Washington Dulles International Airport

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Washington Dulles International Airport
Logo of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.svg
Washington Dulles International Airport at Dusk.jpg
IATA: IADICAO: KIADFAA LID: IAD
WMO: 72403
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorMetropolitan Washington Airports Authority
ServesWashington metropolitan area
LocationDulles, Virginia, U.S.
Hub forUnited Airlines
Focus city forFrontier Airlines (from August 19, 2014)[1]
Elevation AMSL313 ft / 95 m
Coordinates38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583Coordinates: 38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583
Websitemwaa.com/dulles
Map
IAD is located in Virginia
IAD
IAD
Location in Virginia
Runways
DirectionLengthSurface
ftm
1L/19R9,4002,865Concrete
1C/19C11,5003,505Concrete
1R/19L11,5003,505Concrete
12/3010,5003,200Concrete
12R/30L10,5003,200Planned
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[2]
 
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This article is about the airport. For the Washington Metro station that will service the airport beginning in 2018, see Washington Dulles International Airport (WMATA station).
Washington Dulles International Airport
Logo of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.svg
Washington Dulles International Airport at Dusk.jpg
IATA: IADICAO: KIADFAA LID: IAD
WMO: 72403
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorMetropolitan Washington Airports Authority
ServesWashington metropolitan area
LocationDulles, Virginia, U.S.
Hub forUnited Airlines
Focus city forFrontier Airlines (from August 19, 2014)[1]
Elevation AMSL313 ft / 95 m
Coordinates38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583Coordinates: 38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583
Websitemwaa.com/dulles
Map
IAD is located in Virginia
IAD
IAD
Location in Virginia
Runways
DirectionLengthSurface
ftm
1L/19R9,4002,865Concrete
1C/19C11,5003,505Concrete
1R/19L11,5003,505Concrete
12/3010,5003,200Concrete
12R/30L10,5003,200Planned
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[2]

Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IADICAO: KIADFAA LID: IAD) is a public airport in Dulles, Virginia, 26 miles (42 km) west of downtown Washington, D.C.[3] The airport serves the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area, centered on the District of Columbia. The airport is named after John Foster Dulles, the 52nd Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Dulles main terminal is a well-known landmark designed by Eero Saarinen. Operated by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Dulles Airport occupies 11,830 acres (47.9 km2)[4] straddling the border of Fairfax County and Loudoun County, Virginia,[2] within the unincorporated communities of Chantilly and Dulles.

Washington Dulles Airport is the busiest airport in the Washington metropolitan area, and second busiest airport in the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area (after BWI Airport) with over 22 million passengers a year, and one of United Airlines' two East Coast hub airports.[5][6] With nearly all of the international passenger traffic in the Washington-Baltimore region, Dulles is the busiest international airport in the Mid-Atlantic outside of the New York metropolitan area.[7] On a typical day, more than 60,000 passengers pass through Washington Dulles to and from more than 125 destinations around the world.[5][8]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

At the end of World War II, growth in aviation and in the Washington metropolitan area led Congress to pass the Washington Airport Act of 1950, providing federal backing for a second airport. After preliminary proposals failed, including one to establish an international airport at what is now Burke Lake Park, the current site was selected by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958. As a result of the selection, the unincorporated community of Willard, which once stood in the airport's current footprint, was demolished.[9]

Design and original construction[edit]

Dulles Airport in 1970

The civil engineering firm Ammann and Whitney was named lead contractor. The airport was dedicated by President John F. Kennedy on November 17, 1962. Its original name, Dulles International Airport, was changed in 1984 to Washington Dulles International Airport.[10] The main terminal was designed in 1958 by famed Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and it is highly regarded for its graceful beauty, suggestive of flight. In the 1990s, the main terminal at Dulles was reconfigured to allow more space between the front of the building and the ticket counters. Additions at both ends of the main terminal more than doubled the structure's length. The original terminal at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in Taoyuan, Taiwan was modeled after the Saarinen terminal at Dulles.

The design included a landscaped man-made lake to collect rainwater, a low-rise hotel, and a row of office buildings along the north side of the main parking lot. The design also included a two-level road in front of the terminal to separate arrival and departure traffic and a federally owned limited access highway connecting the terminal to the Capital Beltway (I-495) about 17 miles (27 km) to the east. (Eventually, the highway system grew to include a parallel toll road to handle commuter traffic and an extension to connect to I-66). The access road had a wide median strip to allow the construction of a passenger rail line, which will be in the form of an extension of the Washington Metro and is expected to be completed in 2018.

Notable operations and milestones[edit]

Planned development[edit]

Main Terminal Station of Aerotrain

By the 1980s, the original design, which had mobile lounges meet each plane, was no longer well-suited to Dulles' role as a hub airport. Instead, midfield concourses were added to allow passengers to walk between connecting flights without visiting the main terminal. Mobile lounges were still used for international flights and to transport passengers between the midfield concourses and the main terminal. An underground tunnel (consisting of a passenger walkway and moving sidewalks) which links the main terminal and Concourse B was opened in 2004.[20] The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) began a renovation program for the airport including a new security mezzanine with more room for lines.[21]

A new train system, dubbed AeroTrain and developed by Mitsubishi, began in 2010 to transport passengers between the concourses and the main terminal.[22] The system, which uses rubber tires and travels along a fixed underground guideway,[22] is similar to the people mover systems at Singapore Changi Airport,[22] Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and Denver International Airport. The train is intended to replace the mobile lounges, which many passengers found crowded and inconvenient. The initial phase includes the main terminal station, a permanent Concourse A station, a permanent Concourse B station, a permanent midfield concourse station (with access to the current temporary C concourse via a tunnel with moving walkways), and a maintenance facility.[22] Mobile lounges continue to service the D Concourse from both the main terminal and Concourse A. Even after AeroTrain is built out and the replacement Concourses C and D are built, the mobile lounges and plane mates will still continue to be used, to transport international arriving passengers to the International Arrivals Building, as well as transport passengers to aircraft parked on hardstands without direct access to jet bridges. Dulles has stated that the wait time for a train does not exceed four minutes, compared to the average 15-minute wait and travel time for mobile lounges.

Under the development plan, future phases would see the addition of several new midfield concourses and a new south terminal.[23] A fourth runway (parallel to the existing runways 1 and 19 L&R) opened in 2008,[24] and development plans include a fifth runway to parallel the existing runway 12–30.[25] If this runway is built, the current runway will be redesignated as 12L-30R while the new runway will be designated 12R-30L. An expansion of the B concourse, used by many low cost airlines as well as international arrivals, has been completed, and the building housing Concourses C and D will eventually be knocked down to make room for a more ergonomic building. Because Concourses C and D are temporary concourses, the only way to get to those concourses is via moving walkway from the Concourse C station which is built in the location of the future gates and Concourse D by mobile lounge from the main terminal.[26]

Statistics[edit]

An assortment of United Airlines Boeing 767-300ER and Boeing 777-200ERs lined up at Concourse C in 2011.

Dulles is one of two East Coast hubs for United Airlines (the other being Newark Liberty International Airport), and serves as one of United's two transatlantic gateways. United handled 65.2% of scheduled air carrier passengers at the airport in 2013.[27] JetBlue Airways handled 1.7% of scheduled air carrier passengers. American Airlines is the airport's third largest carrier in tickets sold and handled: 4%.[27] In addition, 25 foreign carriers have service in and out of Washington Dulles. On a typical day, Dulles averages 1,000 to 1,200 flight operations.[28] Dulles International served 22.6 million passengers in 2012, a 2.8% decrease over 2011. However, international passenger traffic has increased by 2.0% during the same time.[29] Additional international service is commencing service at Washington Dulles. With 43 weekly flights, Dulles is now the second largest United States gateway to the Middle East. Even before the United States economic recession started, international passengers have continued to grow, which prompted the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority to expand the international arrivals building to handle 2,400 passengers per hour.

Busiest international routes from Dulles (2013)[30]
RankAirportPassengersCarriers
1London (Heathrow), United Kingdom902,878British Airways, United, Virgin Atlantic
2Frankfurt, Germany595,546Lufthansa, United
3Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France446,332Air France, United
4Dubai, United Arab Emirates347,247Emirates, United
5Tokyo (Narita), Japan279,915All Nippon Airways, United
6Amsterdam, Netherlands267,681KLM, United
7San Salvador, El Salvador267,061Avianca, United
8Munich, Germany241,541Lufthansa, United
9Brussels, Belgium195,476Brussels Airlines, United
10Doha, Qatar187,874Qatar Airways
Busiest domestic routes from Dulles (March 2013 - February 2014)[31]
RankAirportPassengersCarriers
1Los Angeles, California610,000American, United, Virgin America
2San Francisco, California566,000United, Virgin America
3Denver, Colorado466,000Southwest, United
4Atlanta, Georgia320,000Delta, United
5Boston, Massachusetts267,000JetBlue, United
6Chicago (O'Hare), Illinois264,000United
7Charlotte, North Carolina227,000United, US Airways
8Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas219,000American, United
9Orlando, Florida196,000JetBlue, United
10Chicago (Midway), Illinois183,000Southwest
Largest Carriers at Dulles (April 2012–March 2013)[32]
RankAirlinePassengers
1United Airlines9,051,707
2ExpressJet Airlines (Delta Connection, United Express)2,302,142
3Mesa Airlines (United Express, US Airways Express)1,151,729
4American Airlines752,216
5Southwest Airlines613,030
6Trans States Airlines (United Express)562,322
7JetBlue Airways544,071
8Delta Air Lines513,033
9Virgin America455,131
Traffic by calendar year[5]
YearPassengersChange from
previous year
Aircraft operationsCargo
(tonnes)[33]
199919,797,329465,195395,981
200020,104,693Increase1.55%456,436423,197
200118,002,319Decrease10.46%396,886364,833
200217,235,163Decrease4.26%372,636358,171
200316,950,381Decrease1.65%335,397314,601
200422,868,852Increase34.92%469,634342,521
200527,052,118Increase18.29%509,652334,071
200623,020,362Decrease14.90%379,571386,785
200724,737,528Increase7.46%382,943395,377
200823,876,780Decrease3.48%360,292368,064
200923,213,341Decrease2.78%340,367358,535
201023,741,603Increase2.28%336,531366,333
201123,211,856Decrease2.22%327,493333,683
201222,561,521Decrease2.80%312,070302,766
201321,947,065Decrease2.70%307,801253,361

Terminals[edit]

A plane mate

[discuss]

The airport's terminal complex consists of a main terminal and two midfield terminal buildings: Concourses A/B and C/D. The entire terminal complex has 123 gates and 16 hardstand locations[34] from which passengers can board or disembark using the airport's plane mate vehicles.[4]

Conceived in early planning sessions in 1959, Dulles is one of the few remaining airports to use the mobile lounge (also known as "plane mates" or "people movers") for boarding and disembarkation from aircraft, and to transfer passengers between the midfield concourses and to and from the main terminal building. They have all been given names based on the postal abbreviations of 50 states, e.g.: VA, MD, AK.[35]

The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority has begun to gradually phase out the mobile lounge system for inter-terminal passenger movements in favor of the AeroTrain, an underground people mover which currently operates to Concourses A, B and C, and underground pedestrian walkway tunnels (now in service to concourse A/B). The mobile lounges are still used to transport passengers directly from the main terminal to Concourse D. Plane mates also remain in use to disembark international passengers and carry them to the International Arrivals Building, as well as to convey passengers to and from aircraft on hard stand (i.e., those parked remotely on the apron without access to jet bridges).[36][37]

Main terminal[edit]

The terminal ceiling is suspended in a catenary curve above the luggage check-in area.

The iconic main terminal (which houses ticketing, baggage claim, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Z gates, and other support facilities) was recognized by the American Institute of Architects in 1966 for its design concept; its roof is a suspended catenary providing a wide enclosed area unimpeded by any columns. It houses ticketing, baggage claim, and information facilities, as well as the International Arrivals Building for passenger processing.

The main terminal was extended in 1996 to 1,240 feet (380 m)—Saarinen's original design length—which was slightly more than double its originally constructed length of 600 feet (180 m).[34] In addition, an extension for international arrivals was added to the west of the main terminal in 1991. On September 22, 2009, an expansion of the international arrivals building opened which includes a 41,400 square feet (3,850 m2) arrival hall for customs and immigration processing. The new facility has the capacity to process 2,400 arriving passengers per hour.[38]

In September 2009, a 121,700 square feet (11,310 m2) central Transportation Security Administration checkpoint was added on a new security mezzanine level of the main terminal. This checkpoint replaced previous checkpoints located behind the ticketing areas.[39] A separate security checkpoint is available on the baggage claim level. Both security checkpoints connect to the new AeroTrain, which links the main terminal with the A, B, and C concourses.

There are two sets of gates in the main terminal: the "H" Gates, which are waiting areas for airlines which lack permanent physical gates and therefore use plane mates to reach planes parked at 16 hard-stand locations, and the "Z" Gates (with 4 gates), which provides service for Frontier Airlines (as of August 19, 2014).

Midfield terminals[edit]

Main Terminal AeroTrain station

There are two midfield terminal buildings at Dulles: one contains the A and B midfield concourses, the other the C and D midfield concourses.

Concourses A and B[edit]

All non-United flights operate out of these two concourses. Concourse A (which has 47 gates) consists of a permanent ground level set of gates designed for small planes such as regional jets and several former B concourse gates.[40] The concourse is primarily used for international flights. Air France operates an airline lounge opposite gate A22, Ethiad Airways operates a First and Business Class lounge across from gate A15, Virgin Atlantic has a Clubhouse lounge across from gate A32. Concourse A's AeroTrain station is located halfway along the horizontal length of the building, between gates A6 and A14.

Concourse B (which has 28 gates) is the first of the permanent elevated midfield concourses. Originally constructed in 1998 and designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum, the B concourse contained 20 gates. In 2003, 4 additional gates were added to concourse B, followed by a 15-gate expansion in 2008.[41] It is connected to the main terminal by an underground walkway in addition to the AeroTrain station located between gates B51 and B62. Concourse B is used by some international carriers, and is also utilized by all non-United domestic and Canada flights. The facility also includes a British Airways Galleries lounge and a Lufthansa Senator lounge.

Concourses C and D[edit]

The C and D concourses are exclusively used for United Airlines flights, as well as most United Express operations (some United Express operations use Concourse A). They were completed in 1983 and designed by Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum. The two concourses have 22 gates each, numbered C1-C28 and D1-D32, with odd-numbered gates on the north side of the building and even numbered gates on the south side.[42][43] The C/D concourses were given a face lift in 2006 which included light fixture upgrades, new paint finishes, new ceiling grids and tiles, heating and air conditioning replacement, and complete restroom renovations.[43] Concourse C also has a dedicated Federal Inspection Station at ground level. International United flights therefore deplane passengers via jetbridge at Concourse C, and subsequently passengers ending their journey at Dulles can ride a mobile lounge to the International Arrivals Building at the main terminal while passengers connecting to further domestic or international flights clear U.S. Customs and Immigration at the FIS station. Since this immigration facility is only for connecting passengers on United and other Star Alliance carriers, it has shorter lines and passengers don't have to reclear security at the massive security checkpoints in the main terminal.

There are three United Clubs in the facility: one next to Gate C7, one next to gate C17, and one next to gate D8. Concourse C also has a United International First Lounge near gate C2.

A new and permanent C/D concourse (also called "Tier 2") is planned as part of the D2 Dulles Development Project. The new building is to include a three-level structure with 44 airline gates and similar amenities to Concourse B.[43] The concourse plan includes a dedicated mezzanine corridor with moving sidewalks to serve international passengers. The design and construction of the new C/D concourse has not been scheduled.[43]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

An Austrian Airlines Boeing 767-300 landing on Runway 19C /1C
A South African Airways Airbus A340-300 parked at Concourse A
A Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300 parked at Concourse A
A United Airlines Boeing 777-200 lands on Runway 1R/19L

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsConcourse
AeroflotMoscow–SheremetyevoA
AeroméxicoMexico CityA
Air ChinaBeijing-Capital[44]A
Air FranceParis–Charles de GaulleA
All Nippon AirwaysTokyo–NaritaB
American AirlinesDallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, MiamiB
Austrian Airlines
operated by Tyrolean Airways
ViennaB
AviancaBogotá, La Paz, San SalvadorB
British AirwaysLondon–HeathrowB
Brussels AirlinesSeasonal: Brussels[45]B
Cayman AirwaysSeasonal: Grand CaymanB
Copa AirlinesPanama CityA
Delta Air LinesAtlanta
Seasonal: Cancún, Minneapolis/St. Paul
B
Delta ConnectionAtlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFKB
Elite AirwaysMelbourne (FL) (begins September 8, 2014)[46]TBA
EmiratesDubai-InternationalA
Ethiopian Airlines1Addis AbabaA
Etihad AirwaysAbu DhabiA
Frontier Airlines[47]Atlanta (begins August 19, 2014), Cancun (begins November 22, 2014), Charlotte (begins August 20, 2014), Chicago-O'Hare (begins September 15, 2014), Cincinnati (begins September 8, 2014), Cleveland (begins October 1, 2014), Detroit (begins September 8, 2014), Fort Lauderdale (begins September 9, 2014), Fort Myers (begins September 9, 2014), Las Vegas (begins September 8, 2014), Memphis (begins September 8, 2014), Minneapolis–St. Paul (begins August 20, 2014), Nassau (begins November 20, 2014 pending goverment approval),[48] Orlando (begins August 19, 2014), St. Augustine (begins September 8, 2014), St. Louis (begins September 8, 2014), Tampa (begins August 19, 2014), West Palm Beach (begins November 21, 2014)Z
IcelandairReykjavík–KeflavíkA
JetBlue AirwaysBoston, Long Beach (ends September 2, 2014),[49] New York–JFKB
KLMAmsterdamA
Korean AirSeoul–IncheonA
LufthansaFrankfurt, MunichB
Porter AirlinesToronto–Billy BishopA
Qatar AirwaysDohaB
SaudiaJeddah, RiyadhA
Scandinavian AirlinesCopenhagenB
South African AirwaysDakar, JohannesburgB
Southwest AirlinesChicago–Midway, Denver, Las Vegas (begins November 2, 2014), San Diego (begins November 2, 2014)B
Sun Air InternationalHagerstown, LancasterB
Turkish AirlinesIstanbul–AtatürkB
United AirlinesAmsterdam, Aruba, Bahrain, Beijing–Capital, Boston, Brussels, Cancún, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Doha (ends August 30, 2014),[50] Dubai-International, Frankfurt, Geneva, Grand Cayman, Guatemala City, Honolulu, Houston–Intercontinental, Kuwait, Las Vegas, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Munich, New Orleans, Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Singapore, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, Tampa, Tokyo–Narita, Zürich
Seasonal: Austin, Dublin, Hartford, Hayden/Steamboat Springs (begins December 14, 2014),[51] Jackson Hole (begins December 20, 2014),[51] Madrid, Manchester (UK), Montego Bay, Punta Cana, Rome–Fiumicino, San José del Cabo (begins December 20, 2014),[52] Vancouver
C, D
United ExpressAlbany (NY), Atlanta, Altoona (ends September 30, 2014),[53] Austin, Beckley, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Charlottesville, Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Clarksburg, Cleveland, Colorado Springs (ends September 18, 2014), Columbia (SC), Columbus (OH), Dallas/Fort Worth, Dayton, Detroit, DuBois (PA) (begins October 1, 2014), Fayetteville (NC), Grand Rapids, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Houston–Intercontinental, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Johnstown, Kansas City, Knoxville, Lewisburg (WV), Louisville, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal–Trudeau, Morgantown, Nashville, New Orleans, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Ottawa, Parkersburg (WV) (begins October 1, 2014), Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (NY), St. Louis, San Antonio, Savannah, Shenandoah Valley, State College, Syracuse, Toronto–Pearson, Tulsa (ends January 6, 2015, resumes March 5 2015)
Seasonal: Halifax, Myrtle Beach, Nassau,[54] Québec City
A, C, D
US Airways ExpressCharlotteB
Virgin AmericaLos Angeles, San FranciscoB
Virgin AtlanticLondon-HeathrowA

^1 Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Addis Ababa to Dulles stops at Rome-Fiumicino, but the flight from Dulles to Addis Ababa is nonstop.

Airline lounges[edit]

Nonstop domestic and nonstop or direct international service from Dulles
Air France operates daily Airbus A380 flights to Charles de Gaulle Airport from gate A20/A22, as seen in the photo. Along with United Airlines, the route carries 480,000 passengers a year.

Since many major domestic and international airlines have a large presence at Washington Dulles, there are several airline lounges in active operation there.

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
FedEx ExpressHarrisburg, Indianapolis, Memphis, Newark
FedEx Feeder
operated by Mountain Air Cargo
Newark
UPS AirlinesLouisville, Richmond

Ground transportation[edit]

Roads[edit]

Dulles is accessible via the Dulles Access Road/Dulles Greenway (State Route 267) and State Route 28. The Dulles Airport Access Highway (DAAH) is a toll-free, limited access, highway owned by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) to facilitate car access to Dulles from the Washington Capital Beltway and Interstate 66.[58] After it opened, non-airport traffic between Washington and Reston became so heavy that a parallel set of toll lanes were added on the same right-of-way to accommodate non-airport traffic (Dulles Toll Road). However, the airport-only lanes are both less congested as well as toll-free. As of November 1, 2008, MWAA assumed responsibility from the Virginia Department of Transportation both for operating the Dulles Toll Road and for the construction of a rapid transit rail line down its median. Route 28, which runs north–south along the eastern edge of the airport, has been upgraded to a limited access highway, with the interchanges financed through a property tax surcharge on nearby business properties. The Dulles Toll Road has been extended to the west to Leesburg as the Dulles Greenway.

Mass transportation[edit]

Fairfax Connector routes 981 and 983 serve Dulles, connecting to the Herndon–Monroe park & ride lot in Herndon, the Reston Town Center transit in Reston, the Wiehle – Reston East Metro station, and the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center Air and Space Museum.

As of 2014, the only Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority service to Dulles is the "Express" 5A Metrobus route. The 5A express bus makes two stops on its way from the airport to downtown Washington. Stops include the Herndon–Monroe park & ride lot in Herndon and the Rosslyn Metro station in Arlington. It terminates at the L'Enfant Plaza Metro station in Southwest DC. Both metro stations can be accessed by the Orange, Blue, and Silver lines, while the latter can also be accessed by the Yellow and Green lines.

An alternative (but slightly more expensive)[59] way of reaching Dulles is the Washington Flyer Coach bus service that operates roughly every twenty minutes between the airport and the Wiehle – Reston East Metro station. Washington Flyer service will be permanently discontinued when Phase II of the Silver Line opens in 2018.[60]

Loudoun County Transit provides a bus service which runs from the Dulles Town Center shopping center, to the airport, then to the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center Air and Space Museum but will end September 1 2014.

Passengers connecting to the Shenandoah Valley can use the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus, which connects to the Vienna and Rosslyn Metro stations. Taxis and SuperShuttle ride sharing vans are also available.

Planned[edit]

Construction is now underway to connect the airport to Washington via the Silver Line of the Washington Metro.[61] While initial plans called for completion of the station in 2016, officials now expect the construction to be completed in 2018.[62][63]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

Accidents[edit]

Control Tower view of IAD in 1961.

Incidents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.travelandtourworld.com/news/article/frontier-airlines-establishes-focus-city-washington/
  2. ^ a b FAA Airport Master Record for IAD (Form 5010 PDF)
  3. ^ "Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Facts About Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c "Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) Air Traffic Statistics". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Preliminary CY 2012 Enplanements". Federal Aviation Administration. 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013. [dead link]
  7. ^ "U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report". Office of the Assistant Secretary for Aviation and International Affairs, U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Air Service Maps – IAD". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  9. ^ Scheel, Eugene. "History of Dulles Airport". Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  10. ^ "History of Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  11. ^ Aviation Daily 23 Feb 1971 p. 291
  12. ^ "Space Shuttle Pavilion". IntrepidMuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  13. ^ Reuters (January 25, 1990). "Tribute to Eisenhower". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2011. see also, 101st Congress, S.J.RES.239.
  14. ^ "Blackbird Records". SR-71 Online. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  15. ^ "United Airlines". Century-of-flight.net. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  16. ^ "United Express moves to Concourse A at Dulles International Airport". United.com. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  17. ^ Coombs, Joe (February 7, 2008). "Passenger numbers up at Dulles International, Reagan National airports". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved April 6, 2008. 
  18. ^ Lufthansa starts 747-8 flights to Dulles - Washington Business Journal. Bizjournals.com (2012-06-01). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  19. ^ Ethiopian Airlines Inaugurates 787 Dreamliner Airplane at Washington Dulles International Airport. ET African Journeys (2012-08-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  20. ^ "Passenger Walkway to Concourses A and B Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Dulles Development: Main Terminal Improvement Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Aerotrain – Dulles Train System Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  23. ^ Weiss, Eric M. (August 19, 2008). "Dulles Updates Its People Movers". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  24. ^ "D2 Projects: Fourth Runway". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  25. ^ "D2 Projects: Future Fifth Runway". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  26. ^ Fox, Peggy (January 25, 2010). "Dulles Airport To Open AeroTrain". 9 News Now (WUSA). Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  27. ^ a b "Total Passenters by Airline: January 2010 – December 2010". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. January 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014. 
  28. ^ "Total Operations by Airline-May 2010 – April 2011". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. May 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  29. ^ Washington's Airports Set Records for Passenger Growth. Mwaa.com (2013-02-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
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