Volgograd

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Volgograd (English)
Волгоград (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
VLG collage.jpg
Top: View of Volgogradsky Bridge across the Volga River, Middle left: Komsomolskaya station of the Volgograd metrotram, Center: Volgograd railroad station, Middle right: Propylaea on the Central embankment square at the Volga River, Bottom: View The Motherland Calls on the Mamayev Kurgan Hill
Map of Russia - Volgograd Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Volgograd Oblast in Russia
Volgograd is located in Volgograd Oblast
Volgograd
Location of Volgograd in Volgograd Oblast
Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517
Coat of Arms of Volgograd.png
Volgograd flag.gif
Coat of arms
Flag
City DaySecond Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of February 2010)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectVolgograd Oblast[2]
Administratively subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
Administrative center ofVolgograd Oblast,[citation needed] city of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
Municipal status (as of March 2010)
Urban okrugVolgograd Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofVolgograd Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Roman Grebennikov[citation needed]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)1,021,215 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 201012th
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[5]
Founded1589[6]
Previous namesTsaritsyn (until 1925),[6]
Stalingrad (until 1961)[6]
Postal code(s)[7]400001..400138
Dialing code(s)+7 8442[citation needed]
Official website
Volgograd on WikiCommons
 
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Volgograd (English)
Волгоград (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
VLG collage.jpg
Top: View of Volgogradsky Bridge across the Volga River, Middle left: Komsomolskaya station of the Volgograd metrotram, Center: Volgograd railroad station, Middle right: Propylaea on the Central embankment square at the Volga River, Bottom: View The Motherland Calls on the Mamayev Kurgan Hill
Map of Russia - Volgograd Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Volgograd Oblast in Russia
Volgograd is located in Volgograd Oblast
Volgograd
Location of Volgograd in Volgograd Oblast
Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517
Coat of Arms of Volgograd.png
Volgograd flag.gif
Coat of arms
Flag
City DaySecond Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of February 2010)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectVolgograd Oblast[2]
Administratively subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
Administrative center ofVolgograd Oblast,[citation needed] city of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
Municipal status (as of March 2010)
Urban okrugVolgograd Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofVolgograd Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Roman Grebennikov[citation needed]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)1,021,215 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 201012th
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[5]
Founded1589[6]
Previous namesTsaritsyn (until 1925),[6]
Stalingrad (until 1961)[6]
Postal code(s)[7]400001..400138
Dialing code(s)+7 8442[citation needed]
Official website
Volgograd on WikiCommons

Volgograd (Russian: Волгогра́д, IPA: [vəlɡɐˈɡrat] ( )), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian: About this sound Цари́цын​ ), 1589–1925, and Stalingrad (Russian: About this sound Сталингра́д​ ), 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometers (50 mi) long,[8] north to south. It is situated on the western bank of the Volga River. The population is 1,021,215 (2010 Census);[4] 1,011,417 (2002 Census);[9] 1,022,578 (1989 Census).[10]

The city became famous for its resistance, and the extensive physical damage and death toll it suffered, during the Battle of Stalingrad against the German Army in World War II. From February 2013, the city's name has been changed back to "Stalingrad" in commemoration for six days every year.

History[edit]

Coat of Arms of Tsaritsyn (1857)
Map of Tsaritsyn (Volgograd) City map, Russian edition on 1909
City tram on Gogolya Street in 1914

Tsaritsyn[edit]

Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn located at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and Volga Rivers dates only from 1589.[6] The fortress Sary Su (a local Tatar language name meaning: yellow water/river), was established to defend the unstable southern border of the country. It was located slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement.

In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled against the tsar's troops for six months. In 1608 the city had its first stone church, St. John the Baptist. At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350-400 people.

In 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress; they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin held the fortress. In 1717, Bulavin (who died in July 1708) was sacked[clarification needed] by the Crimean Tatars and Kuban. Later, in 1774, Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city.

In 1691, Tsaritsyn established customs. In 1708, Tsaritsyn was assigned to Kazan Governorate; in 1719[citation needed], to Astrakhan Governorate; According to the census in 1720, the city's population was 408 people. In 1773, the city became the provincial and district town. From 1779, it belonged to Saratov Viceroyalty. In 1780, the city was under Saratov Governorate.

In the 19th century, Tsaritsyn became an important river port and commercial center. The population expanded rapidly during the 19th century, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900. The first railroad was constructed to the town in 1862. The first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913, Tsaritsin's first tram-line was built, and the city's first electric lights were installed in the city center.

During the Russian Civil War, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918, Tsaritsyn was besieged by White troops under Ataman Krasnov. Three assaults by White troops were repulsed. However, in June 1919 Tsaritsyn was captured by the White forces of General Denikin, which left the city in January 1920. This was known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn.

Stalingrad and Volgograd[edit]

The city was renamed Stalingrad after Joseph Stalin on April 10, 1925. This was officially to recognize the city's and Stalin's role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920.[11]

In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta (founded in 1765) subsequently became the largest area of the city — Krasnoarmeysky. The first institute was opened in 1930; a year later the Pedagogical Institute was opened.

Under Stalin, the city became a center of heavy industry and transshipment by rail and river. It was attacked by Germany and Axis forces during World War II. In 1942, the city became the site of one of the pivotal battles of the war. The Battle of Stalingrad had perhaps the greatest casualty figures of any single battle in the history of warfare (estimates are between 1,250,000[12] and 1,798,619[13]).

The battle began on August 23, 1942, and on the same day, the city suffered heavy aerial bombardment that reduced most of it to rubble. By September, the fighting reached the city center. The fighting was of unprecedented intensity; the central railway station of the city changed hands thirteen times, and the Mamayev Kurgan (one of the highest points of the city) was captured and recaptured eight times. By early November, the German forces controlled 90 percent of the city and had cornered the Soviets into two narrow pockets, but they were unable to eliminate the last pockets of Soviet resistance in time. On November 19, Soviet forces launched a huge counterattack. This led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army and other Axis units. On January 31, 1943 the Sixth Army's commander, Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus surrendered, and by February 2, with the elimination of straggling German troops, the Battle of Stalingrad was over.

In 1945 the Soviet Union awarded Stalingrad the title Hero City for its resistance. Great Britain's King George VI awarded the citizens of Stalingrad the jeweled "Sword of Stalingrad" in recognition of their bravery. As Stalingrad was destroyed during the war, in 1946, the construction of the modern city started. It included the memorial complex on the Mamayev Kurgan.

A number of cities around the world (especially those that had suffered similar wartime devastation) established sister/friendship/twinning links (see list below) in the spirit of solidarity or reconciliation. One of the first "sister city" projects was that established between Stalingrad and England's Coventry during World War II (both suffered extensive devastation from aerial bombardment).

In 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd ("Volga City") as part of his programme of de-Stalinization following Stalin's death, as he was trying to reduce the "cult of personality". This action was and remains somewhat controversial, given Stalingrad's importance as a symbol of resistance during the war. During Konstantin Chernenko's brief administration in 1985, proposals were floated to revive its historic name. There remains a strong degree of local support for a reversion but intermittent proposals have yet to be accepted by the Russian government.

Building of the Oblast Duma

On May 21, 2007, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation obtained an important success in the Volgograd mayoral election. Communist candidate Roman Grebennikov was elected as mayor with 32.47% of the vote. Grebennikov is Russia's youngest mayor of a federal subject administrative center.

On January 31, 2013, the Volgograd City Council passed a measure to use the name "Stalingrad" in city statements on six specific dates annually.[14][15] On the following dates Volgograd's name officially reverts to Stalingrad: February 2 (end of the Battle of Stalingrad), May 9 (Victory Day (9 May)), June 22 (start of Operation Barbarossa), August 23 (start of the Battle of Stalingrad), September 2 (Victory over Japan Day), and November 19 (start of Operation Uranus).[16] In addition, 50,000 people signed a petition to Vladimir Putin, asking that the city's name be permanently changed to Stalingrad.[14]

Terrorist attacks[edit]

On 24 August 2004, the Volga-AviaExpress Flight 1353,[17] a Tupolev Tu-134 aircraft flying from Moscow to Volgograd, exploded in mid-air and crashed as a result of suicide terrorist attack. 34 passengers and 9 crew members were on board the aircraft, all of whom died in the crash. A Siberia Airlines flight bound for Sochi that day was also bombed, killing all 46 who were on board.

At approximately 2:00 p.m. on Monday 21 October 2013 Russian intelligence officers reported a bomb carried by a female suicide bomber exploded on a passenger bus carrying 40 people while stopped at the Lesobaza bus stop.[18] Irina Gogolyeva, a spokesperson from the Russian Emergency Situations Ministry, reported that at least 5 people died in the blast and 17 others were injured.[19] On 22 October 2013 Vladimir Markin from Russia's investigative Committee reported that the suicide bomber had been identified as 30-year-old Naida Asiyalova of Dagestan.[20]

On 29 December 2013 a suicide bomber exploded at the Volgograd railway station, killing themselves and 16 more persons. A day later a suicide bombing on a trolleybus killed at least 15 people.[21]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

View of Voroshilovsky City District of Volgograd

Volgograd is the administrative center of the oblast.[citation needed] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Volgograd—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[2] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Volgograd is incorporated as Volgograd Urban Okrug.[3]

Economy[edit]

Volgograd on the 1979 map

Modern Volgograd remains an important industrial city. Industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, steel and aluminum production, manufacture of machinery and vehicles, and chemical production. A large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant is located a short distance to the north of Volgograd.

Transportation[edit]

Volgograd is a major railway junction serviced by Pri Volga Railway. Rail links from the Volgograd railway station include Moscow; Saratov; Astrakhan; the Donbas region of Ukraine; the Caucasus and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga-Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia. European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais, France with Ridder, Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd. The M6 highway between Moscow and the Caspian Sea also passes through the city. The Volgograd Bridge, under construction since 1995, was inaugurated in October 2009.[22] The city river terminal is the center for local passenger shipping along the Volga River.

The Volgograd International Airport provides air links to major Russian cities as well as Antalya, Yerevan, and Aktau.

Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram. Local public transport is provided by buses, trolleybuses and trams.

The Volga River still is a very important communication channel.

Volgograd hosts one of the few floating churches in the world:[23] the floating church of Saint Vladimir of Volgograd.[24]

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification Volgograd has a humid continental climate (Dfa)

Climate data for Volgograd
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)12.0
(53.6)
14.0
(57.2)
21.4
(70.5)
29.3
(84.7)
37.7
(99.9)
40.1
(104.2)
40.9
(105.6)
41.1
(106)
38.8
(101.8)
31.5
(88.7)
18.9
(66)
11.5
(52.7)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F)−3.5
(25.7)
−3.3
(26.1)
3.3
(37.9)
14.5
(58.1)
21.4
(70.5)
26.4
(79.5)
29.3
(84.7)
28.1
(82.6)
21.3
(70.3)
12.7
(54.9)
3.4
(38.1)
−2.0
(28.4)
12.6
(54.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−6.3
(20.7)
−6.6
(20.1)
−0.5
(31.1)
9.2
(48.6)
15.9
(60.6)
21.0
(69.8)
23.6
(74.5)
22.3
(72.1)
15.6
(60.1)
8.1
(46.6)
0.3
(32.5)
−4.7
(23.5)
8.2
(46.8)
Average low °C (°F)−9.2
(15.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
4.1
(39.4)
10.1
(50.2)
15.0
(59)
17.5
(63.5)
16.2
(61.2)
10.3
(50.5)
3.9
(39)
−2.5
(27.5)
−7.6
(18.3)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F)−32.6
(−26.7)
−32.1
(−25.8)
−27.8
(−18)
−10.1
(13.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
0.0
(32)
7.0
(44.6)
2.8
(37)
−3.0
(26.6)
−12.0
(10.4)
−23.9
(−11)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−32.6
(−26.7)
Precipitation mm (inches)28
(1.1)
23
(0.91)
20
(0.79)
24
(0.94)
41
(1.61)
39
(1.54)
36
(1.42)
28
(1.1)
25
(0.98)
25
(0.98)
26
(1.02)
32
(1.26)
347
(13.66)
Avg. rainy days97812121211810111211123
Avg. snowy days201711200000191878
 % humidity88868164575653516173868970
Mean monthly sunshine hours66.196.9138.4204.2290.8308.4329.3300.2228.9155.863.642.52,225.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[25]
Source #2: Weatherbase (sun only)[26]

Culture and recreation[edit]

The Volgograd synagogue (1911), Port-Said street

A memorial complex commemorating the battle of Stalingrad, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture of Mother Russia, was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan, the hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle.

The Panorama Museum sited on the Volga contains artifacts from World War II. These include a panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument on Mamayev Kurgan. A rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev (popularized in Western media in the film Enemy at the Gates) is also on display.

Education[edit]

Higher education facilities include:

Sports[edit]

ClubSportFoundedCurrent LeagueLeague
Rank
Stadium
Rotor VolgogradFootball1929National Football League2ndCentral Stadium
Olimpia VolgogradFootball1989Russian Second Division3rdOlimpia Stadium
Kaustik VolgogradHandball1929Handball Super League1stDynamo Sports Complex
Dynamo VolgogradHandball1929Women's Handball Super League1stDynamo Sports Complex
Krasny Oktyabr VolgogradBasketball2012Basketball Super League2ndTrade Unions Sports Palace
Spartak VolgogradWater Polo1994Russian Water Polo Championship1stCVVS

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Volgograd is twinned with:[30][31]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Official website of Volgograd
  2. ^ a b c d Law #139-OD
  3. ^ a b c Law #1031-OD
  4. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ a b c d Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 81–83. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  7. ^ Почта России. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  8. ^ "В Волгограде строится самый длинный мост Европы". geo.1september.ru (in Russian). 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ Breweres Dictionary of 20th Century Phrase and Fable
  12. ^ Grant, R. G. (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of Combat. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7566-1360-4. 
  13. ^ Wagner, Margaret, et al. (2007). The Library of Congress World War II Companion. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5219-5. 
  14. ^ a b "Russia revives Stalingrad city name". The Daily Telegraph. 2013-01-31. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  15. ^ "Stalingrad name to be revived for anniversaries". BBC News Online. 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  16. ^ "Russia marks 70 years since Battle of Stalingrad", BBC UK, Accessed 2013-02-02.
  17. ^ Kurz, Robert W.; Charles K. Bartles (2007). "Chechen suicide bombers" (PDF). Journal of Slavic Military Studies (Routledge) 20: 529–547. doi:10.1080/13518040701703070. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  18. ^ "5 killed in Russia bus explosion; suicide bombing suspected". Cable News Network (CNN). October 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  19. ^ "Blast kills bus passengers in Russia". Al Jazeera America. October 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  20. ^ "6 dead as female suicide attacker explodes bomb on Russian bus". Fox News Network. October 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  21. ^ "Volgograd suicide bombing kills at least 14 (photos, graphic video)". RT. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  22. ^ "Иванов открыл в Волгограде самый большой мост в Европе" (in Russian). Vesti. Retrieved 2011-02-09. 
  23. ^ SELF-PROPELLED FLOATING CHURCH LAUNCHED IN VOLGOGRAD
  24. ^ Unique Floating Church
  25. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  26. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Volgograd, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Volgograd State Technical University - Main page". Vstu.ru. 2011-08-21. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  28. ^ Россия. "Волгоградский государственный медицинский университет (ВолгГМУ)". Volgmed.ru. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  29. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  30. ^ Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd
  31. ^ "VISIT VOLGOGRAD - RUSSIA - WELCOME TO THE CITY - THE HERO VOLGOGRAD!". www.visitvolgograd.info. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  32. ^ Griffin, Mary (2011-08-02). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  33. ^ "Coventry - Twin towns and cities". Coventry City Council. Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  34. ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  35. ^ "広島市の姉妹・友好都市". City.hiroshima.jp. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  36. ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  37. ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
  38. ^ "МЕЖДУНАРОДНО СЪТРУДНИЧЕСТВО НА ОБЩИНА РУСЕ - Побратимени градове". Община Русе [Municipality Ruse] (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013-08-12. 
  39. ^ Executive power of Baku city

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]