Voiced dental fricative

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Voiced dental fricative
ð
IPA number131
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ð
Unicode (hex)U+00F0
X-SAMPAD
KirshenbaumD
Braille⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)
Sound
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  (Redirected from Voiced dental non-sibilant fricative)
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Voiced dental fricative
ð
IPA number131
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ð
Unicode (hex)U+00F0
X-SAMPAD
KirshenbaumD
Braille⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)
Sound
Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player.
You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
Voiced dental approximant
ð
ð̞
Sound
Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player.
You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.

The voiced dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English speakers as the th sound in father. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is eth, or [ð]. This was taken from the Old English letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced interdental non-sibilant fricative. This symbol is also sometimes used to represent the dental approximant, a similar sound not known to contrast with a dental non-sibilant fricative in any language,[1] though that is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic, ð̞. The dental non-sibilant fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the upper teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.

This sound, and its unvoiced counterpart, are rare phonemes. The great majority of European and Asian languages, such as German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Chinese, lack this sound. Native speakers of those languages in which the sound is not present often have difficulty enunciating or distinguishing it, and replace it with a voiced alveolar sibilant [z], a voiced dental stop or voiced alveolar stop [d], or a voiced labiodental fricative [v]; known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting. As for Europe, there seems to be a great arc where this sound (and or the unvoiced variant) is present. Most of mainland Europe lacks the sound; however, some "periphery" languages as Gascon, Welsh, English, Danish, Icelandic, Elfdalian, Northern Sami, Mari, Greek, Albanian, Sardinian, some dialects of Basque and most speakers of Spanish have this sound in their consonant inventories, as phonemes or allophones.

Within Turkic languages, Bashkir and Turkmen have both voiced and voiceless dental non-sibilant fricatives among their consonants. Among Semitic languages, they are used in Standard Arabic.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced dental non-sibilant fricative:

Occurrence[edit]

In the following transcriptions, the undertack diacritic may be used to indicate an approximant [ð̞].

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Albanianidhull[iðuɫ]'idol'
AleutAtkan dialectdax̂[ðɑχ]'eye'
ArabicStandard[2]ذهب[ˈðahab]'gold'See Arabic phonology
BashkirҡаҙAbout this sound [qɑð] 'goose'.
Basque[3]adar[að̞ar]'horn'Allophone of /d/
BerberKabyleuḇ[ðuβ]'to be exhausted'
Berta[fɛ̀ːðɑ̀nɑ́]'to sweep'
Catalan[4]fada[ˈfað̞ə]'fairy'Allophone of /d/. See Catalan phonology
Danishhvid[ˈʋið̞ˀ]'white'Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda. See Danish phonology
Elfdalianbaiða[ˈbaɪða]'wait'
Englishthis[ðɪs]'this'See English phonology
Fijianciwa[ðiwa]'nine'
GermanAustrian[5]leider[ˈlaɛ̯ða]'unfortunately'Intervocalic allophone of /d/ in casual speech. See German phonology
Greekδάφνη dáfni[ˈðafni]'laurel'See Modern Greek phonology
Gwich’inniidhàn[niːðân]'you want'
Harsusi[ðebeːr]'bee'
Hänë̀dhä̀[ə̂ðɑ̂]'hide'
HebrewIraqiאדוניAbout this sound [ʔaðoˈnaj] 'my lord'Commonly pronounced [d]. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Icelandicbróðir[ˈproːðir]'brother'Often closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
Kagayanen[6]?[kað̞aɡ]'spirit'
MariEastern dialectшодо[ʃoðo]'lung'
Northern Samidieđa[d̥ieðɑ]'science'
OccitanGasconque divi[ke ˈð̞iwi]'what I should'Allophone of /d/. See Occitan phonology
PortugueseEuropean[7]nada[ˈnaðɐ]'nothing'Northern and central dialects. Allophone of /d/, mainly after an oral vowel.[8] See Portuguese phonology
Fluminense
[citation needed]
compadre[kũˈpaðɾi]'compadre', 'buddy'Allophone of postvocalic /d/ in consonant clusters with /ɾ/, in relaxed speech
SiouxNakota?[ˈðaptã]'five'
Sardiniannidu[ˈnið̞u]'nest'Allophone of /d/
SpanishMost dialects[9]dedo[ˈd̪e̞ð̞o̞]'finger'Allophone of /d/. See Spanish phonology
Peninsular[10]jazmín[xäðˈmĩn]'Jasmine'Allophone of /θ/ before voiced consonants, often in free variation with /θ/.
Swahilidhambi[ðɑmbi]'sin'
SyriacWestern Neo-Aramaicܐܚܕ[aħːeð]'to take'
Tamilஒன்பது[onbʌðɯ]'nine'See Tamil phonology
Tanacrossdhet[ðet]'liver'
Turkmengaz[ɡäːð]'goose'
TutchoneNorthernedhó[eðǒ]'hide'
Southernadhǜ[aðɨ̂]
Welshbardd[barð]'bard'See Welsh phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[11][example needed]Allophone of /d/

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-05655-7 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Cotton, Eleanor Greet; Sharp, John (1988), Spanish in the Americas, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 978-0-87840-094-2 
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'Adeddin, M. Akram (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266