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|V for Vendetta|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||James McTeigue|
|Screenplay by||Larry Wachowski|
|Based on||V for Vendetta |
by David Lloyd
Alan Moore (uncredited)
|Music by||Dario Marianelli|
|Edited by||Martin Walsh|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros. Pictures|
|Running time||132 minutes|
|V for Vendetta|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||James McTeigue|
|Screenplay by||Larry Wachowski|
|Based on||V for Vendetta |
by David Lloyd
Alan Moore (uncredited)
|Music by||Dario Marianelli|
|Edited by||Martin Walsh|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros. Pictures|
|Running time||132 minutes|
V for Vendetta is a 2006 American political thriller film directed by James McTeigue and written by the Wachowskis, based on the 1982 Vertigo graphic novel of the same name by Alan Moore and David Lloyd. Hugo Weaving portrays V, an anarchist freedom fighter who attempts to ignite a revolution against the brutal fascist regime that has subjugated the dystopian United Kingdom and exterminated its opponents in concentration camps. Natalie Portman plays Evey, a working class girl caught up in V's mission, and Stephen Rea portrays the detective leading a desperate quest to stop V.
The film was originally scheduled for release by Warner Bros. on Friday, November 4, 2005 (a day before the 400th Guy Fawkes Night), but was delayed; it opened on March 17, 2006, to positive reviews. Alan Moore, having been disappointed with the film adaptations of his graphic novels From Hell (2001) and The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003), refused to view the film and asked not to be credited.
V for Vendetta has been seen by many political groups as an allegory of oppression by government; libertarians and anarchists have used it to promote their beliefs. David Lloyd stated: "The Guy Fawkes mask has now become a common brand and a convenient placard to use in protest against tyranny – and I'm happy with people using it, it seems quite unique, an icon of popular culture being used this way."
In the late 2020s, the world is in turmoil, with the United States having been fractured as a result of prolonged conflict, and a pandemic of the "St. Mary's Virus" ravaging the European continent. The United Kingdom remains the only stable country, being ruled as a fascist police state under the governance of the Norsefire Party, referred to simply as "the Party." Under its regime, society is heavily oppressed. Political opponents, immigrants, Muslims, homosexuals and other "undesirables" are imprisoned in concentration camps. On November 4, Evey Hammond, a woman who works at the state-run British Television Network (BTN), is rescued by a Guy Fawkes-masked vigilante who identifies himself as "V", from an attempted rape by members of the "Fingermen" secret police while she is out past curfew. He leads her to a rooftop to watch his destruction of the Old Bailey criminal court building, accompanied by fireworks and the 1812 Overture. Inspector Finch, Scotland Yard's chief of police, is given the task of investigating V's activities, while the Party uses the BTN to declare the incident an "emergency demolition" but V takes over the broadcast to claim responsibility. He urges the people of Britain to rise up against their government and meet him in one year, on November 5, (Guy Fawkes Night) outside the Houses of Parliament, which he promises to destroy. During the broadcast, the police attempt to capture V. Evey helps V escape, but is knocked out in the process.
V takes Evey to his home, where she is told she must remain until November 5 the following year. After learning that V is killing government officials, she is asked to help kill a perverted priest, by acting as a child prostitute until V kills him. She later escapes, horrified by the violence, to the home of her boss, comedian and talk show host Gordon Deitrich. In return for Evey trusting him with her safety, Gordon reveals to her a collection of prohibited materials including subversive paintings, an antique Quran, and homoerotic photographs by Robert Mapplethorpe. Gordon explains that he acts the part of a womanizer to conceal his homosexuality, well aware that if he were honest he would be "black bagged" (taken away by the "Finger" and executed). Inspector Finch learns that V is the result of experimentation on humans, and his targets tortured him while he was detained. After Gordon performs an over-the-top satire of the government on his show, his home is raided and Evey is captured while trying to escape. She is imprisoned in a secret location, where her head is shaved, and she is tortured in various ways for information about V, with her only solace being a note written by another prisoner, actress Valerie Page, who was arrested for being a lesbian.
Evey is told that she will be executed unless she reveals V's location, but when she says she would rather die she is immediately released. It is revealed that her imprisonment and torture were staged by V to free her from her fears. The note was real, having been passed from Valerie to V years earlier when he was similarly imprisoned. Although Evey initially hates V for what he did to her, she realises she is now a stronger person. She leaves him with a promise to return before November 5.
Inspector Finch searches for the true identity of V, eventually tracing him to a bioweapons program at a detention centre for "social deviants" and political dissidents in Larkhill. Finch meets William Rookwood, who tells him that the program, directed by then-under secretary Adam Sutler, resulted in the creation of the "St. Mary's Virus" and its release in a false flag terrorist attack. The deaths of over 100,000 people and the resulting fear enabled the Norsefire Party to win the next election, silence opposition, and turn the country into a totalitarian state under Sutler's rule as High Chancellor. A few weeks after their meeting, Finch discovers that Rookwood has been dead for years; the man he met was actually V in disguise, and Finch initially disbelieves his story.
As November 5 nears, V's distribution of thousands of Guy Fawkes masks causes chaos in the UK and the population questions Party rule. On the eve of November 5, Evey visits V, who shows her an explosive-laden train in the abandoned London Underground tunnels, set to destroy Parliament. He leaves it to Evey to decide whether to use it, believing that he is unfit to decide. V meets Party Leader Creedy, with whom he has made a deal to surrender in exchange for Sutler's execution. But after Creedy executes Sutler, V reneges on his deal to surrender and kills Creedy and his men, effectively decapitating the Norsefire government. Wearing body armor, he avoids being killed outright, but mortally wounded he returns to Evey to thank her and tell her he loves her, then dies in her arms.
As Evey places V's body aboard the train, she is found by Finch. Disillusioned by the Party's regime, Finch allows Evey to send the train on its way. Thousands of unarmed Londoners wearing Guy Fawkes masks march towards Parliament. Without a living command structure and with no orders coming, the military general allows the crowd to pass. Everyone, both the living and dead Norsefire protestors, witnesses the destruction, which V arranged in the same style as the Old Bailey. Finch asks Evey for V's identity, to which she replies, "He was all of us."
Stephen Fry portrays Gordon Deitrich, a closeted homosexual and talk/comedy show host. When asked in an interview what he liked about the role, Fry replied "Being beaten up! I hadn't been beaten up in a movie before and I was very excited by the idea of being clubbed to death." Also included in the cast are Tim Pigott-Smith as Peter Creedy, Norsefire's Party leader and the head of Britain's secret police (the "Finger"); Rupert Graves as Dominic Stone, Inspector Finch's lieutenant; Roger Allam as Lewis Prothero, a propagandist for Norsefire; John Standing as Anthony James Lilliman, a corrupt bishop at Westminster Abbey; and Sinéad Cusack as Dr. Delia Surridge, the former head physician at the Larkhill Detention Centre, now a coroner. Natasha Wightman portrays Valerie Page, a lesbian imprisoned for her sexuality. Imogen Poots portrays Valerie as a child.
V for Vendetta sets the Gunpowder Plot as V's historical inspiration, contributing to his choice of timing, language and appearance. For example, the names Rookwood, Percy and Keyes are used in the film, which are also the names of three of the Gunpowder conspirators. The film creates parallels to Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo, by drawing direct comparisons between V and Edmond Dantès. (In both stories, the hero escapes an unjust and traumatic imprisonment and spends decades preparing to take vengeance on his oppressors under a new persona.) The film is also explicit in portraying V as the embodiment of an idea rather than an individual through V's dialogue and by depicting him without a past, identity or face. According to the official website, "V's use of the Guy Fawkes mask and persona functions as both practical and symbolic elements of the story. He wears the mask to hide his physical scars, and in obscuring his identity – he becomes the idea itself."
As noted by several critics and commentators, the film's story and style mirror elements from Gaston Leroux's The Phantom of the Opera. V and the Phantom both wear masks to hide their disfigurements, control others through the leverage of their imaginations, have tragic pasts, and are motivated by revenge. V and Evey's relationship also parallels many of the romantic elements of The Phantom of the Opera, where the masked Phantom takes Christine Daaé to his subterranean lair to re-educate her.
As a film about the struggle between freedom and the state, V for Vendetta takes imagery from many classic totalitarian icons both real and fictional, including the Third Reich and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. For example, Adam Sutler primarily appears on large video screens and on portraits in people's homes, both common features among modern totalitarian regimes and reminiscent of the image of Big Brother. The slogan "Strength through Unity. Unity through Faith" is displayed prominently across London, similar in cadence to "War is Peace. Freedom is Slavery. Ignorance is Strength" in Orwell's book. There is also the state's use of mass surveillance, such as closed-circuit television, on its citizens. Valerie was sent to a detention facility for being a lesbian and then had medical experiments performed on her, reminiscent of the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. The name "Adam Sutler" and his hysterical style of speech are inspired by Adolf Hitler although Jews appear to have been replaced by Muslims as a target for persecution. Norsefire has replaced St George's Cross with a national symbol similar to the modern Cross of Lorraine (both crossbars near the top). This was a symbol used by Free French Forces during World War II, as it was a traditional symbol of French patriotism that could be used as an answer to the Nazis' swastika.
The filmmakers added topical references relevant to a 2006 audience. According to the Los Angeles Times, "With a wealth of new, real-life parallels to draw from in the areas of government surveillance, torture, fear mongering and media manipulation, not to mention corporate corruption and religious hypocrisy, you can't really blame the filmmakers for having a field day referencing current events." There are also references to an avian flu pandemic, as well as pervasive use of biometric identification and signal-intelligence gathering and analysis by the regime.
Film critics, political commentators and other members of the media have also noted the film's numerous references to events surrounding the George W. Bush administration in the United States. These include the hoods and sacks worn by the prisoners in Larkhill that have been seen as a reference to the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. The Homeland Security Advisory System and rendition are also referenced. One of the forbidden items in Gordon's secret basement is a protest poster with a mixed U.S.–U.K. flag with a swastika and the title "Coalition of the Willing, To Power" which combines the "Coalition of the Willing" with Friedrich Nietzsche's concept of Will to Power.
Despite the America-specific references, the filmmakers have always referred to the film as adding dialogue to a set of issues much broader than the U.S. administration. When James McTeigue was asked whether or not BTN was based on Fox News Channel, McTeigue replied, "Yes. But not just Fox. Everyone is complicit in this kind of stuff. It could just as well been the Britain's Sky News Channel, also a part of News Corp."
The film was made by many of the same filmmakers involved in The Matrix series. In 1988, producer Joel Silver acquired the rights to two of Alan Moore's works: V for Vendetta and Watchmen. After the release and relative success of Road House, writer Hilary Henkin was brought on to flesh out the project with an initial draft – one that bears little, if any, relation to the finished product, with the inclusion of overtly satirical and surrealistic elements not present in the graphic novel, as well as the removal of much of the novel's ambiguity, especially in regard to V's identity. The Wachowskis were fans of V for Vendetta and in the mid-1990s, before working on The Matrix, wrote a draft screenplay that closely followed the graphic novel. During the post-production of the second and third The Matrix films, they revisited the screenplay and offered the director's role to James McTeigue. All three were intrigued by the original story's themes and found them to be relevant to the current political landscape. Upon revisiting the screenplay, the Wachowskis set about making revisions to condense and modernise the story, while at the same time attempting to preserve its integrity and themes. James McTeigue cites the film The Battle of Algiers as his principal influence in preparing to film V for Vendetta.
Moore explicitly disassociated himself from the film due to his lack of involvement in its writing or directing, as well as due to a continuing series of disputes over film adaptations of his work. He ended cooperation with his publisher, DC Comics, after its corporate parent, Warner Bros., failed to retract statements about Moore's supposed endorsement of the film. Moore said that the script contained plot holes and that it ran contrary to the theme of his original work, which was to place two political extremes (fascism and anarchism) against one another. He argues his work had been recast as a story about "current American neo-conservatism vs. current American liberalism". Per his wishes, Moore's name does not appear in the film's closing credits. Co-creator and illustrator David Lloyd supports the film adaptation, commenting that the script is very good but that Moore would only ever be truly happy with a complete book-to-screen adaptation.
V for Vendetta was filmed in London, United Kingdom, and in Potsdam, Germany, at Babelsberg Studios. Much of the film was shot on sound stages and indoor sets, with location work done in Berlin for three scenes: the Norsefire rally flashback, Larkhill, and Bishop Lilliman's bedroom. The scenes that took place in the abandoned London Underground were filmed at the disused Aldwych tube station. Filming began in early March 2005 and principal photography officially wrapped in early June 2005. V for Vendetta is the final film shot by cinematographer Adrian Biddle, who died of a heart attack on December 7, 2005.
To film the final scene at Westminster, the area from Trafalgar Square and Whitehall up to Parliament and Big Ben had to be closed for three nights from midnight until 5 am. This was the first time the security-sensitive area (home to 10 Downing Street and the Ministry of Defence) had ever been closed to accommodate filming. Prime Minister (at the time of filming) Tony Blair's son, Euan, worked on the film's production and is said (according to an interview with Stephen Fry) to have helped the filmmakers obtain the unparalleled filming access. This drew criticism of Blair from MP David Davis due to the film's content. However, the filmmakers denied Euan Blair's involvement in the deal, stating that access was acquired through nine months of negotiations with fourteen different government departments and agencies.
The film was designed to have a future-retro look, with heavy use of grey tones to give a dreary, stagnant feel to totalitarian London. The largest set created for the film was the Shadow Gallery, which was made to feel like a cross between a crypt and an undercroft. The Gallery is V's home as well as the place where he stores various artefacts forbidden by the government. Some of the works of art displayed in the gallery include The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian, a Mildred Pierce poster, St. Sebastian by Andrea Mantegna, The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse and statues by Giacometti. One of the major challenges in the film was how to bring V to life from under an expressionless mask. Thus, considerable effort was made to bring together lighting, acting, and Weaving's voice to create the proper mood for the situation. In order to prevent the mask from muffling Weaving's voice, a microphone was placed in his hairline to aid post-production, when his entire dialogue was re-recorded.
The cast and filmmakers attended several press conferences that allowed them to address issues surrounding the film, including its authenticity, Alan Moore's reaction to it and its intended political message. The film was intended to be a departure from some of Moore's original themes. In the words of Hugo Weaving: "Alan Moore was writing about something which happened some time ago. It was a response to living in Thatcherite Britain... This is a response to the world in which we live today. So I think that the film and the graphic novel are two separate entities." Regarding the film's controversial political content, the filmmakers have said that the film is intended more to raise questions and add to a dialogue already present in society, rather than provide answers or tell viewers what to think.
The film adopts extensive imagery from the 1605 Gunpowder Plot, in which a group of Catholic conspirators plotted to destroy the then Houses of Parliament in order to spark a revolution in England. The film was originally scheduled for release on the weekend of November 5, 2005, the Plot's 400th anniversary, with the tag line "Remember, remember the 5th of November", taken from a traditional British rhyme memorialising the event. However, the marketing angle lost much of its value when the release date was pushed back to March 17, 2006. Many have speculated that the delay was caused by the London tube bombing on the July 7 and the failed July 21 bombing. The filmmakers have denied this, saying that the delays were due to the need for more time to finish the visual effects production. V for Vendetta had its first major premiere on February 13 at the Berlin Film Festival. It opened for general release on March 17, 2006 in 3,365 cinemas in the United States, the United Kingdom and six other countries.
By December 2006, V for Vendetta had grossed $132,511,035, of which $70,511,035 was from the United States. The film led the U.S. box office on its opening day, taking in an estimated $8,742,504, and remained the number one film for the remainder of the weekend, taking in an estimated $25,642,340. Its closest rival, Failure to Launch, took in $15,604,892. The film debuted at number one in the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden and Taiwan. V for Vendetta also opened in 56 IMAX cinemas in North America, grossing $1.36 million during the opening three days.
The critical reception of the film was generally positive. Ebert and Roeper gave the film a "two thumbs up" rating. Roger Ebert stated that V for Vendetta "almost always has something going on that is actually interesting, inviting us to decode the character and plot and apply the message where we will". Margaret Pomeranz and David Stratton from At the Movies stated that despite the problem of never seeing Weaving's face, there was good acting and an interesting plot, adding that the film is also disturbing, with scenes reminiscent of Nazi Germany. Jonathan Ross from the BBC blasted the film, calling it a "woeful, depressing failure" and stating that the "cast of notable and familiar talents such as John Hurt and Stephen Rea stand little chance amid the wreckage of the Wachowski siblings' dismal script and its particularly poor dialogue." Sean Burns of Philadelphia Weekly gave the film a 'D', criticizing the film's treatment of its political message as being "fairly dim, adolescent stuff," as well as expressing dislike for the "barely decorated sets with television-standard overlit shadow-free cinematography by the late Adrian Biddle. The film is a visual insult." On Alan Moore removing his name from the project, Burns says "it's not hard to see why," as well as criticising Portman's performance: "Portman still seems to believe that standing around with your mouth hanging open constitutes a performance." Harry Guerin from the Irish TV network RTÉ states the film "works as a political thriller, adventure and social commentary and it deserves to be seen by audiences who would otherwise avoid any/all of the three". He added that the film will become "a cult favourite whose reputation will only be enhanced with age." Andy Jacobs for the BBC gave the film two stars out of five, remarking that it is "a bit of a mess... it rarely thrills or engages as a story."
V for Vendetta received few awards, although at the 2007 Saturn Awards Natalie Portman won the Best Actress award. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a 73% "Certified Fresh" approval rating. The film was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form in 2007. V was included on Fandomania 's list of The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters. Empire magazine (in 2008) named the film the 418th greatest movie of all time.
V for Vendetta deals with issues of homosexuality, criticism of religion, totalitarianism, Islamophobia and terrorism. Its controversial story line and themes have been the target of both criticism and praise from sociopolitical groups.
On April 17, 2006 the New York Metro Alliance of Anarchists organised a protest against DC Comics and Time Warner, accusing it of watering down the story's original message in favour of violence and special effects. David Graeber, an anarchist scholar and former professor at Yale University, was not upset by the film. "I thought the message of anarchy got out in spite of Hollywood." However, Graeber went on to state: "Anarchy is about creating communities and democratic decision making. That's what is absent from Hollywood's interpretation."
Film critic Richard Roeper dismissed right-wing Christian criticism of the film on the television show Ebert and Roeper, saying that V's terrorist label is applied in the film "by someone who's essentially Hitler, a dictator."
LGBT commentators have praised the film for its positive depiction of homosexuals. Sarah Warn of AfterEllen.com called the film "one of the most pro-gay ever". Warn went on to praise the central role of the character Valerie "not just because it is beautifully acted and well-written, but because it is so utterly unexpected [in a Hollywood film]."
David Walsh from the World Socialist Web Site criticises V's actions as "antidemocratic," calling the film an example of "the bankruptcy of anarcho-terrorist ideology;" Walsh writes that because the people have not played any part in the revolution, they will be unable to produce a "new, liberated society."
Clay Duke, the perpetrator of the 2010 Panama City school board shootings, was reportedly obsessed with the film V for Vendetta. Prior to the shootings and his eventual suicide, Duke spray-painted a red V inside a red circle, a supposed allusion to his fascination with the graphic novel.
The film was broadcast on China's national TV station, China Central Television (CCTV) on December 16, 2012, surprising many viewers. While many believed that the government had banned the film, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television stated that it was not aware of a ban; CCTV makes its own decisions on whether to censor foreign films. Liu Shanying, a political scientist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences who used to work for CCTV, speculated that the showing indicated that Chinese film censorship might be loosened.
The film's story was adapted from Alan Moore's graphic novel V for Vendetta; this was originally published between 1982 and 1985 in the British comic anthology Warrior, and then reprinted and completed by DC. Moore's comics were later compiled into a graphic novel and published again in the United States under DC's Vertigo imprint and in the United Kingdom under Titan Books.
There are several fundamental differences between the film and the original source material. For example, the comic is set in the 1990s, while the film is set sometime between 2028 and 2038: Alan Moore's original story was created as a response to British Thatcherism in the early '80s and was set as a conflict between a fascist state and anarchism, while the film's story has been changed by the Wachowskis to fit a modern political context. Alan Moore, however, charged that in doing so, the story has turned into an American-centric conflict between liberalism and neo-conservatism, and abandons the original anarchist-fascist themes. Moore states, "There wasn't a mention of anarchy as far as I could see. The fascism had been completely defanged. I mean, I think that any references to racial purity had been excised, whereas actually, fascists are quite big on racial purity." Furthermore, in the original story, Moore attempted to maintain moral ambiguity, and not to portray the fascists as caricatures, but as realistic, rounded characters. The time limitations of a film meant that the story had to omit or streamline some of the characters, details, and plotlines from the original story. Chiefly, the original graphic novel has the fascists elected legally and kept in power through the general apathy of the public whereas the film introduces the "St. Mary's virus," a biological weapon engineered and released by the Norsefire Party as a means of clandestinely gaining control over their own country.
Many of the characters from the graphic novel underwent significant changes for the film. V is characterised in the film as a romantic freedom fighter who shows concern over the loss of innocent life. However, in the graphic novel, he is portrayed as ruthless, willing to kill anyone who gets in his way. Evey Hammond's transformation as V's protégée is also much more drastic in the novel than in the film. At the beginning of the film, she is already a confident woman with a hint of rebellion in her; in the graphic novel she starts off as an insecure, desperate young woman forced into prostitution. V and Evey's relationship, though not as obvious in the book, ends in the film with pledges of love. In the graphic novel's finale, she not only carries out V's plans as she does in the film, but also clearly takes on V's identity. In the film, Inspector Finch sympathizes with V but in the graphic novel, he is determined to stop V and goes as far as taking LSD in order to enter into a criminal's state of mind. Gordon, a very minor character in both adaptations, is also drastically changed. In the novel, Gordon is a small-time criminal who takes Evey into his home after V abandons her on the street. The two share a brief romance before Gordon is killed by a Scottish gang. In the film, however, Gordon is a well-mannered work colleague of Evey's, and is later revealed to be gay. He is arrested by fingermen for broadcasting a political parody on his TV programme but is later executed when a Quran is found in his possession.
V for Vendetta was released on DVD in the US on August 1, 2006 in three formats: a single-disc wide-screen version, a single-disc full-screen version, and a two-disc wide-screen special edition. DVD sales were successful, selling 1,412,865 DVD units in the first week of release which translated to $27,683,818 in revenue. By the end of 2006, 3,086,073 DVD units had been sold, bringing in slightly more than its production cost of $58,342,597. The single disc versions contain a short (15:56) behind-the-scenes featurette titled "Freedom! Forever! Making V for Vendetta" and the film's theatrical trailer, whereas the two-disc special edition contains three additional documentaries, and several extra features for collectors. On the second disc of the special edition, a short Easter egg clip of Natalie Portman on Saturday Night Live can be viewed by selecting the picture of wings on the second page of the menu. The film has also been released on the HD DVD high definition format, which features a unique 'in-film experience' created exclusively for the disc. Warner Bros. later released the video on Blu-Ray, on May 20, 2008. The film also saw release on Sony's PSP UMD format.
The V for Vendetta soundtrack was released by Astralwerks Records on March 21, 2006. The original scores from the film's composer, Dario Marianelli, make up most of the tracks on the album. The soundtrack also features three vocals played during the film: "Cry Me a River" by Julie London, a cover of The Velvet Underground song, "I Found a Reason" by Cat Power and "I Am a Bird Now" by Antony and the Johnsons. As mentioned in the film, these songs are samples of the 872 blacklisted tracks on V's Wurlitzer jukebox that V "reclaimed" from the Ministry of Objectionable Materials. The climax of Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture appears at the end of the track "Knives and Bullets (and Cannons too)". The Overture's finale is played at key parts at the beginning and end of the film.
Three songs were played during the ending credits which were not included on the V for Vendetta soundtrack. The first was "Street Fighting Man" by the Rolling Stones. The second was a special version of Ethan Stoller's "BKAB". In keeping with revolutionary tone of the film, excerpts from "On Black Power" (also in "A Declaration of Independence") by black nationalist leader Malcolm X, and from "Address to the Women of America" by feminist writer Gloria Steinem were added to the song. Gloria Steinem can be heard saying: "This is no simple reform... It really is a revolution. Sex and race, because they are easy and visible differences, have been the primary ways of organising human beings into superior and inferior groups and into the cheap labour on which this system still depends." The final song was "Out of Sight" by Spiritualized.
Also in the film were segments from two of Antonio Carlos Jobim's classic bossa nova songs, "The Girl From Ipanema" and "Quiet Nights of Quiet Stars". These songs were played during the "breakfast scenes" with V and Deitrich and were one of the ways used to tie the two characters together. Beethoven's Symphony No.5 also plays an important role in the film, with the first four notes of the first movement signifying the letter "V" in Morse code. Gordon Deitrich's Benny Hill-styled comedy sketch of Chancellor Sutler includes the "Yakety Sax" theme. Inspector Finch's alarm clock begins the morning of November 4 with the song "Long Black Train" by Richard Hawley, which contains the foreshadowing lyrics "Ride the long black train... take me home black train."
The original graphic novel by Moore and Lloyd was re-released as a hardback collection in October 2005 to tie into the film's original release date of November 5, 2005. The film renewed interest in Alan Moore's original story, and sales of the original graphic novel rose dramatically in the United States.
A novelisation of the film, written by Steve Moore and based on the Wachowskis script, was published by Pocket Star on January 31, 2006. Spencer Lamm, who has worked with the Wachowskis, created a "behind-the-scenes" book. Titled V for Vendetta: From Script to Film, it was published by Universe on August 22, 2006.
As well as promotional items created to publicise the film (which included a shoulder bag and bust of "V"'s Guy Fawkes mask), replicas of the mask and action figures were released. Figures released by NECA include a 12-inch (30 cm) action figure which speaks phrases from the film, a 12-inch resin statue and a seven-inch (17 cm) figure.
Semi-official V costumes have been created for Halloween. These range from the full costume of cape, hat, mask and dagger-belt, to various individual aspects — gloves, hat, mask, hair and daggers. All are available separately or in combinations.
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