Walter Winchell

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Walter Winchell
Walter Winchell 1960.JPG
Winchell in 1960.
BornWalter Winchel
(1897-04-07)April 7, 1897
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedFebruary 20, 1972(1972-02-20) (aged 74)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Spouse(s)Rita Greene (1919–1928; divorced)
 
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Walter Winchell
Walter Winchell 1960.JPG
Winchell in 1960.
BornWalter Winchel
(1897-04-07)April 7, 1897
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedFebruary 20, 1972(1972-02-20) (aged 74)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Spouse(s)Rita Greene (1919–1928; divorced)

Walter Winchell (April 7, 1897 – February 20, 1972) was an American newspaper and radio gossip commentator.[1]

Professional career[edit]

Born in New York City, he left school in the sixth grade and started performing in Gus Edwards's vaudeville troupe known as "Newsboys Sextet".

He began his career in journalism by posting notes about his acting troupe on backstage bulletin boards. Joining the Vaudeville News in 1920, Winchell left the paper for the Evening Graphic in 1924, and in turn was hired on June 10, 1929 by the New York Daily Mirror where he finally became the author of what would be the first syndicated gossip column,[2] entitled On-Broadway.

Using connections in the entertainment, social, and governmental realms, he would expose exciting or embarrassing information about celebrities in those industries. This caused him to become very feared, as a journalist, because he would routinely impact the lives of famous or powerful people, exposing alleged information and rumors about them, using this as ammunition to attack his enemies, and to blackmail influential people.[3] He used this power, trading positive mention in his column (and later, his radio show) for more rumors and secrets.

He made his radio debut over WABC in New York, a CBS affiliate, on May 12, 1930.[4]

By the 1930s, Winchell was "an intimate friend of Owney Madden, New York's No. 1 gang leader of the prohibition era",[5] but "in 1932 Winchell's intimacy with criminals caused him to fear he would be 'rubbed out' for 'knowing too much.'" He fled to California, and "returned weeks later with a new enthusiasm for law, G-men, Uncle Sam, [and] Old Glory".[5] His coverage of the Lindbergh kidnapping and subsequent trial received national attention. Within two years, he befriended J. Edgar Hoover, the No. 2 G-man of the repeal era. He was responsible for turning Louis "Lepke" Buchalter of Murder, Inc. over to Hoover.

His newspaper column was syndicated in over 2,000 newspapers worldwide, and he was read by 50 million people a day from the 1920s until the early 1960s. His Sunday-night radio broadcast was heard by another 20 million people from 1930 to the late 1950s. (One example of his profile at his professional peak was being mentioned in Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's 1937 song "The Lady Is a Tramp": "I follow Winchell, and read every line.")

Winchell, who was Jewish, was one of the first commentators in America to attack Adolf Hitler and American pro-fascist and pro-Nazi organizations such as the German-American Bund. He was a staunch supporter of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal throughout the Depression era, and frequently served as the Roosevelt Administration's mouthpiece in favor of interventionism as the European war crisis loomed in the late 1930s. Early on he denounced American isolationists as favoring appeasement of Hitler, and was explicit in his attacks on such prominent isolationists as Charles Lindbergh, whom he dubbed "The Lone Ostrich", and Gerald L. K. Smith, who he denounced as "Gerald Lucifer KKKodfish Smith". Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Winchell was also an outspoken supporter of civil rights for African Americans, and frequently attacked the Ku Klux Klan and other racist groups as supporting un-American, pro-Nazi goals. After World War II, Winchell began to denounce Communism as the main threat facing America.

During World War II, he attacked the National Maritime Union, the labor organization for the civilian United States Merchant Marine, which he said was run by Communists.[6] In 1948 and 1949 he and the influential leftist columnist Drew Pearson "inaccurately and maliciously assaulted Secretary of Defense James Forrestal in columns and radio broadcasts."[7] Winchell also labeled African-American-French entertainer Josephine Baker as a communist after she took him to task for not questioning the racial-discriminatory policies of the Stork Club in New York. His relentless campaign against Baker may have contributed to her failure to get her visa to enter the US renewed.[citation needed]

In 1948 Winchell had the top-rated radio show when he surpassed Fred Allen and Jack Benny.[8]

During the 1950s Winchell favored Senator Joseph McCarthy, but he became unpopular as the public turned against McCarthy. He also had a weekly radio broadcast which was simulcast on ABC television until he ended that employment because of a dispute with ABC executives in 1955.

A dispute with Jack Paar effectively ended Winchell's career, signaling a shift in power from print to television.[9]

During this time, NBC had given him the opportunity to host a variety show, which lasted only thirteen weeks. His readership gradually dropped, and when his home paper, the New York Daily Mirror, where he had worked for thirty-four years, closed in 1963, he faded from the public eye.

He did, however, receive $25,000 per episode to narrate The Untouchables on the ABC television network for four seasons beginning in 1959.

Ethical failings[edit]

The most controversial part of Winchell's career were his attempts, especially after World War II, to destroy the careers of personal or political enemies. A favorite tactic was to accuse them of being communists or of sexual impropriety.[10] Winchell was not above childish name-calling: An example is his feud with New York radio host Barry Gray, whom he described as "Borey Pink" and a "disk jerk".[11] When Winchell heard that Marlen Edwin Pew of the trade journal Editor & Publisher had criticized him as a bad influence on the American press, he thereafter referred to him as "Marlen Pee-you".[5]

For most of his career his contract with his newspaper and radio employers required them to reimburse him for any damages he had to pay, should he be sued for slander or libel.[12] Whenever friends reproached him for betraying confidences, he responded, "I know — I'm just a son of a bitch."[5] By the mid-1950s he was widely believed to be arrogant, cruel, and ruthless.[13]

Style[edit]

Many other columnists, such as Ed Sullivan in New York and Louella Parsons in Los Angeles, began to write gossip soon after Winchell's initial success. He wrote in a style filled with slang and incomplete sentences. Winchell's casual writing style famously earned him the ire of mobster Dutch Schultz, who confronted Winchell at New York's Cotton Club and publicly lambasted him for using the phrase "pushover" to describe Schultz's penchant for blonde women.[14] Some notable Winchell quotes are: "Nothing recedes like success", and "I usually get my stuff from people who promised somebody else that they would keep it a secret".

Winchell opened his radio broadcasts by pressing randomly on a telegraph key, a sound that created a sense of urgency and importance and the catchphrase "Good evening, Mr. and Mrs. America from border to border and coast to coast and all the ships at sea. Let's go to press." He would then read each of his stories with a staccato delivery (up to a rate of 197 words per minute), though in an interview in 1967, claimed a speed of well over 200 wpm.[15] noticeably faster than the typical pace of American speech. His diction can also be heard in his breathless narration of the Untouchables television series as well as in several Hollywood films.

Personal life[edit]

On August 11, 1919, Winchell married Rita Greene, one of his onstage partners. The couple separated a few years later, and he moved in with June Magee, who had already given birth to their first child, a daughter named Walda. Winchell and Greene eventually divorced in 1928. Winchell and Magee would never marry, although the couple maintained the front of being married for the rest of their lives.

Winchell and Magee successfully kept the secret of their non-marriage. Their children all had misfortune. Their adopted daughter Gloria died of pneumonia at the age of nine, and Walda spent time in psychiatric hospitals. Walter, Jr., the only son of the journalist, committed suicide in his family's garage on Christmas night, 1968. Having spent the previous two years on welfare, Walter had last been employed as a dishwasher in Santa Ana, California, but listed himself as a freelancer who for a time wrote a column in the Los Angeles Free Press, an alternate newspaper published between 1964 and 1978.[16]

Later years[edit]

Winchell announced his retirement on February 5, 1969, citing the tragedy of his son's suicide as a major reason, while also noting the delicate health of Magee. Exactly one year later, she died at a Phoenix hospital while undergoing treatment for a heart condition.

Winchell spent his final two years as a recluse at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Larry King, who replaced Winchell at the Miami Herald, observed:

He was so sad. You know what Winchell was doing at the end? Typing out mimeographed sheets with his column, handing them out on the corner. That's how sad he got. When he died, only one person came to his funeral: his daughter.

(Several of Winchell's former co-workers expressed a willingness to go, but were turned back by his daughter Walda.)[17]

Death[edit]

Winchell died of prostate cancer at the age of 74 on February 20, 1972 in Los Angeles, California. He is buried in Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery in Phoenix.[18]

Legacy[edit]

Even during Winchell's lifetime, journalists were critical of his effect on the media. In 1940, St. Clair McKelway, who had earlier written a series of articles about him in The New Yorker, wrote in Time Magazine:

the effect of Winchellism on the standards of the press.... When Winchell began gossiping in 1924 for the late scatological tabloid Evening Graphic, no U.S. paper hawked rumors about the marital relations of public figures until they turned up in divorce courts. For 16 years, gossip columns spread until even the staid New York Times whispered that it heard from friends of a son of the President that he was going to be divorced. In its first year, The Graphic would have considered this news not fit to print... Gossip-writing is at present like a spirochete in the body of journalism.... Newspapers... have never been held in less esteem by their readers or exercised less influence on the political and ethical thought of the times.[5]

Winchell responded to McKelway saying, "Oh stop! You talk like a high-school student of journalism."[5]

Despite the controversy surrounding Winchell, his popularity allowed him to leverage support for causes that he valued. In 1946, following the death from cancer of his close friend and fellow writer Damon Runyon, Winchell appealed to his radio audience for contributions to fight the disease. The response led Winchell to establish the Damon Runyon Cancer Memorial Fund, since renamed the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation. He led the charity — with the support of celebrities including Marlene Dietrich, Bob Hope, Milton Berle, Marilyn Monroe, and Joe DiMaggio — until his own death from cancer in 1972.

In 1950, Ernest Lehman, a former publicity writer for Irving Hoffman of The Hollywood Reporter,[19] wrote a story for Cosmopolitan titled "Tell Me About It Tomorrow". The piece is about a ruthless journalist, J.J. Hunsecker, and is generally thought to be a thinly veiled commentary on the power wielded by Winchell at the height of his influence. It was made into the film Sweet Smell of Success (1957), and the screenplay was written by Lehman and Clifford Odets.[20]

Robert Heinlein introduced the term "winchell" into the American vocabulary, as a term for a politically intrusive gossip columnist.[21]

Winchell was parodied in the film Blessed Event (1932), where a Winchell-like character was played by actor Lee Tracy. He wrote the original story for the film Broadway Through a Keyhole (1933).

Cole Porter wrote in his song "Let's Fly Away" (from "The New Yorkers", 1930): "[...] Let's fly away, / And find a country so provincial / We'll never hear what Walter Winchell / Might be forced to say. [...]"

Winchellism and Winchellese[edit]

The term "Winchellism" is named after him. Though its use is extremely rare and may be considered archaic, the term has two different usages.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Obituary Variety, February 23, 1972, page 71.
  2. ^ The Age of Winchell http://www.evesmag.com/winchell.htm
  3. ^ Walter Winchell (1897–1972) – Find A Grave Memorial
  4. ^ (John Dunning, Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio, p. 708)
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Columny". TIME. 1940-09-23. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  6. ^ "Liberty Ships" 1995 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) documentary
  7. ^ CBS's Don Hollenbeck: An Honest Reporter in the Age of McCarthyism, Loren Ghiglione, 2008, Chapter 16
  8. ^ Thomas, Bob (1971). Winchell. Doubleday. His ranking among the most listened-to radio programs climbed higher and higher until in 1948 his audience was the biggest in radio. 
  9. ^ Pioneers of Television: "Late Night" episode (2008 PBS mini-series)

    "Paar's feud with newspaper columnist Walter Winchell marked a major turning point in American media power. No one had ever dared criticize Winchell because a few lines in his column could destroy a career, but when Winchell disparaged Paar in print, Paar fought back and mocked Winchell repeatedly on the air. Paar's criticisms effectively ended Winchell's career. The tables had turned, now TV had the power."

  10. ^ Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, Neil Gabler, 1994, chap 8–9.
  11. ^ "The Press: Feud Days". Time. 1952-12-08. Retrieved 2010-05-27. 
  12. ^ Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, Neil Gabler, 1994, noted in several places in the book.
  13. ^ Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, Neil Gabler, 1994, chap 8–10.
  14. ^ Sann, Paul. "Kill the Dutchman!"
  15. ^ Wallace, David (2011). Capital Of The World. Guildford, CN: Lyons Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7627-7010-6. 
  16. ^ "Milestones". TIME Magazine. 1969-01-03. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  17. ^ Neal Gabler, Winchell : Gossip, Power, and the Culture of Celebrity (Vintage, 1995), p. 3.
  18. ^ "Mrs. Winchell's Little Boy". TIME Magazine. 1972-03-06. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  19. ^ Ernest Lehman: Biography from Answers.com
  20. ^ Ernest Lehman Chronology
  21. ^ Walter Winchell - Biography
  22. ^ Kuethe, J. Louis (June 1932). "John Hopkins Jargon". American Speech, Vol. 7, No. 5: 327–338. 
  23. ^ a b Beath, Paul Robert (October 1931). "Winchellese". American Speech, Vol. 7, No. 1: 44–46. 

Further reading[edit]

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