Veronica (plant)

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Veronica
Veronica chamaedrys
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Lamiales
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus:Veronica
L.
Species

See text.

 
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Veronica
Veronica chamaedrys
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Lamiales
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus:Veronica
L.
Species

See text.

Veronica is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Plantaginaceae, with about 500 species; it was formerly classified in the family Scrophulariaceae. Taxonomy for this genus is currently being reanalysed, with the genus Hebe and the related Australasian genera Derwentia, Detzneria, Chionohebe, Heliohebe, Leonohebe and Parahebe included by many botanists. Common names include speedwell, bird's eye, and gypsyweed.

The species are herbaceous annuals or perennials, and also shrubs or small trees if Hebe is included. Most of the species are from the temperate Northern Hemisphere, though with some species from the Southern Hemisphere; Hebe is mostly from New Zealand.

Uses[edit]

Food and medicine[edit]

Veronica americana is edible and nutritious and is reported to have a flavor similar to watercress. Native Americans used Veronica species as an expectorant tea to alleviate bronchial congestion associated with asthma and allergies. The plant can be confused with skullcap and other members of the mint family. Members of the mint family have square sided stems, and Veronica species have rounded stems.[1]

Veronica sp. herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea) for treatment of disorders of the nervous system, respiratory tract, cardiovascular system, and metabolism.[2]

Groundcover[edit]

Several veronica species and cultivars are cultivated for use as groundcovers.[3]

As weeds[edit]

Several species of speedwell are weeds that outcompete lawn grasses.[4] Some of the more common of these are Persian speedwell (V. persica),[5] creeping speedwell (V. filiformis),[6] corn speedwell (V. arvensis),[7] germander speedwell (V. chamaedrys), and ivy-leaved speedwell (V. hederifolia). It is often difficult to tell one species from another. There are five to seven species of speedwell in Michigan alone that are easily confused.[6]

The resilient speedwell species have a fine, fibrous root system and bright green roundish, oval, or heart-shaped leaves with scalloped edges. The leaves are often small, with some under 1/4 inch long, the flowers are typically also small and are blue or bluish-white in color. In all the plant species but one, the leaves are alternate near the end of flowering stems, but the leaves are opposite near the base.[8]

Ecology[edit]

Species of Veronica are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera, including the Grizzled Skipper.

Trivia[edit]

A stylized speedwell is featured on the badge of Squadron 541 of the British Royal Air Force.[9]

Species[edit]

  • Veronica abyssinica
    Abyssinian speedwell
  • Veronica acinifolia
    French speedwell
  • Veronica acipetala
  • Veronica acrotheca
  • Veronica adamsii
  • Veronica agrestis
    green field-speedwell
  • Veronica alaskensis
  • Veronica alatavica
  • Veronica albicans
  • Veronica albiflora
  • Veronica allahuekberensis
  • Veronica allionii
  • Veronica alpina
    alpine speedwell
  • Veronica americana
    American brooklime
  • Veronica amoena
  • Veronica amplexicaulis
  • Veronica anagallis-aquatica
    water speedwell
  • Veronica anagalloides
  • Veronica angustissima
  • Veronica annulata
  • Veronica antalyensis
  • Veronica aphylla
  • Veronica aragonensis
  • Veronica archboldii
  • Veronica arcuata
  • Veronica arenaria
  • Veronica arganthera
  • Veronica argute-serrata
  • Veronica armena
    Armenian speedwell
  • Veronica armstrongii
  • Veronica arvensis
    wall speedwell
  • Veronica aucheri
  • Veronica austriaca
    Austrian speedwell
  • Veronica avromanica
  • Veronica aznavourii
  • Veronica bachofenii
  • Veronica balansae
  • Veronica baranetzkii
  • Veronica barkeri
  • Veronica barrelieri
  • Veronica baumgartenii
  • Veronica baylyi
  • Veronica beccabunga
    brooklime
  • Veronica bellidioides
  • Veronica benthamii
  • Veronica besseya
  • Veronica biggarii
  • Veronica biloba
  • Veronica birleyi
  • Veronica bishopiana
  • Veronica blakelyi
  • Veronica bogosensis
  • Veronica bollonsii
  • Veronica bombycina
  • Veronica borisovae
  • Veronica bozakmanii
  • Veronica brachysiphon
  • Veronica brassii
  • Veronica breviracemosa
  • Veronica brevistyla
  • Veronica brownii
  • Veronica buchananii
  • Veronica bucharica
  • Veronica bullii
  • Veronica bungei
  • Veronica cachemirica
  • Veronica caespitosa
  • Veronica calcicola
  • Veronica californica
  • Veronica calycina
    cup speedwell
  • Veronica campylopoda
  • Veronica cana
  • Veronica canbyi
  • Veronica canterburiensis
  • Veronica capillipes
  • Veronica capitata
  • Veronica cardiocarpa
  • Veronica carminea
  • Veronica carstensensis
  • Veronica catarractae
  • Veronica catenata
  • Veronica caucasica
    Caucasian speedwell
  • Veronica ceratocarpa
  • Veronica cetikiana
  • Veronica chamaedryoides
    Greek germander speedwell
  • Veronica chamaedrys
    germander speedwell
  • Veronica chamaepithyoides
  • Veronica chathamica
  • Veronica chayuensis
  • Veronica cheesemanii
  • Veronica chinoalpina
  • Veronica chionantha
  • Veronica ciliata
  • Veronica ciliolata
  • Veronica cinerea
  • Veronica cockayneana
  • Veronica colensoi
  • Veronica colostylis
  • Veronica continua
  • Veronica copelandii
  • Veronica corriganii
  • Veronica crinita
  • Veronica crista-galli
    cock's-crest speedwell
  • Veronica cryptomorpha
  • Veronica cuneifolia
  • Veronica cupressoides
  • Veronica cusickii
    Cusick's speedwell
  • Veronica cymbalaria
    pale speedwell
  • Veronica czerniakowskiana
  • Veronica dabneyi
    Azores speedwell
  • Veronica daghestanica
  • Veronica daranica
  • Veronica daurica
  • Veronica davisii
  • Veronica debilis
  • Veronica decora
  • Veronica decorosa
  • Veronica decumbens
  • Veronica deltigera
  • Veronica densiflora
  • Veronica derwentiana
  • Veronica dichrus
  • Veronica dieffenbachii
  • Veronica dilatata
  • Veronica dillenii
  • Veronica diosmifolia
  • Veronica diosmoides
  • Veronica dissecta
  • Veronica distans
  • Veronica donii
  • Veronica elliptica
  • Veronica elmaliensis
  • Veronica emodii
  • Veronica epacridea
  • Veronica erinoides
  • Veronica eriogyne
  • Veronica euphrasiifolia
  • Veronica evenosa
  • Veronica evexa
  • Veronica fargesii
  • Veronica farinosa
  • Veronica fedtschenkoi
  • Veronica ferganica
  • Veronica filifolia
  • Veronica filiformis
    slender speedwell
  • Veronica filipes
  • Veronica flavida
  • Veronica formosa
  • Veronica forrestii
  • Veronica fragilis
  • Veronica francispetae
  • Veronica fridericae
  • Veronica fruticans
    rock speedwell
  • Veronica fruticulosa
  • Veronica fuhsii
  • Veronica galathica
  • Veronica gaubae
  • Veronica gentianoides
    gentian speedwell
  • Veronica gibbsii
  • Veronica glandulosa
  • Veronica glauca
  • Veronica glaucophylla
  • Veronica gorbunovii
  • Veronica gracilis
  • Veronica grandiflora
  • Veronica grisebachii
  • Veronica grosseserrata
  • Veronica gunae
  • Veronica haastii
  • Veronica hectorii
  • Veronica hederifolia
    ivy-leaved speedwell
  • Veronica henryi
  • Veronica hillebrandii
  • Veronica himalensis
  • Veronica hispidula
  • Veronica hookeri
  • Veronica hookeriana
  • Veronica hulkeana
  • Veronica idahoensis
  • Veronica incana
    silver speedwell
  • Veronica inflexa
  • Veronica insularis
  • Veronica intercedens
  • Veronica ionantha
  • Veronica jacquinii
    Jacquin's speedwell
  • Veronica japonensis
  • Veronica javanica
  • Veronica jovellanoides[10]
  • Veronica kaiseri
  • Veronica kellowiae
  • Veronica khorassanica
  • Veronica kiusiana
  • Veronica kopetdaghensis
  • Veronica kopgecidiensis
  • Veronica kotschyana
  • Veronica krumovii
    Bulgarian germander speedwell
  • Veronica krylovii
  • Veronica kurdica
  • Veronica laeta
  • Veronica lanceolata
  • Veronica lanosa
  • Veronica lanuginosa
  • Veronica lavaudiana
  • Veronica laxa
  • Veronica laxissima
  • Veronica leiocarpa
  • Veronica leiophylla
  • Veronica lendenfeldii
  • Veronica ligustrifolia
  • Veronica lilliputiana
  • Veronica linariifolia
    linear-leaved speedwell
  • Veronica linifolia
  • Veronica lithophila
  • Veronica liwanensis
  • Veronica longifolia
    long-Leaved speedwell
  • Veronica longipedicellata
  • Veronica longipetiolata
  • Veronica luetkeana
  • Veronica lyalii
  • Veronica lycica
    Lycian speedwell
  • Veronica lycopodioides
  • Veronica lysimachioides
  • Veronica macrantha
  • Veronica macrocalyx
  • Veronica macrocarpa
  • Veronica macropoda
  • Veronica macrostachya
  • Veronica macrostemon
  • Veronica macrostemonoides
  • Veronica magentea
  • Veronica magna
  • Veronica mampodrensis
  • Veronica masoniae
  • Veronica mazanderanae
  • Veronica mexicana
    Mexican speedwell
  • Veronica michauxii
  • Veronica micrantha
  • Veronica microcarpa
  • Veronica minuta
  • Veronica miqueliana
  • Veronica mirabilis
  • Veronica missurica
  • Veronica monantha
  • Veronica montana
    wood speedwell
  • Veronica montbretii
  • Veronica monticola
  • Veronica mooreae
  • Veronica morrisonicola
  • Veronica multifida
  • Veronica muratae
  • Veronica murrellii
  • Veronica myosotoides
  • Veronica nakaiana
  • Veronica nevadensis
  • Veronica nevskii
  • Veronica niicola
  • Veronica nipponica
  • Veronica nipponica
  • Veronica nivea
  • Veronica notabilis
  • Veronica notialis
  • Veronica novae-hollandiae
  • Veronica nummularia
  • Veronica nutans
    American alpine speedwell
  • Veronica oblongifolia
  • Veronica obtusata
  • Veronica ochracea
  • Veronica odora
  • Veronica oetaea
  • Veronica officinalis
    heath speedwell
  • Veronica olgensis
  • Veronica oligosperma
  • Veronica oltensis
  • Veronica oltensis
  • Veronica onoei
  • Veronica opaca
  • Veronica orbelica
  • Veronica orbiculata
  • Veronica orchidea
  • Veronica orientalis
  • Veronica ornata
  • Veronica orsiniana
  • Veronica ovata
  • Veronica oxycarpa
  • Veronica paederotae
  • Veronica panormitana
  • Veronica papuana
  • Veronica pareora
  • Veronica parnkalliana
  • Veronica parviflora
  • Veronica pauciramosa
  • Veronica paysonii
  • Veronica pectinata
  • Veronica peduncularis
  • Veronica pentasepala
  • Veronica perbella
  • Veronica peregrina
    American speedwell
  • Veronica perfoliata
    Digger's speedwell
  • Veronica persica
    common field-speedwell
  • Veronica petraea
  • Veronica petriei
  • Veronica phormiiphila
  • Veronica pimeleoides
  • Veronica pinguifolia
  • Veronica pinnata
  • Veronica piroliformis
  • Veronica planopetiolata
  • Veronica plantaginea
  • Veronica platycarpa
  • Veronica plebeia
  • Veronica polifolia
  • Veronica polita
    grey field speedwell
  • Veronica polium
  • Veronica poljensis
  • Veronica ponae
  • Veronica poppelwellii
  • Veronica porphyriana
  • Veronica praecox
    Breckland speedwell
  • Veronica propinqua
  • Veronica prostrata
    sprawling speedwell
  • Veronica pubescens
  • Veronica pusilla
  • Veronica pyrethrina
  • Veronica qingheensis
  • Veronica quadrifaria
  • Veronica quezelii
  • Veronica rakaiensis
  • Veronica ramosissima
  • Veronica ranunculina
  • Veronica raoulii
  • Veronica rapensis
  • Veronica rechingeri
  • Veronica regina-nivalis
  • Veronica reuteriana
  • Veronica rhodopea
  • Veronica riae
  • Veronica rigidula
  • Veronica ritteriana
  • Veronica robusta
  • Veronica rockii
  • Veronica rosea
  • Veronica rotunda
  • Veronica rubra
  • Veronica rubrifolia
  • Veronica rupicola
  • Veronica ruprechtii
  • Veronica sachalinensis
  • Veronica sajanensis
  • Veronica salicifolia
  • Veronica salicornioides
  • Veronica samuelssonii
  • Veronica sartoriana
  • Veronica saturejoides
  • Veronica saxosa
  • Veronica scardica
  • Veronica scheereri
  • Veronica schistosa
  • Veronica schizantha
  • Veronica schmidtiana
  • Veronica scopulorum
  • Veronica scutellata
    marsh speedwell
  • Veronica senex
  • Veronica sennenii
  • Veronica serpyllifolia
    thyme-leaved speedwell
  • Veronica serpylloides
  • Veronica siaretensis
  • Veronica sibthorpioides
  • Veronica sieboldiana
  • Veronica sieboldiana
  • Veronica simensis
  • Veronica sobolifera
  • Veronica societatis
  • Veronica spathulata
  • Veronica speciosa
  • Veronica spectabilis
  • Veronica spicata
    spiked speedwell
  • Veronica spuria
  • Veronica stamatiadae
  • Veronica stelleri
  • Veronica stenophylla
  • Veronica stewartii
  • Veronica stricta
  • Veronica strictissima
  • Veronica strigosa
  • Veronica stylophora
  • Veronica subalpina
  • Veronica subfulvida
  • Veronica subsessilis
  • Veronica subtilis
  • Veronica surculosa
  • Veronica sutchuensis
  • Veronica syriaca
  • Veronica szechuanica
  • Veronica taigischensis
  • Veronica tairawhiti
  • Veronica taiwanalpina
  • Veronica taiwanica
  • Veronica taurica
  • Veronica tauricola
  • Veronica teberdensis
  • Veronica telephiifolia
  • Veronica tenuifolia
  • Veronica tenuissima
  • Veronica tetragona
  • Veronica tetrasticha
  • Veronica teucrium
    large speedwell
  • Veronica thessalica
  • Veronica thomsonii
  • Veronica thymifolia
  • Veronica thymoides
  • Veronica tianschanica
  • Veronica tibetica
  • Veronica topiaria
  • Veronica townsonii
  • Veronica traversii
  • Veronica treadwellii
  • Veronica trichadena
  • Veronica trifida
  • Veronica triloba
    three-lobed speedwell
  • Veronica triphyllos
    fingered speedwell
  • Veronica truncatula
  • Veronica tsinglingensis
  • Veronica tubata
  • Veronica tumida
  • Veronica turrilliana
  • Veronica umbrosa
  • Veronica undulata
  • Veronica urticifolia
    nettle-leaved speedwell
  • Veronica urvilleana
  • Veronica utahensis
  • Veronica vandellioides
  • Veronica vanderwateri
  • Veronica velutina
  • Veronica vendetta-deae
  • Veronica venustula
  • Veronica verna
    spring speedwell
  • Veronica vernicosa
  • Veronica vindobonensis
    Viennese germander speedwell
  • Veronica viscosa
  • Veronica wormskjoldii
    Wormskjold's speedwell
  • Veronica wyomingensis
  • Veronica yildirimlii
  • Veronica yunnanensis
  • Veronica yushanchienshanica
  • Veronica zygantha

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tilford, G. L. Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. ISBN 0-87842-359-1
  2. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053
  3. ^ Klett, J. E. and R. A. Cox. Ground Cover Plants. Fact Sheet no. 7.400. Colorado State University Extension. 2009.
  4. ^ Corn Speedwell. TurfFiles.
  5. ^ Persian speedwell. Weed Gallery. U.C. Davis.
  6. ^ a b Creeping Speedwell. MSU Turf Weeds. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University.
  7. ^ Corn Speedwell. MSU Turf Weeds. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University.
  8. ^ Yelverton, F. Speedwell, Corn. North Carolina State University. 2007.
  9. ^ 541 Squadron. Royal Air Force.
  10. ^ Gibson, E. Rare plant in forest has botanists bamboozled. New Zealand Herald. 10 November 2009.

External links[edit]