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A Van Dyke (also spelled Vandyck, Van Dyck or Van Dijk) is a style of facial hair named after 17th-century Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck. A Van Dyke specifically consists of any growth of both a moustache and goatee with all hair on the cheeks shaven. Even this particular style, though, has many variants, which range from a curled moustache versus a non-curled one and a soul patch versus none.
This style of beard was popular in Europe in the 17th century. It died out in Britain with the Restoration, when French styles and wigs became popular. For some time after, however, some men, called "vow-beards", continued to wear them, vowing to wear them until the King did so again. It became popular in the United States in the 19th century. Chicago Chronicle columnist Edith Sessions Tupper condemned this style, along with the goatee, as indicative of a man "who was selfish, sinister, and pompous as a peacock." The style is sometimes called a "Charlie" after King Charles I of England, who was painted by Van Dyck with this type of beard.
The style was worn by Van Dyck himself, and by many of the sitters for his portraits, including King Charles I of England. The Russian Marxist revolutionary, Vladimir Lenin also wore a Van Dyke. The Van Dyke had a revival in the 19th century and was worn by several well-known figures including General Custer (among other styles) and the actor Monty Woolley. Colonel Sanders would also qualify as having a Van Dyke.
The word pickedevant is a little-known synonym for a Van Dyke beard.
Jacobus Arminius (1625)
Charles I of England by Van Dyck (1635-6)
Winfield Scott Hancock (1863)
George Armstrong Custer (1865)
Buffalo Bill (William Cody) (c. 1875)
Edward S. Curtis (1899)
Wilhelm Maybach (1900)
Vladimir Lenin (1920)
Christian Bale, actor (2009)
Johnny Depp (2011)
Media related to Van Dyke beards at Wikimedia Commons