Voronezh

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Voronezh (English)
Воронеж (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Главное здание управления ЮВЖД.jpg
View of Voronezh
Voronezh is located in Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh
Location of Voronezh in Voronezh Oblast
Coordinates: 51°40′15″N 39°12′51″E / 51.67083°N 39.21417°E / 51.67083; 39.21417Coordinates: 51°40′15″N 39°12′51″E / 51.67083°N 39.21417°E / 51.67083; 39.21417
Coat of arms of Voronezh.png
Flag of Voronezh.png
Coat of arms
Flag
City DaySecond Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectVoronezh Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated toVoronezh Urban Okrug[1]
Administrative center ofVoronezh Oblast,[1] Voronezh Urban Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2005)
Urban okrugVoronezh Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofVoronezh Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[3]Gennady Chernushkin (acting)[3]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area596.51 km2 (230.31 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)889,680 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201015th
Population (January 1, 2013 est.)1,003,638 inhabitants[6]
Density1,491 /km2 (3,860 /sq mi)[7]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[8]
Founded1585[9] or much earlier[10]
Postal code(s)[11]3940xx
Dialing code(s)+7 473[citation needed]
Official website
 
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Voronezh (English)
Воронеж (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Главное здание управления ЮВЖД.jpg
View of Voronezh
Voronezh is located in Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh
Location of Voronezh in Voronezh Oblast
Coordinates: 51°40′15″N 39°12′51″E / 51.67083°N 39.21417°E / 51.67083; 39.21417Coordinates: 51°40′15″N 39°12′51″E / 51.67083°N 39.21417°E / 51.67083; 39.21417
Coat of arms of Voronezh.png
Flag of Voronezh.png
Coat of arms
Flag
City DaySecond Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectVoronezh Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated toVoronezh Urban Okrug[1]
Administrative center ofVoronezh Oblast,[1] Voronezh Urban Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2005)
Urban okrugVoronezh Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofVoronezh Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[3]Gennady Chernushkin (acting)[3]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area596.51 km2 (230.31 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)889,680 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201015th
Population (January 1, 2013 est.)1,003,638 inhabitants[6]
Density1,491 /km2 (3,860 /sq mi)[7]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[8]
Founded1585[9] or much earlier[10]
Postal code(s)[11]3940xx
Dialing code(s)+7 473[citation needed]
Official website

Voronezh (Russian: Воронеж, IPA: [vɐˈronʲɪʂ]) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Voronezh River, 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway (connecting European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, as well as the Caucasus and Ukraine). It is also the center of the M4 highway (MoscowRostov-on-Don). Population: 1,003,638 (2013 est.);[6] 889,680 (2010 Census).[5]

History[edit]

Etymology and origins[edit]

The toponym Voronezh was first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex in 1177, but human settlement on the site is attested since the Stone Age by archeological finds. Recent findings may push the settlement's foundation date as far back as the 4th century CE.[10] The current official version, however, states that the present city was founded in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort[9] protecting the Russian state from the raids of Crimean and Nogay Tatars. The city is named after the river, itself named after an earlier city destroyed by the Mongol invasion, whose name in turn was borrowed from a place name in the Principality of Chernigov, derived from the Slavic personal name Voroneg.[12]

The comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. The comparative method involves the search for etymological sources not only in Russian, but also in other Indo-European languages: Anatolian, Balto-Slavic, Germanic, Italic, Hellenic, Indo-Iranian, Celtic, Armenian and others. According to the "nominalistic method" proposed by Max Müller, the origin of the name "Voroneg" and the name of a bird "voron" (raven) should be considered in relation to the Indo-European eponyms: Uranus, Varuna, Phoroneus, Bran the Blessed and so on. Comparative analysis suggests the origin of the Indo-European toponyms and hydronyms Varanasi, Varna, Verona, Voronezh from the Indo-European root «*var» and connects with this root the origin of names of ancient water deities.[13]

17th–20th centuries[edit]

A monument to Peter the Great
Annunciation Cathedral is the tallest church in Russia outside Moscow and St. Petersburg

In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town, especially after Tsar Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.

View of Voronezh in the 18th century

Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into the Voronezh Governorate.

In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Rostov-on-Don in 1868 and Moscow in 1871.

During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. The city was completely under Axis control by July 24. This was the opening move of Case Blue.

Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.

1950s-1980s[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
1926120,000—    
1939344,000+186.7%
1959447,000+29.9%
1970660,000+47.7%
1989[14]886,844+34.4%
2002[15]848,752−4.3%
2010[5]889,680+4.8%
2013[6]1,003,638+12.8%
Note: 1926–1970 and 2013 are population estimates; 1989 is the Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are сensus urban population only; 2013 is total population estimates, including rural population.

By 1950, Voronezh was rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. In 1950-1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and others.

Stalin-era headquarters of the South Eastern Railway

In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic plane was established at the Voronezh Aviation factory. In October 1977, first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was built there.

Between 1991 and 2000, the city, suffering from high unemployment rates, became a part of the Communist-voting region known as Russia's "Red Belt".

In 2010, at the seminar "New technologies - the basis of modern communication systems" concern "was presented Constellation system equipment mobile broadband fourth generation« AstraMAX Group and co-production company Runcom Technologies.[16]

From 10 to 17 September 2011, Voronezh celebrated its 425th anniversary. Anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal and regional budgets for development.[17]

December 17, 2012 Voronezh became the 15th city in the Russia with a population of over 1 million people.[18]

Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Voronezh is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Voronezh Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.[2]

City divisions[edit]

The city is divided into six administrative districts: Kominternovsky, Leninsky, Levoberezhny, Sovetsky, Tsentralny, and Zheleznodorozhny.

Economy[edit]

On the territory of the city district government Maslivka Voronezh region with the support of the Investment Fund of Russia is implementing a project to create an industrial park" Maslowski "to accommodate more than 100 new businesses, including transformer factory of Siemens. September 7, 2011 in Voronezh opened Global network operation center of Nokia Siemens Networks, which was the fifth in the world and first in Russia.

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

The city is served by the Voronezh International Airport, which is located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines. Voronezh is also home to the Pridacha Airport, a part of a major aircraft manufacturing facility VASO (Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye Samoletostroitelnoye Obshchestvo, Voronezh aircraft production association) where the Tupolev Tu-144 (known in the West as the "Concordski"), was built and the only operational unit is still stored. Voronezh also hosts the Voronezh Malshevo air force base in the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers.

Rail[edit]

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh and Moscow.[19] Rail services form a part of the South Eastern Railway of the Russian Railways. Destinations served direct from Voronezh include Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov.

Public transportation[edit]

Buses and marshrutkas (routed taxis) provide the bulk of local public transport. There are some trolleybuses but the system has been allowed to degrade. The once extensive tramway network was finally abandoned on April 15, 2009.[20]

Telecommunications[edit]

Telephone[edit]

In 1860 opened in Voronezh Telegraph Station [206], which in 1885 was equipped with an automatic transceiver equipment. In 1884 the railway was first installed office phone. In 1893, in a building on the post office Voronezh Great Gentry (now Revolution Avenue) appeared local telephone station having a capacity of 300 rooms. After some time in Malaya Gentry (now the street Friedrich Engels) was opened zemskaja telephone station. In 1926, Voronezh was included in the long-distance telephone system. In 1983 the city passed a five-digit to six-digit phone number system. In 2005, in Voronezh recorded no deficit numbers. February 1, 2011 to increase the capacity of the local telephone network began seven-six-digit numbers. City code changed from "4732" to "473" and the city numbers begin with "2". In the future, instead of the first of two to be used and other figures.

Post[edit]

In 1700, the decree of Peter I was established postal service between Voronezh and Moscow. The first letter with a personal monogram of Peter I from Voronezh to Moscow was sent Vinius AA. In 1782 the main post office was established, a building which was located on the street Great Gentry (now Revolution Avenue). Since then, the main post Voronezh management did not change its location. In 1997, for the successful automation of processes and the introduction of new services Voronezh post office received the international prize "Golden Mercury".

Climate[edit]

Voronezh experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.

Climate data for Voronezh
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)8.0
(46.4)
11.0
(51.8)
18.0
(64.4)
28.5
(83.3)
35.7
(96.3)
38.9
(102)
40.1
(104.2)
40.5
(104.9)
31.9
(89.4)
26.5
(79.7)
18.1
(64.6)
12.2
(54)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F)−3.4
(25.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
2.9
(37.2)
13.8
(56.8)
21.1
(70)
24.4
(75.9)
26.6
(79.9)
25.5
(77.9)
18.9
(66)
10.9
(51.6)
2.3
(36.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
11.5
(52.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−6.1
(21)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.0
(30.2)
8.3
(46.9)
14.8
(58.6)
18.5
(65.3)
20.5
(68.9)
19.2
(66.6)
13.3
(55.9)
6.9
(44.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−5.0
(23)
6.9
(44.4)
Average low °C (°F)−8.8
(16.2)
−9.3
(15.3)
−4.2
(24.4)
3.6
(38.5)
9.3
(48.7)
13.2
(55.8)
15.2
(59.4)
13.7
(56.7)
8.7
(47.7)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.6
(18.3)
2.9
(37.2)
Record low °C (°F)−36.5
(−33.7)
−36.2
(−33.2)
−32.0
(−25.6)
−16.8
(1.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
−1.6
(29.1)
5.0
(41)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
−15.2
(4.6)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−33.4
(−28.1)
−36.5
(−33.7)
Precipitation mm (inches)42
(1.65)
37
(1.46)
33
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
46
(1.81)
74
(2.91)
62
(2.44)
54
(2.13)
61
(2.4)
50
(1.97)
46
(1.81)
44
(1.73)
587
(23.11)
Avg. precipitation days977879107871011100
Avg. snowy days21201330.30000.13112091
 % humidity84827766616768677379858574
Mean monthly sunshine hours62.087.6124.0183.0266.6285.0285.2254.2186.0111.645.037.21,927.4
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,[21] World Meteorological Organization (UN) [22]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[23]

Education and culture[edit]

The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities include:

and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and universities. There are 2000 schools within the city.

Sports[edit]

ClubSportFoundedCurrent LeagueLeague
Rank
Stadium
Fakel VoronezhFootball1947Russian Second Division3rdTsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion
Energy VoronezhFootball1989Women's Premier League1stRudgormash Stadium
Buran VoronezhIce Hockey1977Higher Hockey League2ndYubileyny Sports Palace
VC VoronezhVolleyball2006Women's Higher Volleyball League A2ndKristall Sports Complex

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Source:[24]

Date Sister City
1968Czech RepublicBrno, Czech Republic[25][26]
1989GermanyWesermarsch, Lower Saxony, Germany
1991United StatesCharlotte, North Carolina, United States
1992ChinaChongqing, China
1995BulgariaSliven, Bulgaria
1996SpainLeón, Castile and León, Spain[27]


Further reading[edit]

Charlotte Hobson's book, "Black Earth City", is an account of life in Voronezh at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union based on her experiences after spending a year in Voronezh as a foreign student in 1991–1992.

Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope Against Hope, the first volume of her memoirs concerning her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life in Voronezh in the 1930s under Stalinist rule.

From the mid-19th century is the diary of a British soldier, a sergeant in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, published as "Prisoners of Voronesh (sic)". George Newman was captured in the Crimean War and then marched under a loose guard with a motley crew of POWs, convicts, etc, to Voronezh.

In 1989, Voronezh was the subject of international media attention after the TASS newspaper published a story recounting an alleged UFO landing that occurred in the city's park, and subsequent encounters between citizens and extraterrestrial beings.[28] The account was later reported in America by the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and received coverage by several other media outlets including the NBC Nightly News and the ABC Evening News. Details of the incident have been featured in several books, most notably UFO Chronicles of the Soviet Union: A Cosmic Samizdat by Jacques Vallée, The UFO Encyclopedia, Volume 1: UFOs in the 1980s by Jerome Clark, and UFOs: The Secret History by Michael Hesemann.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #87-OZ
  2. ^ a b c Law #66-OZ
  3. ^ a b Moe-online.ru. Исполнять обязанности мэра Воронежа будет Геннадий Чернушкин (Russian)
  4. ^ База данных показателей муниципальных образований.
  5. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "Voronezh Oblast". Fedral Statistical Service. 
  7. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ a b "Историческая хроника" (DOC) (in Russian). Муниципальное учреждение культуры Централизованная библиотечная система города Воронежа Центральная городская библиотека имени А. Платонова. 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b "Воронеж может оказаться намного старше" (in Russian). Вести. August 19, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2012. 
  11. ^ http://www.e-adres.ru/postcodes/3800347/
  12. ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 104.
  13. ^ Лазарев А. "Тайна имени Воронежъ". Воронеж, 2009. — 200 с.
  14. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  16. ^ Воронеж получил мобильную связь 4G (рус.). Connect.ru. Проверено 8 сентября 2011. Архивировано из первоисточника 24 января 2012.
  17. ^ Интерактивная карта подготовки к 425-летию основания Воронежа (рус.). Сайт администрации города Воронеж (31.08.11). Проверено 24 января 2011
  18. ^ В Воронеже родился миллионный житель
  19. ^ Train Station in Voronezh (Russian)
  20. ^ Buses Worldwide ISSN 0961-2122, issue 161, July 2009
  21. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved December 15, 2012. 
  22. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Voronezh". United Nations. June 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  23. ^ "Climatological Information for Voronez, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 15, 2012. 
  24. ^ Рациональная маршрутная сеть. "Воронеж: официальный сайт администрации городского округа". Voronezh-city.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  25. ^ "City of Brno Foreign Relations - Statutory city of Brno" (in Czech). 2003 City of Brno. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 
  26. ^ "Brno - Partnerská města" (in Czech). © 2006–2009 City of Brno. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  27. ^ "Ciudades y pueblos se benefician del hermanamiento con otros territorios". Larazon.es. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  28. ^ Article regarding the Voronezh incident from the UFO Casebook

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]