Video Killed the Radio Star

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

"Video Killed the Radio Star"
A cartoon version of Trevor Horn (left) and Geoff Downes (right), with the blue text "Buggles Video Killed the Radio Star" on the top
Single by The Buggles
from the album The Age of Plastic
B-side"Kid Dynamo"
Released7 September 1979
Format7" single
Recorded1979
Virgin's Townhouse (West London, UK)
Sarm East Studios (Brick Lane, London, UK)
GenreNew wave, synthpop
LabelIsland
Writer(s)Geoff Downes, Trevor Horn, Bruce Woolley
Producer(s)The Buggles
CertificationGold (UK, Spain)
Platinum (France)
The Buggles singles chronology
"Video Killed the Radio Star"
(1979)
"Living in the Plastic Age"
(1980)
The Age of Plastic track listing
  1. "Living in the Plastic Age"
  2. "Video Killed the Radio Star"
  3. "Kid Dynamo"
  4. "I Love You (Miss Robot)"
  5. "Clean, Clean"
  6. "Elstree"
  7. "Astroboy (And the Proles on Parade)"
  8. "Johnny on the Monorail"
 
Jump to: navigation, search
"Video Killed the Radio Star"
A cartoon version of Trevor Horn (left) and Geoff Downes (right), with the blue text "Buggles Video Killed the Radio Star" on the top
Single by The Buggles
from the album The Age of Plastic
B-side"Kid Dynamo"
Released7 September 1979
Format7" single
Recorded1979
Virgin's Townhouse (West London, UK)
Sarm East Studios (Brick Lane, London, UK)
GenreNew wave, synthpop
LabelIsland
Writer(s)Geoff Downes, Trevor Horn, Bruce Woolley
Producer(s)The Buggles
CertificationGold (UK, Spain)
Platinum (France)
The Buggles singles chronology
"Video Killed the Radio Star"
(1979)
"Living in the Plastic Age"
(1980)
The Age of Plastic track listing
  1. "Living in the Plastic Age"
  2. "Video Killed the Radio Star"
  3. "Kid Dynamo"
  4. "I Love You (Miss Robot)"
  5. "Clean, Clean"
  6. "Elstree"
  7. "Astroboy (And the Proles on Parade)"
  8. "Johnny on the Monorail"
"Video Killed the Radio Star"
Bruce Woolley behind a horse, with the text "Bruce Woolley Video Killed the Radio Star" on the top left
Single by Bruce Woolley and the Camera Club
from the album English Garden
Released1979
GenreNew wave, synthpop
Length2:49
LabelEpic
Writer(s)Downes, Horn, Woolley
Producer(s)Mike Hurst

"Video Killed the Radio Star" is a song written by Trevor Horn, Geoff Downes and Bruce Woolley in 1978. It was first recorded by Bruce Woolley and The Camera Club (with Thomas Dolby on keyboards) for their album English Garden, and later by British group The Buggles, consisting of Horn and Downes. The track was recorded and mixed in 1979, released as their debut single on 7 September 1979 by Island Records, and included on their first album The Age of Plastic. The backing track was recorded at Virgin's Town House in West London, and mixing and vocal recording would later take place at Sarm East Studios.

Like all the other tracks from the LP, "Video"'s theme was promotion of technology while worrying about its effects. This song relates to concerns about mixed attitudes towards 20th-century inventions and machines for the media arts. Musically, the song performs like an extended jingle, and the composition plays in the key of D♭ major, in common time and at a tempo of 132 beats per minute. The track has been positively received, with reviewers praising its unusual musical pop elements. Although the song includes several common pop characteristics and six basic chords are used in its structure, Downes and writer Timothy Warner described the piece as musically complicated, due to its use of suspended and minor ninth chords for enhancement that gave the song a "slighty different feel."

Commercially, "Video Killed the Radio Star" was also a success. The track topped sixteen international music charts, including the official singles charts of the group's home country of the UK and other nations such as Australia, Austria, France, Italy Ireland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland, as well as the Japanese Oricon International Chart. It also peaked within the top 10 in Canada, Germany, New Zealand and South Africa, the top 20 in Belgium and the Netherlands, and barely in the top 40 in the United States.

The song's music video was written, directed, and edited by Russell Mulcahy, and is well-remembered as the first music video shown on MTV in the United States at 12:01am on 1 August 1981, and the first video shown on MTV Classic in the United Kingdom on 1 March 2010. The song has received several critical accolades, such as being ranked number 40 on VH1's 100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders of the '80s.[1] It has been covered by many recording artists. Trevor Horn has done performances of the song, both at Buggles reunion performances and with The Producers, since 1998.

Writing, lyrical themes and background[edit]

The Buggles, which formed in 1977, first consisted of Trevor Horn, Geoff Downes and Bruce Woolley.[2] They all wrote "Video Killed the Radio Star" in an hour of one afternoon in 1978, six months before it was recorded, together in Downes' apartment, which was located above a monumental stonemason's in Wimbledon Park London.[3][4][5] The piece was built up from a chorus riff developed by Woolley.[4] It is one of the three Buggles songs that he assisted in writing, the two others being "Clean, Clean" and "On TV."[2] An early demo of the song they did helped the group get signed to Island Records to record and publish their debut album The Age of Plastic.[2][6] Woolley left during recording to form his own band, The Camera Club, which did their own version of "Video", as well as "Clean, Clean" for their album English Garden.[2]

Trevor Horn in the middle performing bass with The Producers
Trevor Horn (middle) has said J. G. Ballard's "The Sound-Sweep" was an inspiration for "Video Killed the Radio Star".

Horn has said that the short story "The Sound-Sweep", in which the title character—a mute boy vacuuming up stray music in a world without it—comes upon an opera singer hiding in a sewer, provided inspiration for "Video," and he felt "an era was about to pass."[7] Horn claimed that Kraftwerk was another influence of the song: "...It was like you could see the future when you heard Kraftwerk, something new is coming, something different. Different rhythm section, different mentality. So we had all of that, myself and Bruce, and we wrote this song probably six months before we recorded it."[5]

All the tracks of the The Age of Plastic deal with positives and concerns of the impact of modern technology.[6] The theme of "Video Killed the Radio Star" is thus nostalgia, with the lyrics referring to a period of technological change in the 1960s, the desire to remember the past and the disappointment that children of the current generation would not appreciate the past.[8] The lyrics relate to concerns of the varied behaviors towards 20th-century technical inventions and machines used and changed in media arts such as photography, cinema, radio, television, audio recording and record production.[9]

Production and music[edit]

Note: this section covers the production info and composition and arrangement of the Buggles version of the song, and most of it may not apply to that done by Bruce Woolley and the Camera Club or later cover versions of the song.
Composition and arrangement info
Length4:13 (album version)
3:25 (single version)
GenreNew wave, synthpop
KeyD♭ major
Vocal rangeA3—D5
BPM132
Time signature4
4
(common time)
InstrumentsDrums, bass guitar, electric guitar, synths, synth strings, synth brass, synth piano, marimbas, male vocals, female vocals
Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player.
You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
The final chorus of "Video Killed the Radio Star". There are instruments of electric guitars, a bass guitar, drums, and synths arranged in the track, and the male and female singers' accents and effects differentiate to give a historical and tonalitic contrast.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

"Video Killed the Radio Star" is a new wave-synthpop song.[10][11] It performs like an extended jingle,[10] sharing its rhythm characteristics with disco.[12] The piece plays in common time at a bright tempo of 132 beats per minute.[13] It is in the key of D♭ major,[4][13] with the vocal range spanning from A3 to D5,[13] and six basic chords are used in the song's chord progression.[12] According to Geoff Downes, "It's actually a lot more complicated piece of music than people think, for instance part of the bridge is actually chords suspended and minor 9ths. A lot of people transcribed the song wrongly, they thought it was a straight F# chord. The song was written in D flat. The suspended gives it a slightly different feel."[4] Writing in his book, Pop Music: Technology and Creativity: Trevor Horn and the Digital Revolution, Timothy Warner said that the "relatively quiet introduction" helping the listener detect a high amount of "tape hiss" generated through the use of analogue multi-track tape recorders, as well as the timbre of the synthesized instruments, give an indication of the technical process and time of producing the song.[14]

"Video" was put in more than three months of production.[4] The instrumental track was recorded at Virgin's Town House in West London for twelve hours, with mixing and recording of vocals held at Sarm East Studios.[5][6][15] The entire song was mixed through a Trident TSM console.[6] "Video" was the first track recorded for the group's debut LP The Age of Plastic, which cost a sum of £60,000 (equivalent to £300,336 in 2014) to produce,[15] and the song had been mixed by Gary Langan four or five times.[6] According to Langan, "there was no total recall, so we just used to start again. We’d do a mix and three or four days later Trevor would go, ‘It’s not happening. We need to do this and we need to do that.’ The sound of the bass drum was one of his main concerns, along with his vocal and the backing vocals. It was all about how dry and how loud they should be in the mix without the whole thing sounding ridiculous. As it turned out, that record still had the loudest bass drum ever for its time."[6]

The song includes instrumentation of drums, bass guitar, electric guitar, synth strings, instruments, piano, glockenspiel, marimbas and other futuristic, twinkly sounds, and vocals.[4][10][12][14] Downes used a Solina, Minimoog and Prophet-5 to create the overdubbed orchestral parts.[4] Both the male and female voices differ to give a tonalitic and historical contrast.[16] When Langan was interviewed in December 2011, he believed the male vocal was recorded through either a dynamic Shure SM57, SM58, Sennheiser 421, or STC 4038 ribbon microphone, and that four of five takes had to be done.[6] The male voice echos the song's theme in the tone of the music, initially limited in bandwidth to give a "telephone" effect typical of early broadcasts, and uses a mid-Atlantic accent resembling that of British singers in 1950s and '60s.[16] The Vox AC30 amplifier was used to achieve the telephone effect, and Gary Lagan says he was trying to make it "loud without cutting your head off", in others words make the voice sound soft. Gary Langan and Trevor Horn also tried using a bullhorn, but they found it too harsh. Langan later compressed and EQ'd the male vocals, and he said that doing the compression for old-style vocal parts was a "real skill."[6] The female vocals are panned in the left and right audio channels,[6] and sound more modern and have a New York accent.[16]

The single version of "Video Killed the Radio Star" lasts for 3 minutes and 25 seconds. The album version plays for 4 minutes and 13 seconds, about 48 seconds longer than the single version, as it fades into a piano and synth coda, which ends with a brief sampling of the female vocals.[6]

Commercial performance[edit]

"Video Killed the Radio Star" was a huge commercial success, reaching number one on 16 different national charts.[17] In the Buggles' home country, the song made its debut on the UK Singles Chart in the top 40 at number 24, on the issue dated 29 September 1979.[18] The next week, the track entered into the chart's top 10 at number 6,[19] before topping the chart on the week of 20 October.[20] It was the 444th UK number-one hit in the chart's entire archive.[17] The single was later certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry for UK sales of 500,000.

In Australia, "Video Killed the Radio Star" reached number one, where it was the best-selling record for 27 years.[17] The track went number one on the Italian Singles Chart in 1980, where it became the best-selling single of the same year.[21] The song also made a number-one peak in France and Spain,[22][23] where it was certified gold and platinum, respectively, as well as Austria,[24] Ireland,[25] Sweden[26] and Switzerland.[27]

In other parts of Europe and Oceania, "Video Killed the Radio Star" was a number-two hit in Germany and New Zealand,[28][29] and also charted in Flanders, on both the Ultratop 50 and VRT Top 30 charts,[30][31] and in the Netherlands, on the Nationale Hitparade Top 50 (now the Single Top 100) and Dutch Top 40.[32][33]

"Video Killed the Radio Star" did not start charting in North America, however, until November 1979. In the United States, the song appeared on the Billboard Hot 100 and Cash Box Top 100, barely breaking into the top 40 on both charts.[34][35] It had debuted at number 86 on the Billboard Hot 100 on the week of 10 November 1979,[36] while on the Cashbox Top 100 it debuted at number 83 that same week.[37] It started also at number 83 on the Canadian RPM Top Single Chart.[38] By January 1980, it entered the top 40 at number 31,[39] and on 2 February made it into the top 20 at number 11.[40] Two weeks later, the song earned its peak in the top 10 at number 6 and issue dated 16 February 1980.[41]

Critical reception[edit]

Ever since its release, "Video Killed the Radio Star" has been given a mostly positive reception from music critics. Originally, the song became a Billboard Top Single Pick on 3 November 1979, whom the publication found the chorus catchy and also highlighted the orchestral instruments supporting the backing singers.[42] Although there had been a mixed review of the single from Smash Hits, who found the song to be "too tidy, like vymura" (wallpaper),[43] they listed it in a review of The Age of Plastic as one of the best tracks of the album, along with "Living in the Plastic Age".[44]

Timothy Warner wrote that, although several common pop elements were still present in the song, it included stronger originality for its own purpose than most other pop hits released at the time.[45] These unusual pop music characteristics include the timbres of the male and female vocal parts, and the use of suspended fourth and ninths chords for enhancement in its progression.[12] He also felt it was unnecessary to dislike it as a "novelty song."[45] AllMusic's Heather Phares said the track "can be looked on as a perfectly preserved new wave gem," "just as the song looks back on the radio songs of the '50s and '60s." She concluded her review by saying that it "still sounds as immediate as it did when it was released, however, and that may be the song's greatest irony."[10]

Live performances[edit]

A rare live performance of the song by Horn and Downes came at a ZTT showcase in 1998.[46] In 2004, The Buggles re-united again with Bruce Woolley at Wembley Arena to perform "Video Killed the Radio Star" and "Living in the Plastic Age" as part of a tribute event to Horn to raise money for The Prince's Trust charity. They were joined by Debi Doss and Linda Jardim (now Linda Allan), who performed the background singing on the original recording. Paul Robinson, who played drums on the original, also appeared. Both Horn and Downes have performed the song live in other acts, including Yes (which Downes and Horn joined for the Drama album and tour in 1980), Downes in the 2006–2009 revival of Asia with John Wetton on lead vocals, and Horn in his band The Producers, also in 2006.

In November 2006, The Producers played at their first gig in Camden Town. A video clip can be seen on ZTT Records of Horn singing lead vocals and playing bass in a performance of "Video Killed the Radio Star". Tina Charles appears on a YouTube video singing 'Slave to the Rhythm' with The Producers[47] and Horn reveals that Tina was the singer and originator of the "Oh Ah-Oh Ah-Oh" part of 'Video'; fellow 5000 Volt member Martin Jay was also a session musician on The Buggles record.[48]

Robbie Williams performed the song with Trevor Horn at the BBC Electric Proms on 20 October 2009.[49]

Since 2010, Horn has performed "Video" with both the Buggles and his new band, Producers. Since 2011, he has added new vocals to his live performance before the song's final chorus:[50]

Video killed the radio star,
He hit him on the head with his old guitar,
He tried to run away, but didn't get far,
That's how video killed the radio star

Music video[edit]

Production and concept[edit]

In a white studio, Geoff Downes is playing multiple keyboards and Trevor Horn playing a bass guitar, both wearing silver suits. A woman in a tube behind Horn is also wearing a silver costume.
Trevor Horn (right) and Geoff Downes (left) as they appear in the video.

The music video for "Video Killed the Radio Star", written, directed and edited by Australian Russell Mulcahy,[51][52] was produced on a budget of $50,000.[3] It was filmed in only a day in South London,[51] and was edited in a couple of days.[52] Geoff Downes said in a 2011 interview that he felt the concept of the video reflected on that of the song.[52] Mulcahy asked a friend of his, who was an aspiring actress, to play a girl who was dressed "in a silver costume and be lowered via wires in a test tube." There were about 30 takes required for shots of the actress in the tube. The tube falls over in the video, although Mulcahy claims it was not intended to be shown in the final edit.[51] Hans Zimmer can be briefly seen wearing black playing a keyboard,[53] and Debi Doss and Linda Jardim, who provided the female vocals for the song, are also seen.[54]

The video starts with a girl c. 1952, sitting in front of a radio. A black-and-white shot of Trevor Horn singing into a radio-era microphone is altered over the girl by the radio. The radio blows up by the time of the first chorus, and then in the second verse, she is seen transported into the future, where she meets Horn and a silver-jumpsuited female in a clear plastic tube. Shots of Horn and Geoff Downes are shown during the remainder of the video.[53]

Broadcasting and reception[edit]

The video was first released in 1979,[55] when it originally aired on Top of the Pops for promotion of the single, rather than doing live performances.[3] Zimmer recalled in 2001 that the video drew criticism from some viewers who watched it before it aired on MTV, due to being "too violent because we blew up a television."[3] The video is best known as marking the debut of MTV, when the US channel started broadcasting at 12:01 AM on 1 August 1981.[56] On 27 February 2000, it became the one-millionth video to be aired on MTV.[57] It also opened MTV Classic in the UK and Ireland, which replaced VH1 Classic on 1 March 2010, at 6 AM.[citation needed] The video marked the closing of MTV Philippines before its shutdown on 15 February 2010 at 11:49 PM.[58] MTV co-founder Bob Pittman said the video "made an aspirational statement. We didn't expect to be competitive with radio, but it was certainly a sea-change kind of video."[3]

Charts and certifications[edit]

Chart performance[edit]

Order of precedence
Preceded by
"Computer Games" by Mi-Sex
Australian Kent Music Report number-one single
3 December 1979 – 14 January 1980 (7 weeks)
Succeeded by
"Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough"
by Michael Jackson
Preceded by
"We Don't Talk Anymore" by Cliff Richard
Austrian number-one single
1 January 1980 – 1 February 1980 (5 weeks)
Succeeded by
"I Have a Dream" by ABBA
Preceded by
"Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)" by ABBA
Eurochart Hot 100 number-one single
2 January 1980 – 9 January 1980 (2 weeks)
Japanese Oricon International Chart number-one single
10 March 1980 – 7 April 1980 (5 weeks)
Succeeded by
"Body Language" by The Dooleys
Swiss number-one single
9 December 1979 – 16 December 1979 (2 weeks)
Succeeded by
"Todesengel" by Frank Duval & Orchestra
Preceded by
"Je l'aime à mourir" by Francis Cabrel
French IFOP number-one single
23 November 1979 – 1 February 1980 (11 weeks)
Succeeded by
"Another Brick in the Wall (Part 2)" by Pink Floyd
Preceded by
"My Sharona" by The Knack
Italian number one single
15 March 1980 – 14 June 1980 (14 weeks)
Succeeded by
"L'ape Maia" by Katia Svizzero
Preceded by
"Man Gave Names to All the Animals" by Bob Dylan
Spanish number one single
3 March 1980 – 24 March 1980 (4 weeks)
Succeeded by
"Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang
Preceded by
"No More Tears (Enough Is Enough)"
by Barbra Streisand and Donna Summer
Swedish number-one single
8 February 1980 (1 week)
Succeeded by
"Himmel No. 7 / Flickorna på TV2" by Gyllene Tider
Preceded by
"Message in a Bottle" by The Police
Irish Singles Chart number-one single
21 October 1979 – 28 October 1979 (2 weeks)
Succeeded by
"Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)" by ABBA
UK Singles Chart number-one single
20 October 1979 (1 week)
Succeeded by
"One Day at a Time" by Marilyn Sellars
Preceded by
"Tu sei l'unica donna per me" by Alan Sorrenti
1979
Italian best-selling single of the year
1980
Succeeded by
"(Out Here) On My Own" by Nikka Costa
1981

Accolades[edit]

Publication/TV Show/Author(s)CountryAccoladeYearRank
20 to 1AustraliaTop 20 One Hit Wonders[76]20063
Bruce PollockUnited StatesThe 7,500 Most Important Songs of 1944-20002005*
Giannis PetridisGreece2004 of the Best Songs of the Century2003
Gilles Verlant, Thomas CausséFrance3000 Rock Classics2009
The GuardianUnited KingdomThe Top 100 British Number 1 Singles[77]53
Hervé BourhisFranceLe Petit Livre Rock: The Juke Box Singles 1950-20092009*
Les Inrockuptibles1000 Indispensable Songs2006
MashableUnited States32 Unforgettable Music Videos[78]2013
MSN MusicUnited KingdomBest Song Titles Ever[79]200319
NBC-10United StatesThe 30 Best Songs of the 80s2006*
Pause & PlaySongs Inducted into a Time Capsule, One Track at Each Week
PopMattersThe 100 Best Songs Since Johnny Rotten Roared200373
QUnited KingdomThe 1010 Songs You Must Own (Q50: One-hit Wonders)[80]2004*
TimeUnited StatesTop 10 MTV Moments[81]2010
Time OutUnited Kingdom100 Songs That Changed History[82]100
Triple J Hottest 100AustraliaHottest 100 of All Time[83]199879
VH1United States100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders of the 80's[1]200940
100 Greatest Videos[84]200179
Volume!France200 Records that Changed the World2008*
XfinityUnited StatesTop 10 Groundbreaking Videos[85]10
WhatCulture!10 Controversial Music Videos That Look Tame Today[86]2013*
WOXY.comThe 500 Best Modern Rock Songs of All Time2008348
All accolades are adapted from Acclaimed Music,[87] except if cited by an additional source.
"*" indicates the list is unordered.

Personnel[edit]

Sources:[6][88]

Cover versions[edit]

YearArtistAlbum
1993Jun'ichi KanemaruInspired Colors
1998The Presidents of the United States of AmericaPure Frosting
1999Lolita No.18ヤリタミン (YALITAMIN)
2000Ken LaszloKen Laszlo 2000
2003ErasureOther People's Songs
2004Dragonheart[89]
2005Amber PacificPunk Goes 80's
2005Ben Folds FiveWhatever and Ever Amen
2005LenThe Diary of the Madmen (in hidden track)
2005Maria Doyle KennedySkull Cover
2007Alvin and the ChipmunksAlvin and the Chipmunks video game
2007Envy & Other Sins
2007The FeelingRosé (CD single)
2007Haruko MomoiCOVER BEST — Cover Densha
2008Bitch AlertPink Bunnies Get Hit by Big Trucks
2009V V BrownTravelling Like the Light
2011PentatonixThe Sing-Off: Season 3: Episode 5 - Guilty Pleasures
2012Young LondonSingle[90]
2012Joyce ManorOf All Things I Will Soon Grow Tired
2012SuperbusSunset
2014PomplamooseSeason Two

In July 2013, multiple independent artists covered "Video" for the launch of the TV channel Pivot.[91]

In other media[edit]

"Video Killed the Radio Star" was sampled in Nicki Minaj (left) and will.i.am's (right) "Check It Out".

See also[edit]

Suggested reading[edit]

No. 1 chart lists[edit]

Release history[edit]

RegionDate(s)FormatLabel
United Kingdom[105]7 September 19797"Island Records
Italy[106]23 October 1979
United StatesOctober 1979,[107] June 1983[108]
United States[109]October 19797" – Promotional
Australia[110]19797"
Canada[111]
France[112]
Germany[113]
Ireland[114]
Japan[115]
Netherlands[116]
New Zealand[117]
Spain[118]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ali, Rahsheeda (1 April 2009). "100 Greatest One Hit Wonders Of The 80s: 40. "Video Killed the Radio Star" – The Buggles". VH1. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d "The Buggles". ZTT Records. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Meet the Buggles". People. 15 July 2001. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Learn to play Video Killed the Radio star". Geoffdownes.net. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c "Trevor Horn". Red Bull Music Academy. 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Buskin, Richard (December 2011). "The Buggles 'Video Killed The Radio Star'". Sound on Sound (SOS Publications Group). Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Hodgkinson, Will (5 November 2004). "Horn of Plenty". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  8. ^ Warner, Timothy (2003). p. 44.
  9. ^ Warner, Timothy (2003). p. 41.
  10. ^ a b c d Phares, Heather. "Video Killed the Radio Star – Song Review". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b c d Warner, Timothy (2003). p. 43.
  13. ^ a b c "Video Killed the Radio Star By The Buggles – Digital Sheet Music". Musicnotes. Faber Music. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Warner, Timothy (2003). p. 45.
  15. ^ a b Deller, Fred (21 February 1980). "Life With the Buggles". Smash Hits 32. 
  16. ^ a b c Warner, Timothy (2003). Pop music: technology and creativity : Trevor Horn and the digital revolution. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7546-3132-3. 
  17. ^ a b c Peel, Ian (1 January 2010). "From the Art of Plastic to the Age of Noise – Sleeve notes for the deluxe reissue of Adventures In Modern Recording". Trevorhorn.com. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "1979 Top 40 Official Singles Chart UK Archive – 29th September 1979". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "1979 Top 40 Official Singles Chart UK Archive – 6th October 1979". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  20. ^ a b "Archive Chart" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  21. ^ a b c (Italian) "I singoli più venduti del 1980". Hit Parade Italia. Creative Commons. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  22. ^ a b (French) "Toutes les Chansons N° 1 des Années 70". InfoDisc. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  23. ^ a b (Spanish) Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2. [page needed]
  24. ^ a b "Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star – Austriancharts.at" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  25. ^ a b "The Irish Charts – All there is to know". Irishcharts.ie. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  26. ^ a b "Swedishcharts.com – Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star". Singles Top 60. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star – swisscharts.com". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  28. ^ a b "Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star". Officialcharts.de. GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  29. ^ a b "Charts.org.nz – Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  30. ^ a b "Ultratop.be – Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  31. ^ a b (Dutch) "Video Killed The Radio Stars – THE BUGGLES". Top 30. Retrieved 26 July 2013. "Hoogste notering in de top 30 : 7" 
  32. ^ a b "Dutchcharts.nl – Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  33. ^ a b "Nederlandse Top 40 – Buggles - Video Killed the Radio Star search results" (in Dutch) Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  34. ^ a b "Buggles – Awards". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  35. ^ a b CASH BOX Top 100 Singles – Week ending DECEMBER 22, 1979 at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 February 2011). Cash Box magazine. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  36. ^ "Billboard Hot 100". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media) 91 (45): 12. 10 November 1979. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  37. ^ CASH BOX Top 100 Singles – Week ending NOVEMBER 10, 1979 at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 February 2011). Cash Box magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  38. ^ "Top Singles – Volume 32, No. 11, December 08 1979". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  39. ^ "Top Singles – Volume 32, No. 16, January 12 1980". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  40. ^ "Top Singles – Volume 32, No. 19, February 02 1980". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  41. ^ a b "RPM Top Singles." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  42. ^ "Billboard's Top Single Picks > First Time Around". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media) 91 (44): 86. 3 November 1979. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  43. ^ Partridge, Andy (20 September 1979). Smash Hits 32: 24. 
  44. ^ Smash Hits 31: 31. 7 February 1980. 
  45. ^ a b Warner, Timothy (2003). p. 48.
  46. ^ "Gig review: The Buggles". Bondegezou.co.uk. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  47. ^ Tina Charles – Slave To The Rhythm on YouTube
  48. ^ Jay, Martin. "My Website". Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  49. ^ a b "BBC Electric Proms – Robbie Williams". BBC Online. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  50. ^ Video Killed the Radio Star – The Buggles Live 2011. YouTube. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  51. ^ a b c Tannenbaum, Rob; Marks, Craig (2011). "A Total, Unmitigated Disaster". I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-1-1015-2641-5. 
  52. ^ a b c Geoff Downes Interview w/ Dave in the City (07-31-11). YouTube. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  53. ^ a b Young, Alex (11 July 2009). "Rock History 101: The Buggles’ "Video Killed the Radio Star"". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  54. ^ Debi Doss – '70's Rock Archive Photographs at the Wayback Machine (archived 15 June 2004). Sphere Studios. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  55. ^ "the Buggles – "Video killed the radio star"". Mvdbase.com. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  56. ^ Ankeny, Jason. "Buggles – Artist Biography". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  57. ^ Dehnart, Andy (1 March 2000). "Who really killed the video star?". Salon. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  58. ^
  59. ^ "Australia No. 1 hits -- 1970's". World Charts. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  60. ^ "Songs from the Year 1979". TsorT. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  61. ^ a b "Japan #1 IMPORT DISKS by Oricon Hot Singles". Oricon. 18.ocn.ne.jp. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  62. ^ "South African Rock Lists Website SA Charts 1969 – 1989 Acts (B)". Rock.co.za. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  63. ^ "2006 Chart Booklet" (PDF). Zobbel.de. September 2005. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  64. ^ "Lescharts.com – Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  65. ^ "Forum – ARIA Charts: Special Occasion Charts – Top 100 End of Year AMR Charts – 1970s". Australian-charts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  66. ^ (Dutch) "Jaaroverzichten 1979". Ultratop. Medien. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  67. ^ (French) "TOP – 1979". Top-france.fr. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  68. ^ "Forum – ARIA Charts: Special Occasion Charts – Top 100 End of Year AMR Charts – 1980s". Australian-charts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  69. ^ (German) "Jahreshitparade 1980". Austriancharts.at. Hung Medien. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  70. ^ "Top Singles – Volume 34, No. 6, December 20 1980". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  71. ^ "German Top 20 – The Chart Of 1980". Ki.informatik.uni-wuerzburg.de. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  72. ^ "French single certifications – Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star" (in French). InfoDisc.  Select BUGGLES and click OK
  73. ^ (French) "Les Singles de Platine". InfoDisc. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  74. ^ (Spanish) Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2. 
  75. ^ "British single certifications – Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star". British Phonographic Industry.  Enter Video Killed the Radio Star in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select single in the field By Format. Click Go
  76. ^ "One-Hit Wonders". 20 to 1. Series 2. Episode 1. 13 February 2006. Nine Network.
  77. ^ "The Top 100 British Number 1 Singles". The Guardian. Rocklist.net. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  78. ^ Hernandez, Brian Anthony (2 August 2013). "MTV Turns 32: Your Favorite Music Videos of All Time". Mashable. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  79. ^ Chipping, Tim (19 July 2013). "One Direction release Best Song Ever (and more of the best song titles ever)". MSN Music. Microsoft. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  80. ^ "1010 Songs You Must Own!". Q. Rocklist.net. September 2004. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  81. ^ "Top 10 MTV Moments". Time. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  82. ^ "100 songs that changed history". Time Out. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  83. ^ "Hottest 100 of all time". Triple J Hottest 100. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  84. ^ "VH1: 100 Greatest Videos". VH1. Rock On The Net. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  85. ^ "Top 10 Groundbreaking Videos". Xfinity. Comcast Cable. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  86. ^ 10 Controversial Music Videos That Look Tame Today at the Wayback Machine (archived 1 March 2013). WhatCulture!. Obsessed With Film. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  87. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  88. ^ Video Killed the Radio Star (vinyl single). The Buggles. UK: Island Records. 1979. WIP 6524. 
  89. ^ Video Killed the Radio Star (Media notes). Dragonheart. UK: ABACO. 2004. CD insert. 615030-4. 
  90. ^ "Young London". PureVolume. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  91. ^ Bierly, Mandi (31 July 2013). "Pivot: New cable channel launches Thursday with 'Video Killed the Radio Star' -- VIDEO". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  92. ^ "Show #3176 – Monday, May 25, 1998". Jeopardy!. J! Archive. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  93. ^ "Show #3268 – Wednesday, November 18, 1998". Jeopardy!. J! Archive. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  94. ^ "Show #4138 – Wednesday, September 4, 2002". Jeopardy!. J! Archive. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  95. ^ "Show #6171 – Monday, June 13, 2011". Jeopardy!. J! Archive. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  96. ^ "Show #6664 – Thursday, August 1, 2013". Jeopardy!. J! Archive. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  97. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Original Soundtrack – The Wedding Singer [Original Soundtrack]". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  98. ^ "10 of Our Favorite Music Videos from the Vice City Soundtrack". Rockstar Games. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  99. ^ Lane, Anthony. "Take This Waltz". The New Yorker. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  100. ^ Alexander, Al (6 July 2012). "Movie review: 'Take This Waltz' prone to clumsy missteps". The Sun-Times (GateHouse Media). Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  101. ^ "Empire Records: The Soundtrack [Soundtrack]". Amazon.com. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  102. ^ "Nicki Minaj’s top 10 magic music moments: From Check It Out to Starships". Metro. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  103. ^ Monger, James Christopher. "Original Soundtrack – Take Me Home Tonight". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  104. ^ Keazor, Henry; Wübbena, Thorsten (2010). Rewind, Play, Fast Forward: The Past, Present and Future of the Music Video. Transcript Verlag. p. 13. ISBN 978-3-8376-1185-4. 
  105. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – UK – WIP 6524". 45cat. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  106. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – Italy – WIP 26524". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  107. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – USA – IS 49114". 45cat. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  108. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – USA – IS 7-99871". 45cat. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  109. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star [Mono] / Video Killed the Radio Star [Stereo] – Island – USA – IS 49114". 45cat. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  110. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – Australia – K7641". 45cat. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  111. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – Canada – 49114". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  112. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – France – 6172 870". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  113. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – Germany – 100 924". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  114. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – Ireland – WIP 6524". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  115. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – Japan – ILR-20646". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  116. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – Netherlands – 100.924". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  117. ^ "The Buggles – Video Killed the Radio Star / Kid Dynamo – Island – New Zealand – K7641". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  118. ^ "The Buggles – El Video Mato A La Estrella Radiofoalca (Video Killed The Radio Star) / Kid Dynamo – Island – Spain – 100.924-A". 45cat. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 

External links[edit]