Vietnam Veterans Memorial

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Vietnam Veterans Memorial
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Map showing the location of Vietnam Veterans Memorial
LocationWashington, D.C., United States
Coordinates38°53′28″N 77°2′52″W / 38.89111°N 77.04778°W / 38.89111; -77.04778Coordinates: 38°53′28″N 77°2′52″W / 38.89111°N 77.04778°W / 38.89111; -77.04778
Area2.00 acres (0.81 ha)
EstablishedNovember 13, 1982
Visitors3,799,968 (in 2006)
Governing body

National Park Service

ArchitectMaya Lin
NRHP Reference #01000285[1]
Added to NRHPNovember 13, 1982
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Vietnam Veterans Memorial
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Map showing the location of Vietnam Veterans Memorial
LocationWashington, D.C., United States
Coordinates38°53′28″N 77°2′52″W / 38.89111°N 77.04778°W / 38.89111; -77.04778Coordinates: 38°53′28″N 77°2′52″W / 38.89111°N 77.04778°W / 38.89111; -77.04778
Area2.00 acres (0.81 ha)
EstablishedNovember 13, 1982
Visitors3,799,968 (in 2006)
Governing body

National Park Service

ArchitectMaya Lin
NRHP Reference #01000285[1]
Added to NRHPNovember 13, 1982

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a national memorial in Washington, D.C. It honors U.S. service members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War, service members who died in service in Vietnam/South East Asia, and those service members who were unaccounted for (Missing In Action) during the War.

Its construction and related issues have been the source of controversies, some of which have resulted in additions to the memorial complex. The memorial currently consists of three separate parts: the Three Soldiers statue, the Vietnam Women's Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, which is the best-known part of the memorial.

The main part of the memorial, which was completed in 1982, is in Constitution Gardens adjacent to the National Mall, just northeast of the Lincoln Memorial. The memorial is maintained by the U.S. National Park Service, and receives around 3 million visitors each year. The Memorial Wall was designed by American architect Maya Lin. The typesetting of the original 58,195 names on the wall was performed by Datalantic in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2007, it was ranked tenth on the "List of America's Favorite Architecture" by the American Institute of Architects.


The Main Navy and Munitions Buildings site, with the Munitions building behind the Navy building
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall with Christmas ornaments


An aerial photograph of 'The Wall' taken on April 26, 2002 by the United States Geological Survey. The dots visible along the length of the angled wall are visitors. For a satellite view of the Wall in relation to other monuments, see Constitution Gardens.

Memorial Wall[edit]

The Memorial Wall, designed by Maya Lin, is made up of two gabbro walls 246 feet 9 inches (75 m) long.[4][5] The walls are sunk into the ground, with the earth behind them. At the highest tip (the apex where they meet), they are 10.1 feet (3 m) high, and they taper to a height of eight inches (20 cm) at their extremities. Stone for the wall came from Bangalore, Karnataka, India, and was deliberately chosen because of its reflective quality. Stone cutting and fabrication was done in Barre, Vermont. Stones were then shipped to Memphis, Tennessee where the names were etched. The etching was completed using a photoemulsion and sandblasting process. The negatives used in the process are in storage at the Smithsonian Institution. When a visitor looks upon the wall, his or her reflection can be seen simultaneously with the engraved names, which is meant to symbolically bring the past and present together. One wall points toward the Washington Monument, the other in the direction of the Lincoln Memorial, meeting at an angle of 125° 12′. Each wall has 72 panels, 70 listing names (numbered 1E through 70E and 70W through 1W) and 2 very small blank panels at the extremities. There is a pathway along the base of the Wall, where visitors may walk.

One panel of 'The Wall', displaying some of the names of fallen U.S. service members from the Vietnam War.

Inscribed on the walls with the Optima typeface are the names of servicemen who were either confirmed to be KIA (Killed in Action) or remained classified as MIA (Missing in Action) when the walls were constructed in 1982. They are listed in chronological order, starting at the apex on panel 1E in 1959 (although it was later discovered that the first casualties were military advisers who were killed by artillery fire in 1957), moving day by day to the end of the eastern wall at panel 70E, which ends on May 25, 1968, starting again at panel 70W at the end of the western wall which completes the list for May 25, 1968, and returning to the apex at panel 1W in 1975. Symbolically, this is described as a "wound that is closed and healing." Information about rank, unit, and decorations are not given. The wall listed 58,191 names when it was completed in 1983; as of May 2011, there are 58,272 names, including 8 women. Approximately 1,200 of these are listed as missing (MIAs, POWs, and others), denoted with a cross; the confirmed dead are marked with a diamond. If the missing return alive, the cross is circumscribed by a circle (although this has never occurred as of March 2009); if their death is confirmed, a diamond is superimposed over the cross. According to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, "there is no definitive answer to exactly how many, but there could be as many as 38 names of personnel who survived, but through clerical errors, were added to the list of fatalities provided by the Department of Defense."[6] Directories are located on nearby podiums so that visitors may locate specific names.

Timeline for those listed on the wall[edit]

A Marine at Vietnam Memorial on July 4, 2002

The Three Soldiers[edit]

The Three Soldiers by Frederick Hart

A short distance away from the wall is another Vietnam memorial, a bronze statue named The Three Soldiers (sometimes called The Three Servicemen). Negative reactions to Lin's design created a controversy; a compromise was reached by commissioning Frederick Hart (who had placed third in the original design competition) to produce a bronze figurative sculpture in the heroic tradition. Opponents of Lin's design had hoped to place this sculpture of three soldiers at the apex of the wall's two sides. Lin objected strenuously to this, arguing that this would make the soldiers the focal point of the memorial, and her wall a mere backdrop. A compromise was reached, and the sculpture was placed off to one side. The statue, which was unveiled in 1984, depicts three soldiers, purposefully identifiable as White American, African American, and Hispanic American. In their final arrangement, the statue and the Wall appear to interact with each other, with the soldiers looking on in solemn tribute at the names of their fallen comrades. The distance between the two allows them to interact while minimizing the impact of the addition on Lin's design.

Women's Memorial[edit]

In Memory memorial plaque[edit]

A memorial plaque, authorized by Pub.L. 106–214, was dedicated on November 10, 2004, at the northeast corner of the plaza surrounding the Three Soldiers statue to honor veterans who died after the war as a direct result of injuries suffered in Vietnam, but who fall outside Department of Defense guidelines. The plaque is a carved block of black granite, 3 feet (0.91 m) by 2 feet (0.61 m), inscribed "In memory of the men and women who served in the Vietnam War and later died as a result of their service. We honor and remember their sacrifice."

Ruth Coder Fitzgerald, founder of The Vietnam War In Memory Memorial Plaque Project, worked for years and struggled against opposition to have the In Memory Memorial Plaque completed. The organization was disbanded, but their web site is maintained by the Vietnam War Project at Texas Tech University.


Original design submission by Maya Lin

The Vietnam War was one of the longest and most controversial wars in United States history. A stated goal of the memorial fund was to avoid commentary on the war itself, serving solely as a memorial to those who served.[citation needed] Nevertheless, a number of controversies have surrounded the memorial.

Maya Ying Lin[edit]

The design for the memorial was chosen from entries submitted in a national contest. As depicted in a documentary about Maya Ying Lin (Maya Ying Lin: A Strong Clear Vision), reactions to the chosen memorial design were overwhelmingly positive. At the time of the contest, Lin was age 21 and a student of architecture at Yale University.[7]

Opposition to design[edit]

The selected design was very controversial, in particular its unconventional design, its black color and its lack of ornamentation. Some public officials voiced their displeasure, calling the wall "a black gash of shame."[8] Two prominent early supporters of the project, H. Ross Perot and James Webb, withdrew their support once they saw the design. Said Webb, “I never in my wildest dreams imagined such a nihilistic slab of stone.” James Watt, Secretary of the Interior under President Ronald Reagan, initially refused to issue a building permit for the memorial due to the public outcry about the design.[9] Since its early years, criticism of the Memorial's design faded. In the words of Scruggs, "It has become something of a shrine."[8]

Women's memorial[edit]

The original winning entry of the Women's Memorial design contest was deemed unsuitable.[citation needed] Glenna Goodacre's entry received an honorable mention in the contest and she was asked to submit a modified maquette (design model). Goodacre's original design for the Women's Memorial statue included a standing figure of a nurse holding a Vietnamese baby, which although not intended as such, was deemed a political statement, and it was asked that this be removed. She replaced them with a figure of a kneeling woman holding an empty helmet.[citation needed]

Traveling Replicas[edit]

The Moving Wall[edit]

Vietnam veteran John Devitt of Stockton, California, attended the 1982 dedication ceremonies of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Recognizing what he saw as the healing nature of the Wall, he vowed to make a transportable version of the Wall, a "Traveling Wall" so those who were not able to travel to Washington, D.C. would be able to see and touch the names of friends or loved ones in their own home town.

Using personal finances, Devitt founded Vietnam Combat Veterans, Ltd. With the help of friends, the half-size replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, named The Moving Wall,[10] was built and first put on display to the public in Tyler, Texas, in 1984.

The Moving Wall visits hundreds of small towns and cities throughout the U.S., staying five or six days at each site. Local arrangements for each visit are made months in advance by veterans' organizations and other civic groups. Thousands of people all over the US volunteered their time and money to help honor the fallen.

Desire for a hometown visit of The Moving Wall was so high that the waiting list became very long. Vietnam Combat Veterans built a second structure of The Moving Wall. A third structure was added in 1989. In 2001, one of the structures was retired due to wear.[citation needed]

By 2006, there had been more than 1000 hometown visits of The Moving Wall. The count of people who visited The Moving Wall at each display ranges from 5,000 to more than 50,000; the total estimate of visitors is in the tens of millions.

As the wall moves from town to town on interstates, it is often escorted by state troopers and up to thousands of local citizens on motorcycles. Many of these are Patriot Guard Riders, who consider escorting The Moving Wall to be a "special mission", which is coordinated on their website. As it passes towns, even when it is not planning a stop in those towns, local veterans organizations sometimes plan for local citizens to gather by the highway and across overpasses to wave flags and salute the Wall.[10]

The Wall That Heals[edit]

The Wall That Heals is a traveling three-fifths size replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial started in 1996 by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund. A 53-foot tractor-trailer transports the 250-foot wall and converts to a museum at each stop, showing letters and other items left at the original wall, and more details about those whose names are shown. Lisa Gough of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund said that the exhibit goes to around 20 cities each year and traveled 33,534 miles in 2010. Organizations in each location pay $5,000 of the cost for the exhibit.

The Traveling Wall[edit]

Created by the American Veterans Traveling Tribute, this traveling wall is an 80% replica Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall and is 360 feet long and 8 feet tall at its apex. It claims to be the largest traveling replica.

The Vietnam Traveling Memorial Wall[edit]

Created by Vietnam and All Veterans of Brevard, Inc, this traveling replica is a 3/5 scale of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and is almost 300 feet long and 6 feet tall at the center.

Dignity Memorial Vietnam Wall[edit]

Created by Dignity Memorial, this traveling replica is 3/4 scale of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Fixed Replicas[edit]


Located across Ocean Avenue from the Wildwoods Convention Center, New Jersey, the memorial was unveiled and dedicated on May 29, 2010. The memorial wall is a half-size granite replica of the Vietnam Memorial in Washington, D.C., and the only permanent memorial in the Northeast, other than the Memorial in the National's Capital.

Winfield, Kansas[edit]

Located 401 East Ninth Street in Winfield, Kansas. Plans for the Vietnam War Memorial in Winfield began in 1987 when friends who had gathered for a class reunion wanted to find a way to honor their fallen classmates. The project quickly grew from honoring only Cowley County servicemen to representing all 777 servicemen and nurses from Kansas who lost their lives or are missing in action from the Vietnam War. The memorial is a replica of the Vietnam War memorial in Washington D.C. It was also created as a tribute to servicemen and nurses who served in any world war.[11]

As a Memorial Genre[edit]

The first US memorial to an ongoing war, the Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial in Irvine, CA, is modelled on the Vietnam Veterans memorial in that it includes a chronological list of the dead engraved in dark granite. As the memorialized wars (in Iraq and Afghanistan) have not concluded, the Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial will be updated yearly. It has space for about 8000 names, of which 5,714 were engraved as of the Dedication of the Memorial on November 14, 2010.[12][13]

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection[edit]

Various items left at 'The Wall'.
Flags and flowers

Visitors to the memorial began leaving sentimental items at the memorial at its opening. One story claims that this practice began during construction, when a Vietnam veteran threw the Purple Heart his brother received posthumously into the concrete of the memorial's foundation.[14] Several thousand items are left at the memorial each year.

Items left at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial are collected by National Park Service employees and transferred to the NPS Museum and Resource Center, which catalogs and stores all items except perishable organic matter (such as fresh flowers) and unaltered US flags. The flags are redistributed through various channels.[15]

The largest item left at the memorial was a sliding glass storm door with a full-size replica "tiger cage". The door was painted with a scene in Vietnam and the names of US POWs and MIAs from the conflict.[14]

Other items in collection include a Harley-Davidson motorcycle with the license plate HERO, a plain brown teddy bear which was dressed by other unconnected visitors, a 6' abstract sculpture titled "After the Holocaust", and an experimental W. R. Case "jungle survival knife" of which only 144 were made. It also contains the Medal of Honor of Charles Liteky, who renounced it in 1986 by placing the medal at the memorial in an envelope addressed to then-President Ronald Reagan.

From 1992 to 2003, selected items from the collection were placed on exhibit, at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History as "Personal Legacy: The Healing of a Nation".


There have been three known incidents of vandalism at the memorial wall.

Panorama of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. 
  2. ^ Vietnam Veterans Memorial lessons for September 11
  3. ^ Scruggs, Jan. "By the Vietnam Wall, a Place to Honor Our Post-9/11 Service Members". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "The Post could have better explained cracks in the Wall". Washington Post. October 16, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Vietnam Memorial Fund – FAQs". [dead link]
  7. ^ "History of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Garber, Kent (November 3, 2007). "A Milestone for a Memorial That Has Touched Millions". U.S. News and World Report (Washington, DC). Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  9. ^ Wills, Denise (November 1, 2007). "The Vietnam Memorial's History". (Washington, DC). Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  10. ^ a b "Local AMVETS to Salute Wall". Greenville Advocate. July 17, 2007. 
  11. ^ Winfield KS - Official Website - Kansas Vietnam War Memorial
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Letter from Sukhee Kang". February 22, 2010. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  14. ^ a b<
  15. ^ "MRCE:Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Vandals Scratch Swastika on Face of Viet Veterans Memorial". Los Angeles Times. May 3, 1988. 
  17. ^ a b Substance on Vietnam Memorial is Vandalism. Retrieved September 2, 2010.


Wreaths placed around the Three Soldiers Statue
Names of fallen

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]