus and rail to other places in Spain. Pilgrims arriving in Santiago de Compostela who have walked at least the last 100 km, or cycled 200 km to get there (as indicated on their credencial), are eligible for the compostela from the Pilgrim's Office in Santiago.

The compostela has been indulgenced since the Early Middle Ages and remains so to this day.[15] The full text of the certificate is in Latin and reads:

CAPITULUM hujus Almae Apostolicae et Metropolitanae Ecclesiae Compostellanae sigilli Altaris Beati Jacobi Apostoli custos, ut omnibus Fidelibus et Perigrinis ex toto terrarum Orbe, devotionis affectu vel voti causa, ad limina Apostoli Nostri Hispaniarum Patroni ac Tutelaris SANCTI JACOBI convenientibus, authenticas visitationis litteras expediat, omnibus et singulis praesentes inspecturis, notum facit : (Latin version of name of recipient)

Hoc sacratissimum Templum pietatis causa devote visitasse. In quorum fidem praesentes litteras, sigillo ejusdem Sanctae Ecclesiae munitas, ei confero.

Datum Compostellae die (day) mensis (month) anno Dni (year)

Canonicus Deputatus pro Peregrinis

The pilgrim passport is examined for stamps and dates. If a key stamp is missing, the compostela may be refused. The pilgrim can state whether the goal of his Camino was 'religious', 'religious and other' or just 'other'. In the case of 'other' a compostelate in Spanish is given asking for blessing of this heathen. In the cases of 'religious' or 'religious and other' a compostelate in Latin is given. The Pilgrim Office of Santiago awards more than 100,000 compostelas a year to pilgrims from over 100 countries.

Pilgrim's Mass[edit]

Pilgrims finishing the Camino 1985-

Green bars are holy years

A Pilgrim's Mass is held in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela each day at noon for pilgrims. Pilgrims who received the compostela the day before have their countries of origin and the starting point of their pilgrimage announced at the Mass. The musical and visual highlight of the Mass is the synchronisation of the beautiful "Hymn to Santiago" with the spectacular swinging of the huge Botafumeiro, the famous thurible kept in the cathedral. Incense is burned in this swinging metal container, or "incensory". As the last chords die away, the multitude of pilgrims jostle happily as they crowd forward to reach the spiritual highlight of the Mass, the rite of communion. Priests administer the Sacrament of Penance, or confession, in many languages, permitting most pilgrims to complete the indulgence attached to the pilgrimage upon satisfying the other canonical conditions. In the Holy Year of 2010 the Pilgrim's Mass was exceptionally held four times a day, at 10 a.m., noon, 6 p.m., and 7:30 p.m., catering to the greater number of pilgrims arriving in the Holy Year.

As tourism[edit]

The Xunta de Galicia (Galicia's regional government) promotes the Way as a tourist activity, particularly in Holy Compostelan Years (when July 25 falls on a Sunday). Following the Xunta's considerable investment and hugely successful advertising campaign for the Holy Year of 1993, the number of pilgrims completing the route has been steadily rising. Following the Holy Year of 2010, the next Holy Year will not be for another 11 years, in 2021. More than 272,000 pilgrims made the trip during the course of 2010.

Below is a table detailing the numbers of pilgrims recorded as arriving at the cathedral at Santiago each year from 1985. The figures are sourced from the cathedral's records.

YearPilgrims
1985690
19861,801
19872,905
19883,501
19895,760²
19904,918
19917,274
19929,764
199399,4361
199415,863
199519,821
199623,218
199725,179
199830,126
1999154,6131
200055,004³
200161,418
200268,952
200374,614
2004179,9441
200593,924
2006100,377
2007114,026
2008125,141
2009145,877
2010272,7031
2011179,919
2012192,488
1 Holy Years (Xacobeo/Jacobeo)

2 4th World Youth Day in Santiago de Compostela
3 Santiago named European Capital of Culture
Source: The archives of Santiago de Compostela.[16][17][18]

In television and film[edit]

1969 The pilgrimage is central to the plot of the 1969 film The Milky Way by surrealist director Luis Buñuel. However, the film is intended to be a critique of the Catholic church, as the modern pilgrims encounter various manifestations of Catholic dogma and heresy.

2003 Art critic and journalist Brian Sewell made a journey to Santiago de Compostela for a television series The Naked Pilgrim for UK's Channel Five in 2003. Travelling by car along the French route, he visited many towns and cities on the way including Paris, Chartres, Roncesvalles, Burgos, Leon and Frómista. Sewell, a lapsed Catholic, was moved by the stories of other pilgrims and by the sights he saw. The series climaxed with Sewell's emotional response to the Mass at Compostela.

2004 In 2004 an Australian filmmaker walked the French Way (St Jean Pied du Port to Santiago), documenting his experience along the way in a documentary called The Way.[19]

2005 In 2005, The Way of St. James was the central feature of the film Saint Jacques... La Mecque directed by Coline Serreau.

2008 Part of the pilgrimage route is walked and described in the American food and travel television series produced by PBS Spain... on the Road Again, in episode 2, "Pilgrimage to Galicia". It originally aired September 27, 2008.

2010 The Way, a movie starring Martin Sheen and Emilio Estevez (who also wrote and directed), has as a central "character" the Way of St. James. It is a story of a father looking for answers after he receives news that his son has died on the Way; he takes up the pilgrimage in order to complete it for his son. The film was presented at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2010,[20][21] and premiered in Santiago in November 2010.

2011 The Huffington Post featured an article and short documentary video on walking the Camino de Santiago in March 2011.[22]

Name in other languages[edit]

The Way of St. James is most often referred to by the names used in the areas it passes:

See also[edit]

Literature[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^  Kent, William H. (1913). "Indulgences". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  . This entry on indulgences suggests that the evolution of the doctrine came to include pilgrimage to shrines as a trend that developed from the eighth century A.D.: "Among other forms of commutation were pilgrimages to well-known shrines such as that at St. Albans in England or at Compostela in Spain. But the most important place of pilgrimage was Rome. According to Bede (674-735) the visitatio liminum, or visit to the tomb of the Apostles, was even then regarded as a good work of great efficacy (Hist. Eccl., IV, 23). At first the pilgrims came simply to venerate the relics of the Apostles and martyrs; but in course of time their chief purpose was to gain the indulgences granted by the pope and attached especially to the Stations."
  2. ^ "John Adams autobiography, part 3, Peace, 1779-1780, sheet 10 of 18". Harvard University Press, 1961. August 2007. 
  3. ^ "Medieval footpath under the stars of the Milky Way". Telegraph Online.
  4. ^ Chadwick, Henry (1976), Priscillian of Avila, Oxford University Press 
  5. ^ Fletcher, Richard A. (1984), Saint James's Catapult : The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela, Oxford University Press 
  6. ^ "Pilgrim's Way to Santiago: Curiosities". Navarre Tourist Board.
  7. ^ Pilgrim's or Palmer's Staff (fr. bourdon): this was used as a device in a coat of arms as early at least as Edward II's reign, as will be seen. The Staff and the Escallop shell (q.v.) were the badge of the pilgrim, and hence it is but natural it should find its way into the shields of those who had visited the Holy Land. The usual form of representation is figure 1, but in some the hook is wanting, and when this is the case it is scarcely distinguishable from a pastoral staff as borne by some of the monasteries: it is shown in figure 2. While, too, it is represented under different forms, it is blazoned as will be seen also, under different names, e.g. a pilgrim's crutch, a crutch-staff, &c., but there is no reason to suppose that the different names can be correlated with different figures. The crutch, perhaps, should be represented with the transverse piece on the top of the staff (like the letter T) instead of across it. heraldsnet.org
  8. ^ "Brief history: The Camino – past, present & future". Camino Pilgrim Guides.
  9. ^ Bignami, Giovanni F. (26 March 2004). "Visions of the Milky Way". Science 303 (5666): 1979.
  10. ^ "Pilgrimages". New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved Dec 1, 2006.
  11. ^ "Huellas españolas en Flandes". Turismo de Bélgica.
  12. ^ "The present-day pilgrimage". The Confraternity of Saint James. 
  13. ^ Costa, António Carvalho da (1706). Corografia portugueza e descripçam topografica do famoso reyno de Portugal. Tomo I, Tratado V, Cap. IV "Da Villa de Rates" (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Off. de Valentim da Costa Deslandes. pp. 336–337. 
  14. ^ "Caminho de Santiago - Caminho Português da Costa". Câmara Municipal de Vila do Conde. Retrieved June 4, 2012. 
  15. ^ "The Compostela and the plenary indulgence". The Confraternity of Saint James.
  16. ^ Pilgrims by year according to the office of pilgrims at the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
  17. ^ Pilgrims 2006-2009 according to the office of pilgrims at the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
  18. ^ peregrinossantiago.es
  19. ^ Shea, Mark. "One man's spiritual journey along the way of St James". "youtube.com". Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  20. ^ "The Way (2010)". IMDb. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  21. ^ "The way official movie site". Theway-themovie.com. Retrieved 10 July 2011. 
  22. ^ Derk, George. "A Pilgrimage Walk To Santiago De Compostela". "vimeo.com". Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "Rick Steves travel show, episode: "Northern Spain and the Camino de Santiago"". ricksteves.com. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  24. ^ Bertelsens, Mikael. "Follow Mikael Bertelsen's pilgrimage in 24 sections". dr.dk. Retrieved 8 June 2012. (Danish)
  25. ^ Kidmose, Henrik (17 December 2012). "Julekalender med indhold" (in Danish). Retrieved 8 June 2012. (Danish)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°27′32″N 5°52′59″W / 42.459°N 5.883°W / 42.459; -5.883