Wartime sexual violence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
  (Redirected from War rape)
Jump to: navigation, search
Balkangräuel, Gottfried Sieben (de), 1909

Wartime sexual violence are rapes or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war, or during military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives. Wartime sexual violence may also include gang rape and rape with objects. It is distinguished from sexual assaults and rape committed amongst troops in military service.[1][2][3] It also covers the situation where girls and women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power.

During war and armed conflict, rape is frequently used as a means of psychological warfare in order to humiliate the enemy. War rape is often systematic and thorough. Wartime sexual violence may occur in a variety of situations, including institutionalised sexual slavery, wartime sexual violence associated with specific battles or massacres, and individual or isolated acts of sexual violence.

Rape is recognized as an element of the crime of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group; however, rape remains widespread in conflict zones. There are other international legal instruments to prosecute perpetrators but this has occurred as late as the 1990s.[citation needed] However, these legal instruments have so far only been used for international conflicts, thus putting the burden of proof in citing the international nature of conflict in order for prosecution to proceed.

Gender[edit]

Part of the monument to the Condottieri Giovanni dalle Bande Nere.
The Captain's Share of the Booty, 1868.

Susan Brownmiller was the first historian to attempt an overview of rape in war with documentation and theory.[4] Brownmiller's thesis is that "War provides men with the perfect psychological backdrop to give vent to their contempt for women. The maleness of the military—the brute power of weaponry exclusive to their hands, the spiritual bonding of men at arms, the manly discipline of orders given and orders obeyed, the simple logic of the hierarchical command—confirms for men what they long suspect—that women are peripheral to the world that counts." She writes that rape accompanies territorial advance by the winning side in land conflicts as one of the spoils of war, and that "Men who rape are ordinary Joes, made unordinary by entry into the most exclusive male-only club in the world."

Kelly Dawn Askin observes that increasingly, the victims of war are civilians. An estimated forty-five million plus civilians died during World War II. Male and female civilians may be subject to torture, but many studies show that war rape is more frequently perpetrated on women than men.[5][6] This may be due to the reluctance of men to come forward with accusations of being raped, and also an institutional bias amongst NGOs, who frequently focus resources on female victims.[7] A 2010 Journal of the American Medical Association survey found that 22% of men and 30% of women in Eastern Congo had reported sexual violence connected to warfare.[7] Perpetrators of sexual violence against women and children "commonly include not only enemy civilians and troops but also allied and national civilians and even comrades in arms."[5]

The victims of war rape are usually "civilians", a category first recognized in the 19th century.[8] Although war rape of women is documented throughout history, laws protecting civilians in armed conflict have tended not to recognise sexual assault on women. Even when laws of war have recognised and forbidden sexual assault, few prosecutions have been brought. According to Kelly Dawn Askin, the laws of war perpetuated the attitude that sexual assaults against women are less significant crimes, not worthy of prosecution.[9] War rape has until recently been a hidden element of war, which according to Human Rights Watch is linked to the largely gender-specific character of war rape – abuse committed by men against women. This gender-specific character has contributed to war rape being "narrowly portrayed as sexual or personal in nature, a portrayal that depoliticizes sexual abuse in conflict and results in its being ignored as a war crime."[6]

"To the victor go the spoils" has been a war cry for centuries, and women classed as part of the spoils of war.[10] Furthermore, war rape has been downplayed as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of sending men to war.[6] Also, war rape has in the past been regarded as a tangible reward to soldiers (which were only paid irregularly), and as a soldier's proof of masculinity and success.[11] In reference to war rape in ancient times, Harold Washington argues that warfare itself is imaged as rape, and that the cities attacked are its victims. He argues that war rape occurs in the context of stereotypes about women and men, which are part of the basic belief that violent power belongs to men, and that women are its victims.[12]

The rape of men by other men is also common in war. A 2009 study by Lara Stemple[13] found that it had been documented in conflicts worldwide; for example, 76% of male political prisoners in 1980s El Salvador and 80% of concentration camp inmates in Sarajevo reported being raped or sexually tortured. Stemple concludes that the "lack of attention to sexual abuse of men during conflict is particularly troubling given the widespread reach of the problem".[7][14] Mervyn Christian of Johns Hopkins School of Nursing has found that male rape is commonly underreported.[15]

Rape of men[edit]

Main article: Male rape

According to a survey published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2010, 30% of women and 22% of men from the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported that they had been subject to conflict-related sexual violence.[16] Similarly, a 2009 study by Lara Stemple noted that sexual torture and rape were experienced by 76% of male political prisoners in El Salvador during the Salvadoran Civil War, as well as by 80% of male concentration camp inmates in Sarajevo during the Bosnian War.[17] Despite the popular perception that rape during conflict is primarily targeted against women, these figures show that sexual violence committed against men is not a marginal occurrence. The lack of awareness for the magnitude of the rape of men during conflict relates to chronic underreporting. Although the physical and psychological repercussions from rape are similar for women and men, male victims tend to demonstrate an even greater reluctance to report their suffering to their families or the authorities.[18] Correspondingly, acknowledgement of the rape of men by non-governmental organizations or political bodies, as well as media coverage on the matter, remains insufficient.

The chronic underreporting relates to a particularly harsh stigmatization of male rape victims. This phenomenon is captured well in the following excerpt from The Guardian: “[B]oth perpetrator and victim enter a conspiracy of silence and why male survivors often find, once their story is discovered, that they lose the support and comfort of those around them. In the patriarchal societies found in many developing countries, gender roles are strictly defined. […] Often, […] wives who discover their husbands have been raped decide to leave them. "They ask me: 'So now how am I going to live with him? As what? Is this still a husband? Is it a wife?' They ask, 'If he can be raped, who is protecting me?'”.[16]

Gender roles within social hierarchies are concerned with the question of agency in the conduct of physical violence. Men are expected to exert violence, while women are victimized by it. In conflict situations, rape against men dissolve this relationship and put men in the ‘receiving’ role of the victim. Similarly, the ‘penetrating’ role of men as opposed to the ‘receiving’ role of women in (conventional) sexual intercourse illustrates this constructed power relationship. Hence, male rape victims experience the worst possible ‘humiliation’ with regards to the ingrained social roles they are traditionally expected to fulfill. Moreover, their stigmatization takes on particularly severe dimensions within conservative social environments in which homosexual intercourse – regardless of consent – is punished harshly. For example, Ugandan male rape victims explain their choice to not speak out with the fear of being branded homosexuals.[19] As homosexuality is widely condemned in Uganda, male victims of sexual violence often struggle to get proper support because they are accused of being gay. In certain cases, gender roles concerning violence and sexual conduct are so deeply ingrained that the mere existence of male rape is not being believed in.

Law[edit]

Within the 20th century, legal mechanisms have been drawn up to deal with prosecution of perpetrators of war rape. Similarly, individual states have laws pertaining to war rape's victims and perpetrators.

Prosecution of rapists in war crime tribunals is a recent development. Generally, humanitarian law concerns the maltreatment of civilians and "any devastation not justified by military necessity".[20] War rape has rarely been prosecuted as a war crime. After World War II, the Nuremberg Tribunals failed to charge Nazi war criminals with rape, although witnesses testified on war rape. The War Crimes Tribunal in Tokyo did convict Japanese officers "of failing to prevent rape" in the Nanking massacre, which is known as the "Rape of Nanking".[21][22] Justice Richard Goldstone, chief prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, said that "Rape has never been the concern of the international community."[21] The United Nations Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, which went into effect in 1974, does not mention rape specifically.

United States

The United States has a ban on abortion attached to its humanitarian aid for war victims, with no exceptions for rape, incest, and/or to save the life of the mother.[23]

Customs of war[edit]

Main article: Laws of war

Some scholars argue that the lack of explicit recognition of war rape in international law or applicable humanitarian law may not be used as a defense by the perpetrator of war rape. Laws and customs of war prohibit offenses such as "inhuman treatment" or "indecent assaults", adding to this domestic military codes and domestic civil codes (national law) may make sexual assault a crime.[24]

Humanitarian law prior to World War II[edit]

One of the first references to the "laws of war", or "traditions of war" was by Cicero, who urged soldiers to observe the rules of war, since obeying the regulations separated the "men" from the "brutes". Conquering the riches and property of an enemy was regarded as legitimate reason for war in itself. Women were included with "property", since they were considered under the lawful ownership of a man, whether a father, husband, slave master, or guardian. In this context, the rape of a woman was considered a property crime committed against the man who owned the woman.

The ancient Greeks considered war rape of women "socially acceptable behaviour well within the rules of warfare", and warriors considered the conquered women "legitimate booty, useful as wives, concubines, slave labor or battle-camp trophy".[10]

In the Middle Ages, and until the 19th century, this attitude and practice prevailed, and the legal protection of women in war time related indirectly to the legal protection women were granted in peace times. In medieval Europe, women were considered as an inferior gender by law.[25] Catholic Church sought to prevent rape during feudal warfare through the institution of Peace and Truce of God which discouraged soldiers from attacking women and civilians in general and through the propagation of a Christianized version of chivalry ideal of a knight who protected innocents and did not engage in lawlessness.

According to Fadl, Medieval Islamic military jurisprudence laid down severe penalties for those who committed rape.[citation needed] The punishment for such crimes were severe, including death, regardless of the political convictions and religion of the perpetrator.[26]

The Bulgarian Martyresses by Konstantin Makovsky (1877). Atrocities of bashibazouks in Bulgaria in Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.

In 1159, John of Salisbury wrote Policraticus in an attempt to regulate the conduct of armies engaged in "justifiable" wars. Salisbury believed that acts of theft and "rapine" (property crimes) should receive the most severe punishment, but also believed that obeying a superior's commands whether legal or illegal, moral or immoral, was the ultimate duty of the soldier.[27]

In the 15th and 16th century, despite considerations and systemisation of the laws of war, women remained objects available to the conquering male in any way whatsoever. The influential writer Francisco de Vitoria stood for a gradual emergence of the notion that glory or conquest were not necessarily acceptable reasons to start a war. The jurist Alberico Gentili insisted that all women, including female combatants, should be spared from sexual assault in wartime. However, in practice war rape was common.

It is suggested that one reason for the prevalence of war rape was that at the time, military circles supported the notion that all persons, including unarmed women and children, were still the enemy, with the belligerent having conquering rights over them.[8] In the late Middle Ages, the laws of war even considered war rape as an indication of a man's success in the battlefield and "opportunities to rape and loot were among the few advantages open to... soldiers, who were paid with great irregularity by their leaders....triumph over women by rape became a way to measure victory, part of a soldier's proof of masculinity and success, a tangible reward for services rendered....an actual reward of war".[11]

During this period in history, war rape took place not necessarily as a conscious effort of war to terrorize the enemy, but rather as earned compensation for winning a war. There is little evidence to suggest that superiors regularly ordered subordinates to commit acts of rape.[28] Throughout this period of history war became more regulated, specific, and regimented. The first formal prosecution for violations of war crimes did not take place until the late Middle Ages.[28]

Hugo Grotius, considered the father of the law of nations and the first to conduct a comprehensive work on systematizing the international laws of war, concluded that rape "should not go unpunished in war any more than in peace". Emmerich van Vattel emerged as an influential figure when he pleaded for the immunity of civilians against the ravages of war, considering men and women civilians as non-combatants.[29]

In the late 18th century and 19th century, treaties and war codes started to include vague provisions for the protection of women: The Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1785) specified that in case of war "women and children....shall not be molested in their persons". Article 20 of the Order No. 20 (1847), a supplement to the US Rules and Articles of war, listed the following as severely punishable "Assassination, murder, malicious stabbing or maiming, rape". The Declaration of Brussels (1874) stated that the "honours and rights of the family....should be respected".[30]

In the 19th century, the treatment of soldiers, prisoners, the wounded, and civilians improved and core elements of the laws of war were put in place.[by whom?] However, while the customs of war mandated more humane treatment of soldiers and civilians, new weapons and advanced technology increased destruction and altered the methods of war.[31] The Lieber Code (1863) was the first codification of the international customary laws of land war and an important step towards humanitarian law. The Lieber Code emphasises protection of civilians and states that "all rape...(is) prohibited under the penalty of death", which was the first prohibition of rape in customary humanitarian law.[32] After World War I, the Commission of Responsibilities, set up in 1919 to examine the atrocities committed by the German Empire and the other Central Powers during World War I, found substantial evidence of sexual violence and subsequently included rape and forced prostitution among the violations of the laws and customs of war. Efforts to prosecute failed.[33]

The Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals[edit]

After World War II, the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals became the first international criminal tribunals of real significance. The victorious powers established them in 1945 and 1946 respectively to prosecute the major war criminals of the European Axis countries (in fact only Germans) and of Japan for "crimes against peace," war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The possibility of prosecuting sexual violence as a war crime was present because of the recognition of war rape as serious violation of the laws of war in the Lieber Code and the Hague Convention assertion that "family honour and rights...must be respected".

Also, there was evidence that previous war crimes trials had prosecuted for sex crimes, hence war rape could have been prosecuted under customary law and/or under the IMT (International Military Tribunals) Charter's Article 6(b): "abduction of the civilian population....into slavery and for other purposes" and "abduction unjustified by military necessity". Similarly, it would have been possible to prosecute war rape as crime against humanity under Article 6(c) of the Nuremberg Charter: "other inhumane acts" and "enslavement". However, notwithstanding evidence of sexual violence in Europe during World War II a lack of will led to rape and sexual violence not being prosecuted at the Nuremberg Tribunals.[34]

The War Crimes Tribunal in Tokyo prosecuted cases of sexual violence and war rape as war crimes under the wording "inhumane treatment", "ill-treatment," and "failure to respect family honour and rights." According to the Prosecution in excess of 20,000 women and girls were raped during the first weeks of the Japanese occupation of the Chinese city of Nanking. The War Crimes Tribunal in Tokyo included accounts of sexual violence crimes in the trial testimonies as well as public records.[35] On a national level, a commander of the 14th Area Army, General Yamashita, was convicted for, inter alia, "rape under his command."[35] Some 35 Dutch comfort women brought a successful case before the Batavia Military Tribunal in 1948.[35]

Geneva Conventions[edit]

Main article: Geneva Conventions

Since 1949 Article 27 of the Fourth Geneva Convention explicitly prohibits wartime rape and enforced prostitution. These prohibitions were reinforced by the 1977 Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Conventions.[24]

Genocide[edit]

Further information: Genocidal rape

In 1998 the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda established by the United Nations made landmark decisions defining rape as a crime of genocide under international law. The trial of Jean-Paul Akayesu, the mayor of Taba Commune in Rwanda, established precedents that rape is an element of the crime of genocide. The Trial Chamber held that "sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide."[36]

Judge Navanethem Pillay, now the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, said in a statement after the verdict: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war."[37] An estimated 500,000 women were raped during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.[38]

Professor Paul Walters in his April 2005 statement of support of her honorary doctorate of law at Rhodes University wrote:[37]

Under her presidency of the Rwanda Tribunal, that body rendered a judgment against the mayor of Taba Commune which found him guilty of genocide for the use of rape in "the destruction of the spirit, of the will to live, and of life itself."

The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and application by an international court of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The Trial Chamber held that rape (which it defined as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive") and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group, as such. It found that sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide.[36]

In September 1999 the United Nations published a "Report of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States between 1 January and 31 December 1994". The report states that on 2 September 1998, Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, composed of Judges Laïty Kama, Presiding, Lennart Aspegren and Navanethem Pillay, found Jean Paul Akayesu guilty of 9 of the 15 counts proffered against him, including genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide and crimes against humanity, murder, torture, rape, and other inhumane acts. The Tribunal found Jean Paul Akayesu not guilty of the six remaining counts, including the count of complicity in genocide and the counts relating to violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II thereto.[36] On 2 October 1998, Jean Paul Akayesu was sentenced to life imprisonment for each of the nine counts, the sentences to run concurrently. Both Jean Paul Akayesu and the Prosecutor have appealed against the judgement rendered by the Trial Chamber.[36]

Crimes against humanity and war crimes[edit]

The Rome Statute Explanatory Memorandum, which defines the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, recognises rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as crime against humanity if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice.[39][40]

Rape first became recognised as crime against humanity when the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia issued arrest warrants based on the Geneva Conventions and Violations of the Laws or Customs of War. Specifically, it was recognised that Muslim women in Foča (southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) were subjected to systematic and widespread gang rape, torture and sexual enslavement by Bosnian Serb soldiers, policemen, and members of paramilitary groups after the takeover of the city in April 1992.[41] The indictment was of major legal significance and was the first time that sexual assaults were investigated for the purpose of prosecution under the rubric of torture and enslavement as a crime against humanity.[41] The indictment was confirmed by a 2001 verdict by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia that rape and sexual enslavement are crimes against humanity. This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war.[42] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia found three Bosnian Serb men guilty of rape of Bosniac (Bosnian Muslim) women and girls (some as young as 12 and 15 years of age), in Foča, eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina. Furthermore two of the men were found guilty of the crime against humanity of sexual enslavement for holding women and girls captive in a number of de facto detention centres. Many of the women subsequently disappeared.[42]

In 2008 the U.N. Security Council adopted resolution 1820, which noted that "rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity or a constitutive act with respect to genocide".[43]

U.N. resolutions on war rape[edit]

In 2008 the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1820, which noted that "rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity or a constitutive act with respect to genocide".[43]

In 2013 the U.N. Security Council adopted its broadest resolution yet on rape in war, demanding the complete and immediate end of all acts of sexual violence by all parties to armed conflict. The resolution noted that sexual violence can constitute a crime against humanity and a contributing act to genocide, called for improved monitoring of sexual violence in conflict, and urged the U.N. and donors to assist survivors.[44]

Also in 2013, the U.N. Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 2122, which supported abortion rights for girls and women raped in wars, "noting the need for access to the full range of sexual and reproductive health services, including regarding pregnancies resulting from rape, without discrimination."[23] United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon had recommended to the U.N. Security Council earlier in 2013 (in September) that girls and women raped in war should have access to "services for safe termination of pregnancies resulting from rape, without discrimination and in accordance with international human rights and humanitarian law." In March 2013 Ban Ki-moon had also recommended to the Council that women raped in war have access to abortion services.[23]

Definition of rape[edit]

Main article: Rape

Some commentators[which?] use the terms "rape" and "sexual assault" interchangeably. There is no universally accepted definition of "war rape".

The Explanatory Note of the Rome Statute, which binds the International Criminal Court, defines the "rape" as follows:

"The perpetrator invaded the body of a person by conduct resulting in penetration, however slight, of any part of the body of the victim or of the perpetrator with a sexual organ, or of the anal or genital opening of the victim with any object or any other part of the body."[45]

and

"The invasion was committed by force, or by threat of force or coercion, such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against such person or another person, or by taking advantage of a coercive environment, or the invasion was committed against a person incapable of giving genuine consent."[45]

The concept of "invasion" is intended to be broad enough to be gender-neutral and the definition is understood to include situations where the victim may be incapable of giving genuine consent if affected by natural, induced or age-related incapacity.[46]

Effects[edit]

Effect is a change or consequence, something brought out as a result of an action.[47] This section aims to discuss the various results of war rape on the emotional, phycological and physical conditions of a person subjected to rape and war rape in particular.

Physical effects[edit]

A recent study lists the physical injury to the victims of war rape as traumatic injuries, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal mortality, un-wanted pregnancies, un-safe abortions, and persistent gynecological problems are of major concern.[48] Because war rapes take place in zones of conflict, access to emergency contraception, antibiotics, and/or abortion are limited. Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. In certain war gang rape instances, the objective of infecting women interned in rape camps was the systematic effect of HIV soldiers specifically selected to spread HIV AIDS to the gang-raped.[49]

Psychosocial workers with International Rescue Committee (IRC) help rape survivors in South Kivu DRC

War rape may include physical rape of the male organ. Gang rape and rape with human objects or physical objects, such as fists, sticks, rods, and gun barrels are also methods used in war rape. Women victims may suffer from incontinence and vaginal fistula as a result of these particularly violent instances of rape.[50] Vaginal fistula is a medical condition of vaginal abnormality where there is hole in the vagina in close proximity to the colon (anus or rectum) or bladder.[51] In some cases, it is a birth defect, in others it is a result of female genital cutting[52] (FGM) and rape. In extreme instances of violent rape in war, the walls of the vagina are torn or punctured, resulting in severe pain and debilitating incontinence (urinary complications) and bowel containment.[50] Violent rape is also a cause of obstetric fistula which is a hole in the female organ and birth canal.[53]

Physical effects may also include bone breakage such as back-breaking and cranial cracks, causing future disability, visual and hearing impairment, and mental incapacitation.

Psychological effects[edit]

Victims and survivors of war rape are at very high risk of psycho-social problems.[54]

The short-term psychological injuries to the victims include feelings of fear, helplessness, sadness, disorientation, isolation, vulnerability, and desperation. If left untreated, the psychological effects of sexual assault and rape can be devastating, sometimes even deadly. Causes of death as the result of sexual violence include suicide and murder. Murder of sexual assault and rape victims may be perpetrated by the rapist or as part of an honor killing by family members of the victim.

Long-term psychological injuries may include depression, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS)), multiple somatic symptoms, flashbacks, on-going trauma, chronic insomnia, self-hate, nightmares, paranoia, difficulty re-establishing intimate relationships, shame, disgust, anger, and persistent fears.[55] She or he could have trouble sleeping, experience changes in their appetite, or develop full-blown emotional problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance abuse, or dependence. Individuals who have experienced sexual assault are at risk for other day-to-day problems, including arguing with family members and having problems at work. Lack of medical psychological support resources also puts victims of war rape at further disadvantage.[56] Refugee women are also at a disadvantage of receiving adequate assistance to deal with the psychological consequences of war rape - not only do they lack legal representation, the also may lack protection from the perpetrators of the violent act.[56] Furthermore, there is an increase in dislike of refugees and asylum seekers which is another obstacle in the psychological healing process of victims seeking assistance outside of their countries that may still be under civil strife.[57] Psychological support and counseling sessions given by individuals not part of the ethnic, linguistic, and/or community may insight difficulties in communication between patient and care giver. As a result, adequate emotional and psychological support to the victims is not fully developed, affecting the long-term healing potential for the patient.

A sculpture at Mujibnagar, Dhaka depicts the rape of a Bengali woman by a Pakistani Military in 1971.

Psychosocial and societal effects[edit]

In addition to the physical and psychological damages resulting from rape, sexual violence in the context of war often disrupt the linkages between the rape victims and their communities. Thus, the phenomenon of war rape can structurally affect entire societies, which is closely linked to the logic underlying the strategic use of rape as an instrument in armed conflicts. Raping ‘enemy’ women does also constitute an act of abuse and humiliation against the men of the community the victims were representative of.[58]

Besides the psychosocial effects on women as the most frequent victims of wartime rape, children born out of rape are faced with distinct social stigmata. The existence of taboos around the issue of war rape can also be an obstacle to post-conflict reconciliation.

Stigmatisation, isolation

Psychosocial consequences[59] of war rape describe how the linkages between victims and the society are altered as a result of sexual abuses during war. Both during and even more in the aftermath of conflict, when abuses become known, victims of war rape risk finding themselves in situations of social isolation, often abandoned by their husbands and rejected by their communities[60] The ordeal is thus not over with the survival of the act of abuse but has a long-term effect that can only to a limited extent be dealt with by the victim him/herself. The process of re-victimization captures how victims of sexual violence continue to “receive additional hurt after the direct cause of victimization has disappeared”[61] with stigmatization and exclusion being among the main sources of re-victimization.[61]

This is particularly relevant in patriarchal societies, where female sexuality is linked to male honour, virginity is a core value, and where a culture considers ethnicity transmitted through male genes.[62][63] Given the ethnic dimension of sexuality, rape can become a means of ethnic cleansing or genocide, as has been claimed in relation to systematic instances or rape in Rwanda and Bosnia.[64] In this context, “rape as a weapon of war is not an individual issue, but a societal one.”[65] In a number of countries, the targeted infection of women with the HI-Virus in this context adds another dimension, with women having to face not only the gendered consequences of war rape but also the general stigma pertaining to people suffering from HIV/AIDS.[66]

Impact on children born out of rape

War rape can have an equally strong and long-term effect on the children that are born as a result of rape. On the one hand, these children may not be immediately identified and might find out about their origins only at a later point in their lives. In turn, if the children themselves but even more their environment knows about the 'war babies',[67] they risk being regarded as 'other' by the communities they are born into. Recurring patterns in countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Uganda, Sierra Leone and Rwanda show how children born of war rape and to mothers who don't want them have to face struggles with regard to issues related to identity - both in an administrative as well as in a personal way - and are sometimes restricted in the enjoyment of their rights to education, non-discrimination and even physical security.[68] Unwanted children born of rape are potentially more vulnerable in a psychological as well as in a physical way and cases of abandoned children are reported from various contemporary conflict and post-conflict societies.[69][70][71]

Impact on post-conflict reconciliation

The societal consequences of war rape can equally have a negative impact on post-conflict reconciliation and the judicial follow-up on war-time crimes, including rape. Given the stigmatisation of victims and their isolation or fear thereof, they might prefer to remain silent with regard to the violations they have suffered from. Indeed, underreporting of cases of rape during armed conflict is a practical challenge post-conflict communities have to face that is pointed to by a number of actors, including the United Nations Secretary-General,[72] the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights[73] as well as international NGOs.[74]

As Human Rights Watch reported with regard to war rape during the Rwandan Genocide, victims "expressed dismay at the fact that they were being urged to forget what happened to them in the name of peace and reconciliation".[74] The fear of consequences and threat of exclusion felt by the victims makes it difficult to establish clear figures of war rape incidents and to hold perpetrators accountable for the crimes they have committed, as has been claimed with regards to war rape in Darfur: "Underreporting of cases may be attributed to the stigma associated with rape, shame and fear of reprisal, denial that rape occurs, intimidation by many Government officials and the inability to access some conflict-affected areas".[75] This points to another difficulty victims of war rape have to deal with at the societal level. The perpetrators of rape are often officials or otherwise affiliated with the state's institutions, which might make reporting of assaults appear useless.[76]

Psychiatric care[edit]

Disrupted healthcare sectors is a term the World Health Organization describes for medical facilities that are destroyed or partially destroyed in war torn areas.[77] Health care facilities are essential for the establishment of support systems for rape victims. Phycological support units are also hampered by the lack of material resources available to the medical community on-ground. Medical practitioners and health-care workers face daunting challenges in conflict and post-conflict area.[6] As the WHO explains, "healthcare delivery fragments and deteriorates, memory and knowledge are eroded, and power disperses."[78] War torn societies in immediate post-conflict zones have broken medical infrastructure such as: destroyed or partially destroyed hospitals (or clinics); non-functioning hospitals; poor, scarce or inadequate medical supplies, lack of running water, and scarce or lack of electricity. Dismantling weapons from armed rebels and other groups are prioritized in immediate post-conflict situations which in effect de-prioritizes the immediate physical and psychiatric care that war rape victims are in urgent need of. "If we do not have the capacity to prevent war, we have a collective responsibility to better understand and treat its psychiatric, medical, and social consequences."[79] Access to phycological health services further causes inequity for survivors of war rape who are at the margins of society living in chronic poverty or located in rural regions.[80][81] Healthcare and psychiatric care is a key component to the healing processes of war rape.

Symbolism[edit]

Spivak characterizes "group rape perpetrated by the conquerors" as "a metonymic celebration of territorial acquisition".[82]

Military strategy[edit]

Amnesty International has challenged the view that sees rape and sexual abuse as a by-product of war. According to Amnesty International, rape is now used deliberately as a military strategy.[83] War rape is reportedly used for the purpose of conquering territory by expelling the population therefrom, decimating remaining civilians by destroying their links of affiliations, by the spread of AIDS, and by eliminating cultural and religious traditions. War rape may be described as "weapon of war" or a "means of combat" in the media.[46]

History[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

"Brennus and His Share of the Spoils", by Paul Jamin, 1893.

Rape has accompanied warfare in virtually every known historical era.[84] The Greek and Roman armies reportedly engaged in war rape, which is documented by ancient authors such as Homer, Herodotus, and Livy.[citation needed] Ancient sources held multiple, often contradictory attitudes to sexual violence in warfare.[85] It has been alleged that the Bible mentions rape in the course of war multiple times: "For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city shall be taken and the houses plundered and the women taken..." Zechariah 14:2 "Their little children will be dashed to death before their eyes. Their homes will be sacked, and their wives will be taken."Isaiah 13:16 However, the Oral Torah clarifies that the relationships must be consensual. Failure to do so violates the commandment 'he should not make use of her.'[86]

Roman military officers often used the young boys of defeated peoples for homosexual intercourse. The Roman historian Tacitus noted this happening during the Revolt of the Batavi.[87]

Middle Ages[edit]

"Ni por esas" by Francisco Goya

The Vikings (Scandinavians who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the late 8th century to the early 11th century),[88] have acquired a reputation for "rape and pillage". Viking settlements in Britain and Ireland are thought to have been primarily male enterprises, with a lesser role for Viking females. British Isles women are mentioned in old texts on the founding of Iceland, indicating that the Viking explorers had acquired wives and concubines from Britain and Ireland.[89] Some historians dispute the Vikings' "rape and pillage" image, arguing that exaggeration and distortion in later medieval texts created an image of treacherous and brutal Northmen.[90]

Female slavery and war rapes were also common during the medieval Arab slave trade, where prisoners of war captured in battle from non-Arab lands often ended up as concubine slaves (who are considered free when their master dies) in the Arab World.[91] Most of these slaves came from places such as Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Zanj), the Caucasus (mainly Circassians),[92] Central Asia (mainly Tartars), and Central and Eastern Europe (mainly Saqaliba).[93] Historian Robert Davis claims that the Barbary pirates also captured 1.25 million slaves from Western Europe and North America between the 16th and 19th centuries.[94][95]

The Mongols, who established the Mongol Empire across much of Eurasia, caused much destruction during their invasions. Documents written during or after Genghis Khan's reign say that after a conquest, the Mongol soldiers looted, pillaged and raped. Some troops who submitted were incorporated into the Mongol system in order to expand their manpower. These techniques were sometimes used to spread terror and warning to others.[96]

Early modern period[edit]

Second Manchu invasion of Korea[edit]

In the Second Manchu invasion of Korea when Qing forces invaded the Korean Kingdom of Joseon, many Korean women were subjected to rape at the hand of the Qing forces, and as a result were unwelcomed by their families even if they were released by the Qing after being ransomed.[97]

European colonial era[edit]

In German South-West Africa during Herero and Namaqua Genocide, German soldiers regularly engaged in gang rapes[98] before killing Herero women or leaving them in the desert to die; a number of women from the rebelling Herero tribe were also forced into prostitution.[99]

Indian Rebellion[edit]

With the beginnings of the mass media in the 19th century, war rape was occasionally used as propaganda by European colonialists in order to justify the colonization of places they had conquered.[100] The most notable example was perhaps during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, known as "India's First War of Independence" to the Indians and as the "Sepoy Mutiny" to the British, where Indian sepoys rebelled against the British East India Company's rule in India. While incidents of rape committed by Indian rebels against English women and girls were generally uncommon during the rebellion, this was exaggerated to great effect by the British media in order to justify continued British colonialism in the Indian subcontinent.[100]

At the time, British newspapers had printed various apparently eyewitness accounts of English women and girls being raped by Indian rebels, but with little physical evidence to support these accounts. It was later found[citation needed] that most of these accounts were false stories created to paint native Indian people as savages who had to be civilized by British colonialists, a mission sometimes known as The White Man's Burden. One such account published by The Times, regarding an incident where 48 English girls as young as 10–14 had been raped by the Indian rebels in Delhi, was criticized as a false propaganda story by Karl Marx, who pointed out that the story was written by a clergyman in Bangalore, far from the events of the rebellion.[101]

Boxer Rebellion[edit]

During the Boxer Rebellion, Western forces of the Eight-Nation Alliance went on a killing, looting, and raping rampage against Chinese civilians. Thousands of women were raped by the western forces on a massive scale.[102] A western Journalist, George Lynch, said "there are things that I must not write, and that may not be printed in England, which would seem to show that this Western civilization of ours is merely a veneer over savagery."[103] All of the nationalities engaged in looting and rape. Luella Miner wrote that the Russian and French behavior was particularly appalling. Chinese women and girls committed suicide to avoid being raped. The French commander dismissed the rapes, attributing them to "gallantry of the French soldier".[104]

World War I[edit]

Rapes were allegedly committed during the Imperial German advance through Belgium in the first months of the war.[105] After the war Harold D. Lasswell dismissed them as propaganda in his 1927 Freudian-oriented study, "Propaganda Technique in the World War".[4][106]

World War II[edit]

The sometimes widespread and systematic occurrence of war rape by soldiers and civilians of women has been documented. During World War II and in its immediate aftermath, war rape occurred in a range of situations, ranging from institutionalized sexual slavery to war rapes associated with specific battles. The Judge Advocate General's office reports that there were 971 convictions for rape in the U.S. military from January 1942 to June 1947, which includes a portion of the occupation.[107]

Asia[edit]

Rangoon, Burma. 8 August 1945. A young ethnic Chinese woman who was in one of the Imperial Japanese Army's "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Allied officer.
Japanese army

The term comfort women is a euphemism for the estimated 200,000, mostly Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Filipino women who were forced to work as prostitutes in Japanese military brothels during World War II.[108] It is also said of the Nanking Massacre that the WWII Japanese militants sexually assaulted any women of their defeated city or area. Some of the women they raped were married or pregnant.[citation needed]

Australian army

"A former prostitute recalled that as soon as Australian troops arrived in Kure in early 1946, they 'dragged young women into their jeeps, took them to the mountain, and then raped them. I heard them screaming for help nearly every night'."[4][109]

US Army

It has been claimed that some U.S. soldiers raped Okinawan women during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945. Following the war there were 1,336 reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture.[110]

Despite being told by the Japanese military that they would suffer rape, torture and murder at the hands of the Americans, Okinawans "were often surprised at the comparatively humane treatment they received from the American enemy."[111][112] According to Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power by Mark Selden, the Americans "did not pursue a policy of torture, rape, and murder of civilians as Japanese military officials had warned."[113]

Post-World War II Incidents in Japan

Individual instances of rape have been reported to have been committed by members of the United States Army in Japan while being stationed in post-war Japan.

Soviet Red Army

Soviet Red Army troops also looted and terrorized the people of Mukden in Manchuria, China. A foreigner witnessed Soviet troops, formerly stationed in Berlin, who were allowed by the Soviet military to go at the city "for three days of rape and pillage".[114] The Soviet Army's influence in the region was affected for years to come.


Europe[edit]

British and Canadian forces

The Italian statistics record eight rapes and nineteen attempted rape by British soldiers in Italy between September 1943 and December 1945. Various sources, including the Special Investigation Branch as well as evidences from Belgian reporters, said that rape and sexual harassment by British troops occurred frequently following the invasion of Sicily in 1943.[115]

Although far from the scale of those committed by the Red Army, rapes on local women and girls were a common feature among British and Canadian troops during the last months of WWII in Germany. Even elderly women were targeted. Though a high-profile issue for the Royal Military Police, some officers treated the behaviour of their men with leniency. Many rapes were committed under the effects of alcohol or post-traumatic stress, but there were cases of premeditated attacks, like the assault on three German women in the town of Neustadt am Rübemberge, on 16 April 1945, or the attempted gang-rape of two local girls at gunpoint in the village of Oyle, near Nienburg, which ended in the death of one of the women when, whether intentionally or not, one of the soldiers discharged his gun, hitting her in the neck.[116]

There were also reports of "sexual assault and offences" committed by British soldiers against children in Belgium and the Netherlands, when a number of men were convicted of these crimes while fraternizing with Dutch and Belgian families during the winter of 1944-45.[116] On a single day in mid-April 1945, three women in Neustadt were raped by British soldiers. A senior British Army chaplain following the troops reported that there was a "good deal of rape going on". He then added that "those who suffer [rape] have probably deserved it.' In the summer of 1945, two drunken British soldiers stormed into a farmhouse in Klagenfurt with a drawn revolver when there were just two women present. The older of the two women was forced to go upstairs while the other, an 18-year-old girl, was raped by one of the soldiers.[115]

German forces

Rapes were committed by Wehrmacht forces on Jewish women and girls during the Invasion of Poland in September 1939;[117] they were also committed against Polish women and girls during mass executions carried out primarily by the Selbstschutz units, which were accompanied by Wehrmacht soldiers and on territory under the administration of the German military; the rapes were carried out before shooting female captives.[118] Only one case of rape was prosecuted by a German court during the military campaign in Poland, and even then the German judge sentenced the guilty for Rassenschande (a shame against their race as defined by the racial policy of Nazi Germany), not rape.[119] Jewish women were particularly vulnerable to rape during the Holocaust.[120]

Rapes were also committed by German forces on Eastern Front, where they were largely unpunished (as opposed to rapes committed in Western Europe); the overall number of rapes is difficult to establish due to lack prosecution of the crime by German courts.[121][122] Wehrmacht also established a system of military brothels, in which young women and girls from occupied territories were forced into prostitution in harsh conditions.[119] In Soviet Union women were kidnapped by German forces for prostitution as well; one report by International Military Tribunal writes "in the city of Smolensk the German Command opened a brothel for officers in one of the hotels into which hundreds of women and girls were driven; they were mercilessly dragged down the street by their arms and hair".[123]

French army
Main article: Marocchinate

French Moroccan troops, known as Goumiers, committed rapes and other war crimes in Italy after the Battle of Monte Cassino[124] and in Germany. In Italy, victims of the mass rape committed after the Battle of Monte Cassino by Goumiers, colonial troops of the French Expeditionary Corps, are known as Marocchinate. According to Italian sources, more than 7,000 Italian civilians, including women and children, were raped by Goumiers.[125]

French Senegalese troops too, known as Senegalese Tirailleurs, who landed on the island of Elba on 17 June 1944, were responsible of mass rapes, though their behaviour was considered less brutal than that of the French North African troops in continental Italy.[126]

US Army

Secret wartime files made public only in 2006 reveal that American GIs committed 400 sexual offences in Europe, including 126 rapes in England, between 1942 and 1945.[127] A study by Robert J. Lilly estimates that a total of 14,000 civilian women in England, France and Germany were raped by American GIs during World War II.[128][129] It is estimated that there were around 3,500 rapes by American servicemen in France between June 1944 and the end of the war and one historian has claimed that sexual violence against women in liberated France was common.[130]

Red Army

During the war, Polish women were victims of brutal mass rapes by Soviet[131][132] soldiers. Polish sources claim that there are cases of mass rapes in Polish cities taken by the Red Army. It is reported that in Kraków, Soviet occupation brought mass rapes of Polish women and girls, as well as plunder of all private property by Soviet soldiers. Reportedly the scale of the attacks prompted communists installed by Soviets to prepare a letter of protest to Joseph Stalin, while masses in churches were held in expectation of Soviet withdrawal.[133]

At the end of World War II, Red Army soldiers are estimated to have raped around 2,000,000 German women and girls.[134][135] Norman Naimark writes in "The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949." that although the exact number of women and girls who were raped by members of the Red Army in the months preceding and years following the capitulation will never be known, their numbers are likely in the hundreds of thousands, quite possibly as high as the 2,000,000 victims estimate made by Barbara Johr, in "Befreier und Befreite". Many of these victims were raped repeatedly.

Antony Beevor estimates that up to half the victims were victims of gang rapes. Naimark states that not only did each victim have to carry the trauma with her for the rest of her days, it inflicted a massive collective trauma on the East German nation. Naimark concludes "The social psychology of women and men in the Soviet zone of occupation was marked by the crime of rape from the first days of occupation, through the founding of the GDR in the fall of 1949, until, one could argue, the present."[136] German women who became pregnant after being raped by Soviet soldiers in World War II were invariably denied abortion to further humiliate them as to carry an unwanted child.[citation needed] According to the book Berlin: The Downfall, 1945 by Antony Beevor, some 90% of raped Berlin women in 1945 had venereal diseases as results of these consequential rapes and 3.7% of all children born in Germany from 1945 to 1946 had Soviet fathers. The history behind this particular rape of the German women by the Soviet troops was considered a taboo topic until 1992. (See also Red Army atrocities.)

In Romania, the writer Mihail Sebastian described that in 1944, Soviet soldiers raped local women.

After the German armed forces had surrendered, the half of Germany under Soviet Union occupation was split roughly in half and one part was allocated for Polish administration as part of the Yalta Conference.However, the Western Powers soon realized that Stalin would not honor his free elections promise regarding Poland. After receiving considerable criticism in London following Yalta regarding the atrocities committed in Poland by Soviet troops, Churchill wrote Roosevelt a desperate letter referencing the wholesale deportations and liquidations of opposition Poles by the Soviets.

Guatemala: Civil War & Genocide[edit]

Section needs research.

Korean War[edit]

Chinese Volunteer Army.

During 11 months of 1952 in the 110-thousand-man-sized logistics branch of Volunteer Army, there were 41 men charged with rapes, also there were adultery, sodomy, murder and traffic accident killings.[137]

Vietnam War[edit]

There were rapes and sexual atrocities conducted by servicemen in Vietnam war.[138][139]

Bangladesh atrocities[edit]

During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, numerous women were tortured and raped. Exact numbers are not known and are a subject of debate. Most of the women were captured from Dhaka University and private homes and kept as sex-slaves inside the Dhaka Cantonment.[140]

Bangladeshi women may have been raped during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 by the Pakistan army during night raids on villages.[6][141] Pakistani sources claim the number is much lower, though having not completely denied rape incidents.[107][142][143] One work that has included direct experiences from the women raped is Ami Birangana Bolchi ("I, the heroine, is speaking") by Nilima Ibrahim. The work includes in its name from the word Birangona (Heroine), given by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman after the war, to the raped and tortured women during the war. This was a conscious effort to alleviate any social stigma the women might face in the society. How successful this effort was is doubtful, though.

In June 2005 the United States Department of State organised a conference titled "South Asia in Crisis: United States Policy, 1961–1972" where Sarmila Bose, born and educated in USA, published a paper suggesting that the casualties and rape allegations in the war have been greatly exaggerated for political purposes. This work has been criticised in Bangladesh and her research methods have been attacked by expatriate Bengalis as shoddy and biased.[144][145]

1974 to 1992[edit]

Other documented instances of war rape include the First Liberian Civil War, and in East Timor during the occupation by Indonesia in 1975.[146]

It has been reported that in Peru, throughout the 12 year internal conflict, women were frequent victims of sustained war rape perpetrated by government security forces and the Shining Path.[6][146] It has also been reported that during the August 1990 invasion of Kuwait, an estimated 5,000 Kuwaiti women were raped by Iraqi soldiers.[146]

Former Yugoslavia[edit]

Main article: Yugoslav Wars

Evidence of the magnitude of rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina prompted the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) to deal openly with these abuses.[21] Reports of sexual violence during the Bosnian War (1992–95) and Kosovo War (1996–99), part of the Yugoslav wars, a series of conflicts from 1991 to 1999, have been described as "especially alarming".[147] Since the entry of the NATO in the Kosovo War, rapes of Serbian, Albanian, and Roma women were committed by ethnic Albanians sometimes by members of the Kosovo Liberation Army, have also been documented.[148]

It has been estimated that during the Bosnian War between 20,000 and 50,000 women were raped. The majority of the rape victims were Muslim women raped by Serbian soldiers. Although men also became victim of sexual violence, war rape was disproportionately directed against women who were (gang) raped in the streets, in their homes and/or in front of family members. Sexual violence occurred in a multiple ways, including rape with objects, such as broken glass bottles, guns and truncheons.[147] War rape occurred as a matter of official orders as part of ethnic cleansing, to displace the targeted ethnic group out of the region.[149]

During the Bosnian War the existence of deliberately created "rape camps" was reported. The reported aim of these camps was to impregnate the Muslim and Croatian women held captive. It has been reported that often women were kept in confinement until the late stage of their pregnancy. This occurred in the context of a patrilineal society, in which children inherit their father's ethnicity, hence the "rape camps" aimed at the birth of a new generation of Serb children. According to the Women's Group Tresnjevka more than 35,000 women and children were held in such Serb-run "rape camps".[150][151][152]

During the Kosovo War thousands of Kosovo Albanian women and girls became victims of sexual violence. War rape was used as a weapon of war and an instrument of systematic ethnic cleansing; rape was used to terrorize the civilian population, extort money from families, and force people to flee their homes. According to a 2000 Human Rights Watch report war rape in the Kosovo War can generally be subdivided into three categories: rapes in women's homes, rapes during fighting, and rapes in detention. The majority of the perpetrators were Serbian paramilitaries, but they also included Serbian special police or Yugoslav army soldiers. Most rapes were gang rapes involving at least two perpetrators. Rapes occurred frequently in the presence, and with the acquiescence, of military officers. Soldiers, police, and paramilitaries often raped their victims in the full view of numerous witnesses.[149]

Mass rape in the Bosnian War[edit]

During the Bosnian War, Bosnian Serb forces conducted a sexual abuse strategy against thousands of Bosnian Muslim girls and women which became known as "mass rape phenomenon". No exact figures on how many women and children were systematically raped by the Serb forces in various camps were established,[153][154][155] but estimates range from 20,000[156] to 50,000.[157] Mass rape mostly occurred in eastern Bosnia (especially during the Foča and Višegrad massacres), and in Grbavica during the Siege of Sarajevo. Numerous Bosnian Serb officers, soldiers and other participants were indicted or convicted of rape as a war crime by the ICTY and the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[158][159] The events inspired the Golden Bear winner at the 56th Berlin International Film Festival in 2006, called Grbavica.

Rwanda genocide[edit]

Main article: Rwandan Genocide

During the Rwanda genocide, from April until July 1994, hundreds of thousands of women and girls were raped and/or became the victims of other forms of sexual violence.[148] Although no explicit written orders to rape and sexual violence have been found, evidence suggests that military leaders encouraged or ordered their men to rape Tutsi, as well as condoned the acts taking place, without making efforts to stop them.[160] Compared to other conflicts the sexual violence in Rwanda stands out in terms of the organised nature of the propaganda that contributed significantly to fuelling sexual violence against Tutsi women, the very public nature of the rapes and the level of brutality towards the women. Anne-Marie de Brouwer concludes that considering the massive scale and public nature of war rape during the Rwanda genocide, "it is difficult to imagine anybody in Rwanda who was not aware of the sexual violence taking place."[161] In 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda made the landmark decisions that the war rape during the Rwanda genocide was an element of the crime of genocide. The Trial Chamber held that "sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide."[36]

In his 1996 report the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Rwanda, Rene Degni-Segui stated that "rape was the rule and its absence the exception." The report also stated that "rape was systematic and was used as a "weapon" by the perpetrators of the massacres. This can be estimated from the number and nature of the victims as well as from the forms of rape."[148] A 2000 report prepared by the Organisation of African Unity’s International Panel of Eminent Personalities concluded that "we can be certain that almost all females who survived the genocide were direct victims of rape or other sexual violence, or were profoundly affected by it".[148]

The Special Rapporteur on Rwanda estimated in his 1996 report that between 2,000 and 5,000 pregnancies resulted from war rape, and that between 250,000 and 500,000 Rwandese women and girls had been raped.[148] Rwanda is a patriarchal society and children therefore take the ethnicity of the father, underlining that war rape occurred in the context of genocide.[161]

Within the context of the Rwanda genocide victims of sexual violence were predominantly attacked on the basis of their gender and ethnicity. The victims were mostly Tutsi women and girls, of all ages, while men were only seldom the victims of war rape. Women were part of the anti-Tutsi propaganda prior the 1994 genocide. The December 1990 issue of the newspaper Kangura published the "Ten Commandments", four of which portrayed Tutsi women as tools of the Tutsi community, as sexual weapons that would be used by the Tutsi to weaken and ultimately destroy the Hutu men.[160] Gender based propaganda also include cartoons printed in newspapers that portrayed Tutsi women as sex objects. Examples of gender based hate propaganda used to incite war rape include statements by perpetrators such as "You Tutsi women think that you are too good for us" and "Let us see what a Tutsi woman tastes like".[160] Victims of war rape during the Rwanda genocide also included Hutu women considered moderates, such as Hutu women married to Tutsi men and Hutu women politically affiliated with the Tutsi. War rape also occurred regardless of ethnicity or political affiliation, with young or beautiful women being targeted based on their gender only. Sexual violence against men occurred significantly less frequently, but frequently included mutilation of the genitals, which were often displayed in public.[160] The perpetrators of war rape during the Rwanda genocide were mainly members of the Hutu militia, the "Interahamwe". Rapes were also committed by military soldiers of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR), including the Presidential Guard, and civilians.[160]

Sexual violence against women and girls during the Rwanda genocide included: rape, gang rape, sexual slavery (either collectively or individually through "forced marriages"), rape with objects such as sticks and weapons often leading to the victim’s death, sexual mutilation of, in particular, breasts, vaginas or buttocks, often during or following rape. Pregnant women were not spared from sexual violence and on many occasion victims were killed following rape. Many women were raped by men who knew they were HIV positive and it has been suggested that there were deliberate attempts to transmit the virus to Tutsi women and their families. War rape occurred all over the country and was frequently perpetrated in plain view of others, at sites such as schools, churches, roadblocks, government buildings or in the bush. Some women were kept as personal slaves for years after the genocide, forced to move to neighbouring countries after the genocide along with their captors.[161]

The long-term effects of war rape in Rwanda for the victims include social isolation (social stigma attached to rape meant some husbands left their wives that had become victim of war rape, or that the victim became unmarriageable), unwanted pregnancies and babies (some women resorted to self-induced abortions), sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhoea and HIV/Aids (access to anti-retroviral drugs remains limited).[161]

Sri Lanka civil war[edit]

During the Sri Lankan Civil War, multiple Human Rights Organizations have reported cases of rape, violence and disappearance of women in the 1990s, claiming to be committed by security forces. Amnesty International, for instance, believes that these actions might have been just a fraction of a widespread violence, claiming that many women have avoided giving testimony about the forces' treatment.[162] Government officials, including the president, have denied the claims and agreed to co-operate with the investigations and prosecute whomever they find guilty.[163] The UN Special Rapporteur, on the other hand, have reported that individual investigations and proceedings relating to these cases have started at the local magistrates courts.[164]

Some of the notable cases of murdered raped victims and the massacres associated with the rape incidents are – Krishanti Kumaraswamy, Arumaithurai Tharmaletchumi, Ida Carmelitta, Ilayathambi Tharsini, Murugesapillai Koneswary, Premini Thanuskodi, Sarathambal, Thambipillai Thanalakshmi, Kumarapuram massacre and Vankalai massacre.

Recent occurrences[edit]

According to Amnesty International, recent documented cases of war rape include incidents in Afghanistan, Chechnya, Colombia, Iraq, Sudan, and Nepal.[83]

Commenting on the rape of women and children in recent African conflict zones, UNICEF said in 2008 that rape was no longer just perpetrated by combatants but also by civilians. According to UNICEF rape is common in countries affected by wars and natural disasters, drawing a link between the occurrence of sexual violence and significant uprooting of a society and the crumbling of social norms. UNICEF states that in Kenya reported cases of sexual violence doubled within days of recent post-election conflict erupting. According to UNICEF rape was prevalent in conflict zones in Sudan, Chad, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.[165]

Democratic Republic of the Congo[edit]

Democratic Republic of the Congo

In Eastern Congo, the prevalence and intensity of rape and other sexual violence is described as the worst in the world.[166] A 2010 study found that 22% of men and 30% of women in Eastern Congo reported conflict-related sexual violence.[7]

Since fighting broke out in 1998 tens of thousands of people have been raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[167] It is estimated that there are as many as 200,000 surviving rape victims living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today.[168][169] War rape in the Democratic Republic of Congo has frequently been described as a "weapon of war" by commentators. Louise Nzigire, a local social worker, states that "this violence was designed to exterminate the population." Nzigire observes that rape has been a "cheap, simple weapon for all parties in the war, more easily obtainable than bullets or bombs."[170] The rape of men is also common. Men who admit they were raped risk ostracism by their community, and criminal prosecution, because they may be seen as homosexual, which is a crime in 38 African countries.[7]

Despite the peace process launched in 2003, sexual assault by soldiers from armed groups and the national army continues in the eastern provinces of the country.[167] Evidence of war rape emerged when United Nations troops move into areas previously ravaged by war after the peace process started. Gang rape and rape with objects has been reported. The victims of war rape may suffer from incontinence and vaginal fistula as a result of particularly violent rape.[50] Witness accounts include an instance of a woman who had the barrel of a gun inserted into her vagina, after which the soldier opened fire.[50] Incontinence and vaginal fistula leads to the isolation of war rape victims from her community and access to reconstructive surgery is limited in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[50]

More than 500 rapes were reported in Eastern Congo in August 2010, leading to an apology from Atul Khare that the UN peacekeepers had failed to protect the population from brutalisation.[171]

Darfur region in Sudan[edit]

Map of Sudan. The Darfur region is shaded.
See also: War in Darfur

An 19 October 2004 UN News Centre article[172] titled "UNICEF adviser says rape in Darfur, Sudan continues with impunity" reported:

Armed militias in Sudan’s strife-torn Darfur region are continuing to rape women and girls with impunity, an expert from the United Nations children’s agency said today on her return from a mission to the region. Pamela Shifman, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) adviser on violence and sexual exploitation, said she heard dozens of harrowing accounts of sexual assaults – including numerous reports of gang-rapes – when she visited internally displaced persons (IDPs) at one camp and another settlement in North Darfur last week. "Rape is used as a weapon to terrorize individual women and girls, and also to terrorize their families and to terrorize entire communities," she said in an interview with the UN News Service. "No woman or girl is safe."

In the same article Pamela Shifman was reported to have said that:

every woman or girl she spoke to had either endured sexual assault herself, or knew of someone who had been attacked, particularly when they left the relative safety of their IDP camp or settlement to find firewood.

Iraq War[edit]

Male prisoners of war may be subject to rape and sexual violence. Sexual violence against male prisoners of the Iraq War gained wide publicity after graphic photos documented such abuses on male Iraqi prisoners by US guards at Abu Ghraib prison,[173] where prisoners were forced to humiliate themselves.

Another unfortunate and infamous incident was the gang-rape and murder of a 14-year old Iraqi girl.

2011 Libyan civil war[edit]

The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, claimed that there is evidence that Gaddafi's troops used rape as a weapon during the Libyan civil war. He also said, "Apparently, he [Gaddafi] decided to punish, using rape," while witnesses confirmed that the Libyan government also purchased a large number of Viagra-like drugs. The Libyan government, on the other hand, does not recognize the ICC's jurisdiction.[174]

Rape in contemporary peace operations by UN peacekeepers[edit]

In contemporary conflict zones, international organizations, particularly the United Nations peacekeepers, have been involved in maintaining peace and stability in the area as well as distribute humanitarian aid to the local population. At present there are 16 Peace Operations directed by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The peacekeepers are mainly composed of military personnel (but to a less number also the police) sent by governments of various member-states.[175] However, over the course of their involvement in the field, peacekeepers have also been accused and at times found guilty of committing rape and other forms of sexual violence to the local population, in particular to women and children. Among all international staff in the conflict zone, United Nations peacekeepers (handled by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations) have been most frequently identified as the perpetrators of rape.[176]

Motivations for rape and sexual abuse by peacekeepers[edit]

Like traditional military ventures, peacekeepers are deployed in highly unstable areas similar to war zones, where there is absence of the rule of law, disintegration of society and great psychological and economic hardships.[177] Having an image of wealth and authority, peacekeepers can easily exercise power over the local population, which is often abused.[178]

Moreover, as members of their respective country’s militaries, peacekeepers also carry with them in the peace operations the “hyper-masculine culture” that encourages sexual exploitation and abuse.[179] This claim is supported by the fact that most of the peacekeepers are male. As of November 2003, while there are 81,181 male peacekeeping soldiers, there are only 2,322 female peacekeeping troops; on the other hand, while there are 11,644 male police, only female police are only 1,273.[180] The motivations for rape differ from the traditional perpetrators (government and rebel forces) in that rape is not part of a war strategy that contributes to fulfilling the organization’s mission, but rather more as means to relieve the perpetrators’ sexual urges most often related to the military culture.[181] Apart from putting the victim under the threat of physical violence, perpetrators induce sexual acts from the victim through payment, and granting or denying humanitarian aid.[182]

Cases of rape and sexual abuse in peace operations[edit]

UN peacekeepers’ involvement in rape was found as early as in 1993 during the Bosnian genocide, where peacekeepers were found to regularly visit a Serb-run brothel in Sarajevo that housed Bosniak and Croat women who were forced to become prostitutes.[183] In recent years, several UN soldiers in Haiti have been accused and convicted of raping boys as young as 14-years-old. In one instance, BBC News reports that Uruguayan soldiers raped a young man. In another instance, Pakistani UN soldiers were recently convicted of raping a Haitian boy, sparking protest for the end of UN peacekeeping forces.[184] In Congo in 2004, peacekeepers from Pakistan, Uruguay, Morocco, Tunisia, South Africa and Nepal have faced 68 cases of rape, prostitution and pedophilia. The investigation resulted in 6 Nepalese troops jailed.[185] In Sudan, the Egyptian contingent was accused of raping six women when the civilians took shelter at the peacekeepers’ headquarters to flee from the fighting.[186] In Sudan, the Egyptian contingent was accused of raping six women when the civilians took shelter at the peacekeepers’ headquarters to flee from the fighting.[187] Allegations of rape of young women and children have also been launched against UN peacekeepers in South Sudan.[188] In Mali, four UN peacekeepers from Chad have been involved in raping a woman.[189] Members of the Moroccan contingent faced rape charges during the course of their duty in the UN mission in Ivory Coast.[190]

Punitive measures[edit]

The most common challenge in reprimanding perpetrators is the significant underreporting of the issue mainly due to three reasons. First, the victims do not report or file complaints due to fears of revenge from the offender(s), denial of aid and the social stigma against rape victims in the victims’ own community.[191] Second, UN higher officials previously dismissed such allegations as “boys will be boys”.[192] Third, fellow peacekeepers are accustomed to the “wall of silence” in the spirit of brotherhood characteristic of military culture but also to protect the reputation of their sending government.[193] As a consequence, whistleblowers are often stigmatised.[194]

However, if there would indeed be reports, the UN instituted the Conduct and Discipline Teams (CDTs) to conduct an investigation referring the allegations for serious offense to the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS).[195] When found guilty, the course of the specific disciplinary action is dependent on the employee status of the offender. UN civilian staff and personnel have functional immunity that can only be waived by the UN Secretary-General. In the case of military personnel, they are subject to the jurisdiction of their respective sending governments.[196] The usual practice for offending soldiers has been to repatriate the personnel and prosecute her / him in his/her home country. In several cases, punitive measures are imposed such as demotion or dishonorable dismissal. However, very few among guilty personnel have faced criminal charges in their home countries after repatriation.[197]

Rape camp[edit]

Rape camp is a descriptive term for a detention facility that is designed for[citation needed] or turns into a place where authorities regularly rape the detainees.

Rape camps set up by the Bosnian Serb authorities have been extensively documented in the Bosnian War:[198][199]

Notable examples[edit]

Forced Prostitution and Sexual Slavery in War[edit]

Forced prostitution and sexual slavery are distinct as forms of war rape, as they entail more than the opportunistic rape by soldiers of women captives. Instead, women and girls are forced into sexual slavery, in some cases for prolonged periods. This is defined by the UN as “the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised, including sexual access through rape or other forms of sexual violence”.[200] War time forced prostitution takes several forms ranging from individual trafficking by armed forces to the institutionalization of the act of rape by military or civil authorities. The term ‘forced prostitution’ is often used in the press to refer to men and women displaced by war who are forced to engage in prostitution to survive.[201] However, this is not the sense in which it is in this article.

United States[edit]

Accused of the rape of a 14-year old Iraqi girl, soldier Steve Dale Green officially stated that: "I didn't think of the Iraqis as human." under oath when questioned why he killed the child's family before raping and killing her.[202][203] There are other charges of U.S. soldiers taking turns in raping 14-year old girls that are pending because of government secrecy.[204]

Germany[edit]

It is estimated that at least 50,000 women were forced into sexual slavery by German forces during World War II.[205] Official brothels of local women were established for occupying troops in Poland, France, Scandinavia, the Balkans, and Russia, and for front line troops in Africa and the Middle East.[206] These brothels were staffed by local women, many of whom were either held against their will as sex slaves, or given the ‘choice’ between internment and prostitution.[205] Furthermore, a brothel system was established in German concentration camps, both for the use of camp personnel, and to reward good behaviour on the part of other inmates. Women were shipped from the Ravensbrück concentration camp to others to serve as prostitutes, with the exception of Auschwitz, which operated an internal brothel.[207]

Japan[edit]

An estimated 200,000 women and girls, mostly Korean, Chinese, Taiwanese and Filipino, were forced to work as prostitutes in Japanese military brothels, known euphemistically as 'comfort stations' during World War II. Some were forcibly abducted from their homes by Japanese troops, whilst other responded to false adverts for work in factories or as nurses, and were then coerced by military authorities work as sexual slaves for Japanese occupying troops.[208] Such comfort stations existed in Japan, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, then Malaya, Thailand, Burma, New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, and French Indochina.[209]

See also: Comfort Women

South Korea[edit]

Lai Dai Han (or sometimes Lai Daihan/Lai Tai Han) (lai Đại Hàn in Vietnamese : pronounced [laːi ɗâˀi hâːn]; Korean: 라이따이한) is a Vietnamese term for a mixed ancestry person born to a South Korean father and a Vietnamese mother (including the victims of Korean soldiers) during the Vietnam War.

and List of South Korean perpetrated crimes during Vietnam War

Bosnia-Herzegovina[edit]

Sexual slavery a prominent form of war rape during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, in the early 1990s. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 Bosnian girls and women suffered rape in 1992 in Bosnia-Herzegovina alone, many of them while held by Serb forces in detention facilities of various types. Some of these facilities were established for the explicit purpose of rape and sexual assault, both to provide sex for Serb soldiers, and for the purposes 'ethnic cleansing' through forced impregnation.[210]

Sierra Leone[edit]

The Sierra Leonean civil war, which lasted from 1991 to 2002, saw many cases of brutal war rape including forced prostitution and sexual slavery. Women and girls were detained for extended periods of time, and were forced to provide sexual services to a particular rebel camp or to an individual rebel.[211] In some cases these women underwent forced marriage, and became so called ‘bush wives’ who lived with their forced partner.[212] These ‘wives’ were regularly interchanged when the soldier became bored, or if the woman became ill.[213]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "30% of Women in USA Military Raped Whilst Serving by Fellow Soldiers"[dead link]
  2. ^ Benedict, Helen (2009-05-06). "The Nation: The Plight of Women Soldiers". Npr.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  3. ^ Benedict, Helen (2008-08-13). "Why Soldiers Rape – Culture of misogyny, illegal occupation, fuel sexual violence in military". Inthesetimes.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  4. ^ a b c Eiji Takemae, Robert Ricketts, Sebastian Swann, Inside GHQ: The Allied Occupation of Japan and Its Legacy. p. 67. (Google.books)
  5. ^ a b Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 12–13. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Thomas, Dorothy Q.; Reagan, E. Ralph (1994). "Rape in War: Challenging the Tradition of Impunity". SAIS Review, Johns Hopkins University Press. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Storr, Will (17 July 2011). "The rape of men". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 26–27. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  9. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  10. ^ a b Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 10–21. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  11. ^ a b Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 27. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  12. ^ Levinson, Bernard M (2004). Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-567-08098-1. 
  13. ^ Stemple, Lara (February 2009). "Male Rape and Human Rights". Hastings Law Journal 60 (3): 605. Retrieved 17 July 2011. [dead link]
  14. ^ Stemple, p. 612.
  15. ^ "Rape as a 'weapon of war' against men." IRIN, 13 October 2011.
  16. ^ a b "The rape of men. The darkest secret of war". The Guardian (London). 2011. 
  17. ^ Stemple, Lara (2009). "Male Rape and Human Rights". Hastings Law Journal 3 (60): 605. 
  18. ^ "IRIN Africa | HEALTH: Rape as a "weapon of war" against men | DRC | South Sudan | Children | Gender Issues | Health & Nutrition | Human Rights". Irinnews.org. 2011-10-13. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  19. ^ Grace Natabaalo. "Male rape survivors fight stigma in Uganda - Features". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  20. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, page 5.
  21. ^ a b c Simons, Marlise (June 1996). "For first time, Court Defines Rape as War Crime". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ Rosenberg, Tine (April 1998). "Editorial Observer; New punishment for an ancient war crime". The New York Times. 
  23. ^ a b c "UN Security Council Takes a Historic Stand Supporting Abortion Access for Women Raped in War / Library / Homepage". AWID. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  24. ^ a b Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  25. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 23–24. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  26. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2001). Commentary: Terrorism Is at Odds With Islamic Tradition. LA Times. Retrieved 11 July 2011
  27. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 24–25. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  28. ^ a b Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  29. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 30–32. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  30. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 34. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  31. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 33. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  32. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 35–36. ISBN 90-411-0486-0. 
  33. ^ de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. p. 5. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  34. ^ de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. pp. 5–7. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  35. ^ a b c de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. p. 8. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  36. ^ a b c d e http://www.unictr.org/Portals/0/English%5CAnnualReports%5Ca-54-315.pdf
  37. ^ a b Navanethem Pillay is quoted by Professor Paul Walters in his presentation of her honorary doctorate of law, Rhodes University, April 2005 [1][dead link]
  38. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/Worldswomen/WW2010%20Report_by%20chapter%28pdf%29/violence%20against%20women.pdf
  39. ^ As quoted by Guy Horton in Dying Alive – A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360
  40. ^ "Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court". Legal.un.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  41. ^ a b Rape as a Crime Against Humanity[dead link]
  42. ^ a b Bosnia-Herzegovina : Foca verdict – rape and sexual enslavement are crimes against humanity. 22 February 2001. Amnesty International.
  43. ^ a b "SECURITY COUNCIL DEMANDS IMMEDIATE AND COMPLETE HALT TO ACTS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST CIVILIANS IN CONFLICT ZONES, UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTING RESOLUTION 1820 (2008)". United Nations. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  44. ^ "Angelina Jolie Urges World To End Rape In War". Huffington Post. 24 June 2013. 
  45. ^ a b Elements of Crimes at the Wayback Machine (archived December 1, 2008). PDF: Archive copy at the Internet ArchivePDF. International Criminal Court
  46. ^ a b Minzoni – Deroche, Angela (November 2005). "Rape as a tactic of war – Advocacy Paper" (PDF). Caritas France. [dead link]
  47. ^ "effects - definition of effects by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  48. ^ "Full text | Sexual and gender-based violence in areas of armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support interventions". Conflict and Health. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  49. ^ "Rwanda". Women Under Siege Project. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  50. ^ a b c d e Martens, Jackie (24 January 2004). "Congo rape victims seek solace". BBC News.
  51. ^ vaginal-fistula.
  52. ^ http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
  53. ^ "WHO | 10 facts on obstetric fistula". Who.int. 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  54. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons. Guidelines for Prevention and Response, UNHCR (SGVB Guidelines)". UNHCR. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  55. ^ "War, rape and genocide: From ancient times to the Sudan". Apha.confex.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  56. ^ a b http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijps/article/viewFile/5755/6360
  57. ^ ibid.
  58. ^ Inger Skjelsbaek: "Victim Survivor: Narrated Social Identities of Women Who Experienced Rape During the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina", Feminism & Psychology, 16/4, pp. 373–403, 387.
  59. ^ "The Nature and Psychosocial Consequences of War Rape for Individuals and Communities | Hagen | International Journal of Psychological Studies". Ccsenet.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  60. ^ Jeanne Ward, Mendy Marsh: "Sexual Violence Against Women and Girls in War and Its Aftermath: Realities, Responses, and Required Resources", paper prepared for the Symposium on Sexual Violenc in Conflict and Beyond, 21–23 June 2006, Brussels, p. 9.
  61. ^ a b David Bloomfield, Teresa Barnes, Luc Huyse: "Reconcilisation After Violent Conflict. A Handbook", International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2003, p. 61.
  62. ^ Cassandra Clifford: "Rape as a Weapon of War and it's Long-term Effects on Victims and Society", paper presented at the 7th Global Conference on Violence and the Contexts of Hostility, 5–7 May 2008, Budapest, p. 7.
  63. ^ Bülent Diken, Carsten Bagge Lautsen: "Becoming Abject: Rape as a Weapon of War", Body and Society 11/1, 111-128, p. 115.
  64. ^ Sherrie L. Russel-Brown: "Rape as an Act of Genocide", Berkeley Journal of International Law, 21/2, 2003, pp. 350-374.
  65. ^ p. 4.
  66. ^ "Rape and HIV as Weapons of War - United Nations University". Unu.edu. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  67. ^ Charli Carpenter: "War's Impact on Children Born of Rape and Sexual Exploitation: Physical, Economic and Psychosocial Dimensions", University of Pittsburg
  68. ^ Joana Daniel-Wrabetz: "Children Born of War Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Convention on the Rights of the Child", in Charli Carpenter (Ed.): Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones, Lynne Rienner, 2007, 21-39.
  69. ^ Holt, Kate; Hughes, Sarah (13 December 2005). "Bosnia's rape babies: abandoned by their families, forgotten by the state". The Independent. 
  70. ^ Eunice Apio: "Uganda's Forgotten Children of War", in Charli Carpenter (Ed.): Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones, Lynne Rienner, 2007, 94-109
  71. ^ McKinley, James (23 September 1996). "Legacy of Rwanda Violence: The Thousands Born of Rape". The New York Times. 
  72. ^ "United Nations Official Document". Un.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  73. ^ "Rape: Weapon of war". Ohchr.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  74. ^ a b "Rwanda". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  75. ^ p. 16.
  76. ^ "Physicians for Human Rights: Nowhere to Turn: Failure to Protect, Support and Assure Justice to Darfuri Women" (PDF). 2009. p. 4. 
  77. ^ Analysing Disrupted Health Sectors: A Modular Manual. Department of Recovery and Transition Programmes Health Action in Crises. World Health Organization Draft. June 2009.
  78. ^ ibid. p.7
  79. ^ Hollifield, M. (2005). Taking measure of war trauma. The Lancet, 365(9467), 1283-1284.
  80. ^ Joachim, I. (2004b). Sexualised violence in war and its consequences. In Medica Mondiale (Ed.), Violence against women in war: Handbook for professionals working with traumatised women (pp. 63-110). Cologne, Germany: Prisma, Saarbrucken.
  81. ^ Rojnik, B., Andolsek-Jeras, L., & Obersnel-Kveder, D. (1995). Women in difficult circumstances: War victims and refugees. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 48(3), pp. 311-315.
  82. ^ Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1999). A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Towards a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 300. ISBN 0-674-17764-9. "The group rape perpetrated by the conquerors is a metonymic celebration of territorial acquisition" 
  83. ^ a b Smith-Spark, Laura (8 December 2004). "How did rape become a weapon of war?". BBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  84. ^ Levinson, Bernard M (2004). Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-567-08098-1. 
  85. ^ Vikman, Elisabeth (April 2005). "Ancient origins: Sexual violence in warfare, Part I". Anthropology & Medicine 12 (1): 21–31. doi:10.1080/13648470500049826. 
  86. ^ Maimonides. Melakhim U'Milchamos. pp. Chapter 8. 
  87. ^ Sara Elise Phang (2001). The marriage of Roman soldiers (13 B.C.-A.D. 235): law and family in the imperial army. BRILL. p. 268. ISBN 90-04-12155-2. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  88. ^ Roesdahl, pp. 9–22.
  89. ^ Heredity (2005-06-01). "Heredity – Human migration: Reappraising the Viking Image". Nature.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  90. ^ "IngentaConnect The Vikings on the Continent in Myth and History". Ingentaconnect.com. 2003-04-01. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  91. ^ "Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  92. ^ "Horrible Traffic in Circassian Women—Infanticide in Turkey". New York Daily Times, 6 August 1856.
  93. ^ "Soldier Khan". Avalanchepress.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  94. ^ "''When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed''". Researchnews.osu.edu. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  95. ^ Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt, "Transatlantic Slave Trade", Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999), ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
  96. ^ Man, John. Genghis Khan : Life, Death and Resurrection (London; New York : Bantam Press, 2004) ISBN 0-593-05044-4.
  97. ^ Yi 2008, p. 114.
  98. ^ Dictionary of Genocide: M-Z Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs, page 272, Greenwood 2007
  99. ^ Cocker, Mark (1998). Rivers of blood, rivers of gold: Europe's conflict with tribal peoples. London: Jonathan Cape. p. 308. ISBN 0-224-03884-2. 
  100. ^ a b Beckman, Karen Redrobe (2003). Vanishing Women: Magic, Film, and Feminism. Duke University Press. pp. 31–3. ISBN 0-8223-3074-1. 
  101. ^ Beckman, Karen Redrobe (2003). Vanishing Women: Magic, Film, and Feminism. Duke University Press. pp. 33–4. ISBN 0-8223-3074-1. 
  102. ^ Joanna Waley-Cohen (2000). The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 201. ISBN 0-393-32051-0. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  103. ^ Diana Preston (2000). The boxer rebellion: the dramatic story of China's war on foreigners that shook the world in the summer of 1900. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 285. ISBN 0-8027-1361-0. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  104. ^ Diana Preston (2000). The boxer rebellion: the dramatic story of China's war on foreigners that shook the world in the summer of 1900. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 284. ISBN 0-8027-1361-0. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  105. ^ Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will (1975) pp.40–48
  106. ^ Brownmiller, "Against Our Will (1975) p. 44
  107. ^ a b Brownmiller, Susan (1993). Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. p. 81. ISBN 0-449-90820-8
  108. ^ "Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan". English.chosun.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  109. ^ For detailed accounts of rapes by Australian occupation troop during the occupation of Japan, see Allan Clifton, "Time of Fallen Blossoms". Australian Military Gang Rape of ‘Fallen Blossoms’
  110. ^ Schrijvers, Peter (2002). The GI War Against Japan. New York City: New York University Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-8147-9816-0. 
  111. ^ Molasky, Michael S. (1999). The American Occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and Memory. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-415-19194-4. 
  112. ^ Molasky, Michael S.; Rabson, Steve (2000). Southern Exposure: Modern Japanese Literature from Okinawa. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8248-2300-9. 
  113. ^ Sheehan, Susan D; Elizabeth, Laura; Selden, Hein Mark. Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power. p. 18. 
  114. ^ Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 530. ISBN 1-4391-4893-7. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  115. ^ a b Emsley, Clive (2013) Soldier, Sailor, Beggarman, Thief: Crime and the British Armed Services since 1914. Oxford University Press, USA, p. 128-129; ISBN 0199653712
  116. ^ a b Longden, Sean (2004) To the Victor the Spoils: D-Day to Ve Day, the Reality Behind the Heroism. Arris Books, p. 195. ISBN 1844370380
  117. ^ "55 Dni Wehrmachtu w Polsce" Szymon Datner Warsaw 1967 page 67 "Zanotowano szereg faktów gwałcenia kobiet i dziewcząt żydowskich" (Numerous facts of cases of rapes made upon Jewish women and girls were reported)
  118. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 29 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-29. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  119. ^ a b Numer: 17/18/2007 Wprost "Seksualne Niewolnice III Rzeszy"
  120. ^ "Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History - Vallentine Mitchell". Vallentinemitchell.metapress.com. 2011-10-10. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  121. ^ Jews, Germans, and Allies: Close Encounters in Occupied Germany, Atina Grossmann, page 290
  122. ^ Zur Debatte um die Ausstellung. Vernichtungskrieg. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht 1941-1944. Kieler Landeshaus 1999.
  123. ^ War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in international war crimes tribunals, Kelly Dawn Askin, page 72
  124. ^ "Italian women win cash for wartime rapes". Listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  125. ^ "1952: Il caso delle "marocchinate" al Parlamento". Retrieved 22 November 2008. 
  126. ^ Bracalini, Romano: "Paisà. Vita quotidiana nell'Italia liberata dagli alleati", Mondadori, 2008, pages 267, ISBN 88-04-58073-9, ISBN 978-88-04-58073-7
  127. ^ David Wilson (27 March 2007). "The secret war". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 November 2008. 
  128. ^ Lilly, Robert J. (2007). Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe During World War II. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-50647-X. 
  129. ^ Morrow, John H. (October 2008). "Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe during World War II By J. Robert Lilly". The Journal of Military History 72 (4): 1324. doi:10.1353/jmh.0.0151. 
  130. ^ Schofield, Hugh (5 June 2009). "Revisionists challenge D-Day story". BBC News. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  131. ^ Anna Reading. The Social Inheritance of the Holocaust: Gender, Culture, and Memory. Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-76147-2, ISBN 978-0-333-76147-2 p. 166
  132. ^ Johnson, Daniel (2002-01-24). "Red Army troops raped even Soviet and Polish women as they freed them from camps". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  133. ^ "Alma Mater 64(2004) – "OKUPOWANY KRAKÓW- z prorektorem Andrzejem Chwalbą rozmawia Rita Pagacz-Moczarska"
  134. ^ Beevor, Antony (1 May 2002). "They raped every German female from eight to 80". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  135. ^ Johnson, Daniel (24 January 2002). "Red Army troops raped even Russian women as they freed them from camps – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  136. ^ Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949. Harvard University Press, 1995. pp. 132, 133. ISBN 0-674-78405-7.
  137. ^ 十一万人的志愿军后勤部队中,从1952年一月到十一月中,共发生自杀一百零九人,自伤的三十九人,逃亡的六百八十七人,汽车肇事压死的八十一人,压伤的九十四人,误伤的一百零八人,强奸的四十一人,通奸的五百一十四人,鸡奸的一百五十人。"金盾出版社1986年7月1版《抗美援朝战争后勤经验总结 资料选编综合类下册(Lessons About Logistics in Resist US and Aid Korea War: Comprehensive Selected Materials Vol.2)》,P427
  138. ^ "Murder in the name of war - My Lai". BBC. 20 July 1998. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  139. ^ "Casualties of War". The New Yorker. 18 October 1969. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  140. ^ East Pakistan: Even the Skies Weep, Time Magazine, 25 October 1971.
  141. ^ Laura Smith-Spark (8 December 2004). How did rape become a weapon of war?. BBC News. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  142. ^ Debasish Roy Chowdhury "Indians are bastards anyway". Asia Times. 23 June 2005.
  143. ^ Hamoodur Rahman Commission, Chapter 2, Paragraphs 32,34
  144. ^ Salma Khatun Sarmila Bose Rewrites history website of Drishtipat "A non-profit, non-political expatriate Bangladeshi organization ... registered public charity in the United States."
  145. ^ Farida Majid. "Skewing the history of rape in 1971". Groups.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  146. ^ a b c "EJIL Issue: Issue Vol. 5 (1994) No. 1". Ejil.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  147. ^ a b de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. p. 9. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  148. ^ a b c d e de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. p. 11. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  149. ^ a b de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. p. 10. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  150. ^ de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. pp. 9–10. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  151. ^ new Internationalist issue 244, June 1993. Rape: Weapon of War by Angela Robson.
  152. ^ Human Rights News Bosnia: Landmark Verdicts for Rape, Torture, and Sexual Enslavement: Criminal Tribunal Convicts Bosnian Serbs for Crimes Against Humanity 22 February 2001
  153. ^ Halilovic Aldi (2000-12-21). "Odjek – revija za umjetnost i nauku – Zločin silovanja u BiH". Odjek.ba. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  154. ^ "Grbavica (film)". Coop99.at. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  155. ^ [2][dead link]
  156. ^ [3][dead link]
  157. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060220/ai_n16146172
  158. ^ Andrew Osborn in Brussels (2001-02-23). "Mass rape ruled a war crime | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  159. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3693/is_200103/ai_n8945781
  160. ^ a b c d e de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. p. 13. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  161. ^ a b c d de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. p. 14. ISBN 90-5095-533-9. 
  162. ^ "DOCUMENT – SRI LANKA: WAVERING COMMITMENT TO HUMAN RIGHTS". 1996. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  163. ^ "Human Rights Watch World Report 1998". Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  164. ^ "United Nation's Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women,its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy". 2000. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  165. ^ "Africa war zones’ ‘rape epidemic’". BBC News. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  166. ^ "Prevalence of Rape in E.Congo Described as Worst in World". Washingtonpost.com. 2007-09-09. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  167. ^ a b "Africa Tales of Rape in DR Congo". BBC News. Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  168. ^ Kira Cochrane. "Kira Cochrane talks to filmmaker Lisa F Jackson on her documentary about rape in the Congo". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  169. ^ "A Conversation with Eve Ensler: Femicide in the Congo". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  170. ^ Nolen, Stephanie. ""Not Women Anymore": The Congo's rape survivors face pain, shame and AIDS". Ms. Magazine. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  171. ^ UN has failed Congo mass rape victims, says investigator, The Guardian, 8 September 2010
  172. ^ "UNICEF adviser says rape in Darfur, Sudan continues with impunity". 19 October 2004. UN News Centre.
  173. ^ Glaister, Dan, Julian Borger (13 May 2004). "1,800 new pictures add to US disgust: Stills shown of women forced to bare breasts". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  174. ^ "Libya: Gaddafi investigated over use of rape as weapon". BBC. 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  175. ^ "Current peacekeeping operations. United Nations Peacekeeping". Un.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  176. ^ Defeis, Elizabeth. “U.N. Peacekeepers and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: An End to Impunity” 7, no. 2 (2008): 185–212.
  177. ^ Anna Shotton, A Strategy to Address Sexual Exploitation by U.N. Peacekeeping Personnel, 39 CORNELL L. REV. 97, 103 (2006).
  178. ^ Defeis, 2008, p.191.
  179. ^ [4][dead link]
  180. ^ "Gender statistics. United Nations Peacekeeping". Un.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  181. ^ "UN Peacekeepers and Cultures of Violence". Cultural Survival. 2010-03-19. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  182. ^ Novick, Natalie. “When Those Meant to Keep the Peace Commit Sexualized Violence | Women Under Siege Project.” Accessed December 18, 2013
  183. ^ "UN peacekeepers took part in rapes during Bosnian Genocide | We Remember the Bosnian Genocide, 1992-95. Mi se Sjećamo Genocida u Bosni, 1992-95". Bosniagenocide.wordpress.com. 2010-12-09. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  184. ^ "BBC News - Haiti anger over alleged Uruguay UN rape". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  185. ^ "U.N. Sexual Abuse Alleged in Congo". washingtonpost.com. 2004-12-16. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  186. ^ "U.N. Faces More Accusations of Sexual Misconduct". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  187. ^ "SUDAN: With UN Peacekeepers Accused of Rape in Sudan, UN Women & Ban Ki-Moon Adviser Won't Answer, Other Priorities - News Library - News & Events". PeaceWomen. 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  188. ^ "Rape Allegations Faced by U.N. In South Sudan - The New York Sun". Nysun.com. 2007-01-03. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  189. ^ "UN's Minusma peacekeepers 'raped woman in Mali' | Africatime". En.africatime.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  190. ^ Monday, July 23, 2007 (2007-07-23). "Another U.N. Peacekeeper Rape Scandal". Outsidethebeltway.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  191. ^ "Special Reports | Peacekeepers 'abusing children'". BBC News. 2008-05-27. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  192. ^ Profile: Bureaucrat at Large in the Balkans; Yasushi Akashi, Almost Painfully Diplomatic U.N. Envoy, The Independent, April 30, 1994.
  193. ^ http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:DS8SVzkECNAJ:english.ohmynews.com/articleview/article_view.asp%3Fat_code%3D382507+OhMyNews+UN+peacekeeping+2006&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us
  194. ^ "Bosnia sex trade shames UN". The Scotsman. 2003-02-09. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  195. ^ Secretary-General, Comprehensive Report Prepared Pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 59/296 on Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse, Including Policy Development, Implementation and Full Justification of Proposed Capacity on Personnel Conduct Issues, 14,delivered to the General Assembly, U.N. Doc. A/60/862 (May 24, 2006)
  196. ^ Defeis, 2008, p.192.
  197. ^ "‘Survival sex’: How NGOs and peacekeepers exploit women in war". Women Under Siege Project. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  198. ^ "Rape: weapon of war". 
  199. ^ Allen, Beverly (1996). Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-2818-1. 
  200. ^ http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0811fcbd0b9f6bd58025667300306dea/3d25270b5fa3ea998025665f0032f220?OpenDocument#Ipurp
  201. ^ Hassan, Nihal (2007). "50,000 Iraqi Refugees forced into prostitution". The Independent (London). 
  202. ^ http://beforeitsnews.com/war-on-terror/2013/06/i-didnt-think-of-iraqis-as-humans-says-u-s-soldier-who-raped-14-year-old-girl-before-killing-her-and-her-family-2443994.html
  203. ^ http://www.islamophobiatoday.com/2010/12/21/i-didnt-think-of-iraqis-as-humans-says-u-s-soldier-who-raped-14-year-old-girl-before-killing-her-and-her-family/
  204. ^ http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Hearing_testimony;_U.S._soldiers_took_turns_raping_14_year_old_Iraqi_girl_before_killing_her
  205. ^ a b Gertjejanssen, Jo (2004). "Victims, Heroes, Survivors: Sexual Violence on the Eastern Front During World War II". University of Minnesota PhD Thesis: 220. 
  206. ^ Franz W. Seidler, "Prostitution, Homosexualität, Selbstverstümmelung - Probleme der deutschen Sanitätsführung 1939-1945 (Prostitution, Homosexuality, Masturbation - Problems of the German Medical Service, 1939-1945); 1977, p. 154
  207. ^ "Nazi Sex Slaves: New Exhibition Documents Forced Prostitution in Concentration Camps". Der Speigen. 
  208. ^ Mitchell, Richard H. "The Comfort Women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War". The American Historical Review: 102 (2): 503. 
  209. ^ "FACTBOX-Disputes over Japan's wartime "comfort women" continue". Reuters. March 5, 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  210. ^ Wood, Elisabeth Jean. "Variation in Sexual Violence during War". Politics and Society: 34 (3): 311–312. 
  211. ^ "Conflict Profile: Sierra Leone". womenundersiegeproject.org. Women Under Siege Project. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  212. ^ Wood, Elisabeth Jean. "Variation in Sexual Violence during War". Politics and Society: 34 (3): 315. 
  213. ^ "We’ll Kill You if You Cry". Human Rights Watch: 15 (1): 43. 2002. 

Further reading[edit]