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Scientific classification
Species:C. lanatus
Trinomial name
Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus
Watermelon output in 2005
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For other uses, see Watermelon (disambiguation).
Scientific classification
Species:C. lanatus
Trinomial name
Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus
Watermelon output in 2005

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, family Cucurbitaceae) is a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from southern Africa. Its fruit, which is also called watermelon, is a special kind referred to by botanists as a pepo, a berry which has a thick rind (exocarp) and fleshy center (mesocarp and endocarp). Pepos are derived from an inferior ovary, and are characteristic of the Cucurbitaceae. The watermelon fruit, loosely considered a type of melon – although not in the genus Cucumis – has a smooth exterior rind (usually green with dark green stripes or yellow spots) and a juicy, sweet interior flesh (usually deep red to pink, but sometimes orange, yellow, or white).


Watermelon Juice

Watermelon is thought to have originated in southern Africa, where it is found growing wild. It reaches maximum genetic diversity there, with sweet, bland and bitter forms. In the 19th century, Alphonse de Candolle[1] claimed the watermelon was indigenous to tropical Africa.[2] Though Citrullus colocynthis is often considered to be a wild ancestor of watermelon and is now found native in north and west Africa, it has been suggested on the basis of chloroplast DNA investigations that the cultivated and wild watermelon diverged independently from a common ancestor, possibly C. ecirrhosus from Namibia.[3]

Evidence of its cultivation in the Nile Valley was found from the second millennium BC. Watermelon seeds have been found at Twelfth Dynasty sites and in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.[4] Watermelon is also mentioned in the Bible as a food eaten by the ancient Israelites while they were in bondage in Egypt.[5]

By the 10th century, watermelons were being cultivated in China, which is today the world's single largest watermelon producer. By the 13th century, Moorish invaders had introduced the fruit to Europe; according to John Mariani's Dictionary of American Food and Drink, "watermelon" made its first appearance in an English dictionary in 1615.

Watermelons were grown by Native Americans in the 16th century. Early French explorers found the fruit being cultivated in the Mississippi Valley. Many sources list the watermelon as being introduced in Massachusetts as early as 1629. Southern food historian John Egerton has said he believes African slaves helped introduce the watermelon to the United States. Texas Agricultural Extension horticulturalist Jerry Parsons lists African slaves and European colonists as having distributed watermelons to many areas of the world. Parsons also mentions the crop being farmed by Native Americans in Florida (by 1664) and the Colorado River area (by 1799). Other early watermelon sightings include the Midwestern states (1673), Connecticut (1747) and the Illiana region (1822).

Charles Fredric Andrus, a horticulturist at the USDA Vegetable Breeding Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina, set out to produce a disease-resistant and wilt-resistant watermelon. The result, in 1954, was "that gray melon from Charleston". Its oblong shape and hard rind made it easy to stack and ship. Its adaptability meant it could be grown over a wide geographical area. It produced high yields and was resistant to the most serious watermelon diseases: anthracnose and fusarium wilt.[6]

Today, farmers in approximately 44 states in the US grow watermelon commercially, and almost all these varieties have some 'Charleston Gray' in their lineage. Georgia, Florida, Texas, California and Arizona are the US's largest watermelon producers. This now-common watermelon is often large enough that groceries often sell half or quarter melons. Some smaller, spherical varieties of watermelon, both red- and yellow-fleshed, are sometimes called "icebox melons".


Top five watermelon producers (2012, in tonnes)
 World total95,211,432
Source: UN FAOSTAT [7]
Seedless watermelon

For commercial plantings, one beehive per acre (4,000 m2 per hive) is the minimum recommendation by the US Department of Agriculture for pollination of conventional, seeded varieties. Because seedless hybrids have sterile pollen, pollinizer rows of varieties with viable pollen must also be planted. Since the supply of viable pollen is reduced and pollination is much more critical in producing the seedless variety, the recommended number of hives per acre, or pollinator density, increases to three hives per acre (1,300 m2 per hive). Watermelons have a longer growing period than other garden plants and can often take up to 85 days of growing to mature.

In Japan, farmers of the Zentsuji region found a way to grow cubic watermelons, by growing the fruits in glass boxes and letting them naturally assume the shape of the receptacle.[8] The cubic shape was originally designed to make the melons easier to stack and store, but the cubic watermelons are often more than double the price of normal ones, and much of their appeal to consumers is in their novelty. Pyramid-shaped watermelons have also been developed and any polyhedral shape may potentially also be used. Due to increased popularity a number of polycarbonate molds are now available for non-commercial growers to achieve heart, cubic, and other geometric shapes[9]


Watermelon, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy127 kJ (30 kcal)
7.55 g
Sugars6.2 g
Dietary fiber0.4 g
0.15 g
0.61 g
Vitamin A equiv.
28 μg
303 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.033 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.021 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.178 mg
0.221 mg
Vitamin B6
0.045 mg
4.1 mg
Vitamin C
8.1 mg
Trace metals
7 mg
0.24 mg
10 mg
0.038 mg
11 mg
112 mg
1 mg
0.1 mg
Other constituents
Water91.45 g
Lycopene4532 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

A watermelon contains about 6% sugar and 91% water by weight. As with many other fruits, it is a source of vitamin C.

The amino-acid citrulline was first extracted from watermelon and analyzed.[10] Watermelons contain a significant amount of citrulline and after consumption of several kilograms, an elevated concentration is measured in the blood plasma; this could be mistaken for citrullinaemia or other urea cycle disorders.[11]

Watermelon rinds, usually a light green or white color, are also edible and contain many hidden nutrients[vague], but most people avoid eating them due to their unappealing flavor. They are sometimes used as a vegetable.[12] In China, they are stir-fried, stewed or more often pickled. When stir-fried, the skin and fruit is removed, and the rind is cooked with olive oil, garlic, chili peppers, scallions, sugar and rum. Pickled watermelon rind is also commonly consumed in the Southern US.[13] Watermelon juice can be made into wine.[14]

Watermelon is mildly diuretic[15] and contains large amounts of carotenoids.[16] Watermelon with red flesh is a significant source of lycopene. Preliminary research indicates the consumption of watermelon may have antihypertensive effects.[17]


The more than 1200[18] cultivars of watermelon range in weight from less than one to more than 200 pounds; the flesh can be red, orange, yellow or white.[19]

Watermelon with yellow flesh
'Moon and stars' watermelon cultivar

Cultural references

Watermelon and other fruit in Boris Kustodiev's Merchant's Wife


See also


  1. ^ Candolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants (1882) pp 262ff, s.v. "Water-melon".
  2. ^ Wehner, Todd C. Watermelon Crop Information. North Carolina State University
  3. ^ Dane, Fenny; Liu, Jiarong (2006). "Diversity and origin of cultivated and citron type watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54 (6): 1255. doi:10.1007/s10722-006-9107-3. 
  4. ^ Zohary, Daniel and Hopf, Maria (2000) Domestication of Plants in the Old World, third edition, Oxford University Press, p. 193, ISBN 0198503571.
  5. ^ Freedman, David Noel and Myers, Allen C. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 1063–. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2. 
  6. ^ "Watermelon developer dies at 101". Post and Courier, 16 July 2007
  7. ^ "Statistics from: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. 
  8. ^ Square fruit stuns Japanese shoppers. BBC News, 15 June 2001.
  9. ^ [1]Heart and Cubic Shaped Watermelon Molds
  10. ^ Wada, M. (1930). "Über Citrullin, eine neue Aminosäure im Presssaft der Wassermelone, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad". Biochem. Zeit. 224: 420. 
  11. ^ Mandel, H.; Levy, N.; Izkovitch, S. and Korman, S. H. (2005). "Elevated plasma citrulline and arginine due to consumption of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon)". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 28 (4): 467–472. doi:10.1007/s10545-005-0467-1. PMID 15902549. 
  12. ^ "Watermelon Rind Stir-Fry". Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  13. ^ Rattray, Diana (30 January 2012). "Southern U.S. Cuisine: Judy's Pickled Watermelon Rind". Southernfood.about.com. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  14. ^ Watermelon Wines. winemaking.jackkeller.net
  15. ^ The Associated Press (3 July 2008). "CBC News – Health – Watermelon the real passion fruit?". CBC. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  16. ^ "HowStuffWorks "Health Benefits of Watermelon"". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  17. ^ Figueroa A, Sanchez-Gonzalez MA, Wong A, Arjmandi BH (2012). "Watermelon extract supplementation reduces ankle blood pressure and carotid augmentation index in obese adults with prehypertension or hypertension". American journal of hypertension 25 (6): 640–3. doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.20. PMID 22402472. 
  18. ^ "Vegetable Research & Extension Center – Icebox Watermelons". Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  19. ^ "Watermelons". Annie's Heirloom Seeds. Retrieved 2011-08-24. 
  20. ^ "Orangeglo Watermelon". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  21. ^ "Moon and Stars Watermelon Heirloom". rareseeds.com. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  22. ^ Evans, Lynette (2005-07-15). "Moon & Stars watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) — Seed-spittin' melons makin' a comeback". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
  23. ^ "Moon and Stars Watermelon". Archived from the original on 2007-06-02. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  24. ^ "Watermelon, Cream Saskatchewan". seedsavers.org. 
  25. ^ "Melitopolski Watermelon". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  26. ^ Hosaka, Tomoko A. (6 June 2008). "Black Japanese watermelon sold at record price". The Associated Pres. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  27. ^ The Asian Texans By Marilyn Dell Brady, Texas A&M University Press
  28. ^ Brown, Joshua (2006). Beyond the Lines: Pictorial Reporting, Everyday Life, And the Crisis of Gilded Age America. University of California Press, p. 284, ISBN 0520248147.
  29. ^ "Oklahoma Declares Watermelon Its State Vegetable". CBS4denver. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  30. ^ "Watermelon May Have Viagra-effect". Science Daily. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  31. ^ Watermelon shortage averted. CBC News. 27 November 2009.

External links