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A voter ID law is a law that requires some form of identification in order to vote or receive a ballot for an election. In most jurisdictions, voters must present an ID, usually a photo ID. Because of purported differences in ability to obtain identification on the basis of socioeconomic status, they are controversial, notably in the United States and Canada.
Since 2006 the Brazilian Electoral Justice is re-registering voters with biometric identification. In the 2014 elections more than 22 million voters (out of 141 million) will be identified by fingerprints.
In Canada the Federal government will send out, by mail, an Elections Canada registration confirmation card, which the voter takes to the polling station, in advance detailing the where and when that individual should vote. To vote, one must prove their identity and address. A voter has three options:
(1) Show one original piece of identification with photo, name and address like a driver's license or a health card. It must be issued by a government agency.
(2) Show two original pieces of authorized identification. Both pieces must have a name and one must also have an address. Examples: student ID card, birth certificate, public transportation card, utility bill, bank/credit card statement, etc.
(3) Take an oath and have an elector who knows the voter vouch for them (both of which will be required to make a sworn statement). This person must have authorized identification and their name must appear on the list of electors in the same polling division as the voter. This person can only vouch for one person and the person who is vouched for cannot vouch for another elector.
However in some provinces like in Quebec, one has to establish their identity by presenting a health insurance card, a driver’s license, a Canadian passport, a certificate of Indian status or a Canadian Forces ID. These are all photos IDs.
Germany has a community-based resident registration system and everyone eligible to vote receives a personal polling notification some weeks before the election by mail, indicating the polling station of the voter's precinct. Voters have to present their polling notification or a piece of photo ID (identity card, passport, form of identification) when voting. The election officials may refrain from demanding identification when the voter is personally known to them, given his or her name is in the polling station's register of voters.
The registration office of each municipality in the Netherlands maintains a registration of all residents. Every eligible voter receives a personal polling notification by mail some weeks before the election, indicating the polling station of the voter's precinct. Voters have to present their polling notification and a piece of photo ID (passport, identity card, or drivers license) when voting. Such photo ID may be expired but not more than 5 years.
In cantons of Switzerland where the Landsgemeinde or "cantonal assembly" is still being used, men may identify themselves as freeman allowed to bear arms and vote by showing their sword. Women, and men who choose to do so, may show their voting card instead.
Because of laws against any form of poll tax in the United States, voting rights must be extended freely and without monetary cost to every legally eligible voter. Most states have some form of voter ID requirement to vote. 
The 2002 federal Help America Vote Act requires any voter who registered by mail and who has not previously voted in a federal election to show current and valid photo identification or a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. Voters who submitted any of these forms of identification during registration are exempt, as are voters entitled to vote by absentee ballot under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act.
An alternative to voter ID in many countries is the use of indelible ink, into which a finger is dipped, which makes it difficult to vote more than once.