Vicia faba

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Vicia faba
Vicia faba plants in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Vicieae
Genus:Vicia
Species:V. faba
Binomial name
Vicia faba
L.
Synonyms

Faba sativa Moench.

 
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Vicia faba
Vicia faba plants in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Vicieae
Genus:Vicia
Species:V. faba
Binomial name
Vicia faba
L.
Synonyms

Faba sativa Moench.

Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to North Africa, southwest and south Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. A variety Vicia faba var. equina Pers. – horse bean has been provisionally recognized.[citation needed]

Composition[edit]

Broad beans in the pod

It is a rigid, erect plant 0.5–1.8 m tall, with stout stems of a square cross-section. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, pinnate with 2–7 leaflets, and of a distinct glaucous grey-green color; unlike most other vetches, the leaves do not have tendrils for climbing over other vegetation. The flowers are 1–2.5 cm long, with five petals, the standard petal white, the wing petals white with a black spot (true black, not deep purple or blue as is the case in many "black" colorings,[1]) and the keel petals are white. Crimson-flowered broad beans also exist, which were recently saved from extinction.[2] The flowers have a strong and sweet scent which is attractive to bees and other pollinators.[3] The fruit is a broad, leathery pod, green maturing to blackish-brown, with a densely downy surface; in the wild species, the pods are 5–10 cm long and 1 cm diameter, but many modern cultivars developed for food use have pods 15–25 cm long and 2–3 cm thick. Each pod contains 3–8 seeds; round to oval and 5–10 mm diameter in the wild plant, usually flattened and up to 20–25 mm long, 15 mm broad and 5–10 mm thick in food cultivars. Vicia faba has a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 12 (six homologous pairs). Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair is metacentric.

Cultivation[edit]

Aphis fabae on broad bean
Mature field bean pods
Vicia faba flower
Worldwide broad bean yield

Broad beans have a long tradition of cultivation in Old World agriculture, being among the most ancient plants in cultivation and also among the easiest to grow. Along with lentils, peas, and chickpeas, they are believed to have become part of the eastern Mediterranean diet around 6000 BC or earlier. They are still often grown as a cover crop to prevent erosion, because they can overwinter and because as a legume, they fix nitrogen in the soil. These commonly cultivated plants can be attacked by fungal diseases, such as rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae). They are also attacked by the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae).

The broad bean has high plant hardiness; it can withstand harsh and cold climates. Unlike most legumes, the broad bean can be grown in soils with high salinity, as well as in clay soil. However, it does prefer to grow in rich loams.

In much of the English-speaking world, the name "broad bean" is used for the large-seeded cultivars grown for human food, while "horse bean" and "field bean" refer to cultivars with smaller, harder seeds (more like the wild species) used for animal feed, though their stronger flavour is preferred in some human food recipes, such as falafel. The term "fava bean" (from the Italian fava, meaning "broad bean") is usually used in English-speaking countries such as the US, but "broad bean" is the most common name in the UK and Australia

Culinary uses[edit]

Broad beans, shelled and steamed
Fried broad beans as a snack

Broad beans are eaten while still young and tender, enabling harvesting to begin as early as the middle of spring for plants started under glass or overwintered in a protected location, but even the main crop sown in early spring will be ready from mid to late summer. Horse beans, left to mature fully, are usually harvested in the late autumn. The young leaves of the plant can also be eaten either raw or cooked like spinach.

Broad beans were a major food of old Mediterranean civilizations, particularly for the Romans and Ancient Greeks.

Preparing favas involves first removing the beans from their pods, then parboiling the beans to loosen their exterior coating, and removing that before cooking.

The beans can be fried, causing the skin to split open, and then salted and/or spiced to produce a savory, crunchy snack. These are popular in China, Malaysia, Colombia, Peru (habas saladas), Guatemala (habas), Mexico (habas con chile), Gilan (North of Iran) and Thailand (where their name means "open-mouth nut").

Broad bean purée with wild chicory is a typical Puglian dish in Italy.

In India, the northeastern state, Manipur, locally call it as "Hawai-Amubi" and is famous for its role as ingredient in Eromba, Kangsoi. In Tamil Nadu, it is known as avarakkai (அவரைக்காய்).

In the Sichuan cuisine of China, broad beans are combined with soybeans and chili peppers to produce a spicy fermented bean paste called doubanjiang. Perhaps due to the bean's popularity in Sichuan cuisine, in addition to the regular Chinese term for "broad bean," they are also known as "Sichuan beans" (川豆 chuāndòu) in Chinese.

In some Arab countries, the fava bean is used for a breakfast dish called ful medames.

Fava beans are common in Latin American cuisines, as well. In central Mexico, mashed fava beans are a common filling for many corn flour-based antojito snacks such as tlacoyos. In Colombia, they are most often used whole in vegetable soups. Dried and salted fava beans are a popular snack in many Latin countries.

In the Netherlands, they are traditionally eaten with fresh savory and some melted butter. When rubbed, the velvet insides of the pods are a folk remedy against warts.

In Croatia, they are used mostly in Dalmatia, as a part of the traditional dish stuffed artichokes with fava beans and peas.

Broad beans are widely cultivated in the Kech and Panjgur districts of Balochistan Province in Pakistan, and in the eastern province of Iran. They are called bakalaink in the Balochi language, and baghalee in Persian.

Judd mat Gaardebounen, or smoked collar of pork with broad beans, is the national dish of Luxembourg.[4]

Iran[edit]

Broad beans, or "Baghalee" (Persian: باقالی) are primarily cultivated in the central and north parts of Iran. The city of Kashan has the highest production of broad beans with high quality in terms of the taste, cooking periods and color. However, broad beans have a very short season (roughly two weeks.) The season is usually in the middle of spring. When people have access to fresh beans in season, they cook them in brine and then add vinegar and Heracleum persicum depending on taste. They also make an extra amount to dry to be used year round. The dried beans can be cooked with rice, which forms one of the most famous dishes in north of Iran (Gilan) called baghalee polo (Persian: باقالی پلو) which means "rice with broad beans". In Iran broad beans are cooked, served with Golpar-origan and salt and sold on streets in the winter. This food is also available preserved in metal cans.

Egypt[edit]

Fava beans (Arabic: فولfūl pronounced [fuːl]) are a common staple food in the Egyptian diet, eaten by rich and poor alike. Egyptians eat fava beans in various ways: they may be shelled and then dried, bought dried and then cooked by adding water in very low heat for several hours, etc. They are the primary ingredient in falafel. However, the most popular way of preparing them in Egypt is by taking the mashed, cooked beans and adding oil, salt and cumin to them. The dish, known as ful medames, is traditionally eaten with bread (generally at breakfast) and is considered the Egyptian national dish.

Greece[edit]

Broad beans (Greek: κουκιά, koukiá) are eaten in a stew combined with artichokes, while they are still fresh in their pods. Dried broad beans are eaten boiled, sometimes combined with garlic sauce (skordalia). In Crete, fresh broad beans are shelled and eaten as companion to tsikoudia, the local alcoholic drink. Favism is quite common in Greece because of malaria endemicity in previous centuries, and people afflicted by it do not eat broad beans.

The Greek word fáva (φάβα) does not refer to broad beans, but to the yellow split pea and also to the legume Lathyrus sativus, either of which are boiled with salt to produce the local variety of pease pudding, also called fáva. This creamy fáva is then served hot or cold, sprinkled with olive oil and garnished with a variety of condiments and seasonings such as diced onion, capers, parsley, pepper, lemon juice, etc.

Ethiopia[edit]

Broad beans (Amharic: baqella) are one of the most popular legumes in Ethiopia. They are tightly coupled with every aspect of Ethiopian life. They are mainly used as an alternative to peas to prepare a flour called shiro, which is used to make shiro wot (a stew almost ubiquitous in Ethiopian dishes). During the fasting period in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition called Tsome Filliseta, Tsome arbeå, Tsome Tahsas, and Tsome Hawaria (which are in August, end of February–April, mid-November–beginning of January and June–July), two uncooked, spicy, vegetable dishes are made using broad beans. The first is Hilibet, a thin, white paste of broad bean flour mixed with pieces of onion, green pepper, garlic, and other spices based on personal taste. The second is silijou, a fermented, sour, spicy, thin, yellow paste of broad bean flour. Both are served with other stews and injera (a pancake-like bread) during lunch and dinner.

Baqella nifro (boiled broad beans) are eaten as a snack during some holidays and during a time of mourning. Interestingly, this tradition goes well into religious holidays, too. On the Thursday before Good Friday, in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition tselote hamus (the Prayer of Thursday), people eat a different kind of nifro called gulban. Gulban is made of peeled, half beans collected and well cooked with other grains such as wheat, peas and chickpeas. This is done to mourn the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

Boq'ullit (boiled salted broad beans embryo) is one of the most favorite snacks in the evening, the common story-telling time in north and central Ethiopia. It is particularly a favorite for the story-teller (usually a society elder), as it is delicious, and easy to chew and swallow.

Ripe broad beans are eaten by passers-by. Besides that, they are one of the gift items from a countryside relative in a period close to the Ethiopian Epiphany.

Nepal[edit]

In Nepal, fava beans are called bakulla. They are eaten as a green vegetable when the pods are young, generally stir-fried with garlic. When dried, fava beans are eaten roasted, or mixed with other legumes, such as moong beans, chick peas, and peas, and called qwati. The mixture, soaked and germinated, is cooked as soup and consumed with rice or beaten rice on day of Raksha Bandhan or Rakhi. The dry and stir-fried version of qwati is called biraula. The qwati soup is believed to reinvigorate the body affected by monsoon paddy season.

Peru[edit]

Fava beans (Peru: Haba(s)) are eaten fresh or dried as stew, toasted, boiled, roasted, stewed, soup etc. Habas are one of the essential ingredients of the famous "Pachamanca" in the Andes of Peru, is also additional additive for "Panetela", which is a homemade remedy to keep your child fed and hydrated in cases of diarrhea or stomach infection and even for cholera treatment. To make Panetela combine and roast a cup of: fava bean (habas), barley, corn color, wheat, rice and / or beans without allowing it to burn, all at once; add a cup of water, a carrot into pieces and a pinch of salt until fully cooked; drain, complete the water until it reaches a liter and boil one last time. "for babies fluid only"

Peruvian dishes with fava beans include:

Colombia[edit]

Fava beans (Colombia: Haba(s)) are a common food in most regions of Colombia, mostly in Bogota and Boyacá.

Health issues[edit]

Broad beans are rich in tyramine, and thus should be avoided by those taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors.[5]

Raw broad beans also contain the alkaloids vicine and convicine which can induce hemolytic anemia in patients with the hereditary condition glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This potentially fatal condition is called favism after the fava bean.[6][7] Areas of origin of the bean correspond to malarial areas. Some epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest the hemolysis resulting from favism acts as protection from malaria, because certain species of malarial protozoa, such as Plasmodium falciparum, are very sensitive to oxidative damage due to deficiency of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme, which would otherwise protect from oxidative damage via production of glutathione reductase.[8]

Broad beans are rich in L-dopa, a substance used medically in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. L-dopa is also a natriuretic agent, which might help in controlling hypertension.[9]

The seed testae contain condensed tannins[10] of the proanthocyanidins type[11] that could have an inhibitory activity on enzymes.[12]

Nutritional information[edit]

Fava beans, mature seeds, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,425 kJ (341 kcal)
Carbohydrates58.29 g
- Dietary fiber25 g
Fat1.53 g
Protein26.12 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.555 mg (48%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.333 mg (28%)
Niacin (vit. B3)2.832 mg (19%)
Vitamin B60.366 mg (28%)
Folate (vit. B9)423 μg (106%)
Vitamin C1.4 mg (2%)
Vitamin K9 μg (9%)
Calcium103 mg (10%)
Iron6.7 mg (52%)
Magnesium192 mg (54%)
Manganese1.626 mg (77%)
Phosphorus421 mg (60%)
Potassium1062 mg (23%)
Sodium13 mg (1%)
Zinc3.14 mg (33%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Other uses[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Core Historical Literature of Agriculture". Chla.library.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  2. ^ "Daughter of the Soil". Daughter of the Soil. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  3. ^ NSW Agriculture 2002 - Honeybees in faba bean pollination
  4. ^ Collar "Recipes from Luxembourg", Luxembourg Tourist Office, London. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  5. ^ Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. "MAOIs and diet: Is it necessary to restrict tyramine?". Mayo Clinic. 
  6. ^ Kathrynne Holden. "Fava Beans, Levodopa, and Parkinson's Disease". 
  7. ^ Russ Parsons. "The Long History of the Mysterious Fava Bean". 
  8. ^ Nelson, L. David; Cox, M. Michael. 2005. “Chapter 14- Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway” in Principles of Biochemistry. Freeman, New York. p. 551.
  9. ^ Vered, Y; Grosskopf, I; Palevitch, D; Harsat, A; Charach, G; Weintraub, MS; Graff, E (1997). "The influence of Vicia faba (broad bean) seedlings on urinary sodium excretion". Planta medica 63 (3): 237–40. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957661. PMID 9225606. 
  10. ^ The digestibility in piglets of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as affected by breeding towards the absence of condensed tannins. A. F. B. Van Der Poela, L. M. W. Dellaerta, A. Van Norela and J. P. F. G. Helspera, British Journal of Nutrition (1992), Volume 68 – Issue 03, pp. 793–800, Cambridge University Press doi:10.1079/BJN19920134
  11. ^ Qualitative analysis and HPLC isolation and identification of procyanidins from vicia faba. Rachid Merghem, Maurice Jay, Nathalie Brun and Bernard Voirin, Phytochemical Analysis, Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 95–99, March/April 2004 doi:10.1002/pca.731
  12. ^ The polyphenolic content and enzyme inhibitory activity of testae from bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum spp.) varieties. D. Wynne Griffiths, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Volume 32, Issue 8, pages 797–804, August 1981, doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740320808

External links[edit]