Use of capital punishment by country

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The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country.

Capital punishment in the world (by country not by population)[edit]

Capital punishment has been used in almost every part of the world, but in the last few decades many countries have abolished it. Usage of capital punishment is usually broken into the four categories set out below. Of the 195 independent states that are UN members or have UN observer status:

The information above is accurate as of 2013 when Chad, DR Congo, Cuba, Qatar, and Zimbabwe became de facto abolitionist countries because they had carried out no executions for ten years.

Legend
  Abolished for all crimes (100)
  Abolished for all crimes except under exceptional/special circumstances (such as crimes committed in wartime) (7)
  Abolished in practice (under a moratorium or haven't used capital punishment in at least 10 years) (48)
  Retainers of the death penalty (40)

Africa[edit]

Of the 54 independent states in Africa that are UN members:

The information above is accurate as of 2013 when Chad, DR Congo, and Zimbabwe all became de facto abolitionist countries because they had carried out no executions for ten years.

Executions in Africa in 2010: Libya (18+), Somalia (8+), Sudan (6+), Egypt (4), Equatorial Guinea (4), Botswana (1)[2]
Executions in Africa in 2011: Sudan (7+), Somalia (10), South Sudan (5+), Egypt (1+)

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.svg icon.

KeyCountryYear of last executionExecutions 2012[6]Year abolishedNotes
 Algeria1993n/aDeath penalty for treason; espionage; attempts to change the regime or actions aimed at incitement; destruction of territory; sabotage to public and economic utilities; massacres and slaughters; participation in armed bands or in insurrectionary movements; counterfeiting; Terrorism; acts of torture or cruelty; kidnapping; aggravated theft, currently under a moratorium.

A project of abolition is being tabled in Parliament in Algeria by Louisa Hanoune and Ahmed Ouyahia since the summer of 2008.

 Angola*None since independence in 19751992Abolished in 1992 by Constitution.
 Benin19872012On 6 July 2012 Benin acceded to the Second Additional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This makes Benin abolitionist because under Article 1, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Covenant, “No one within the jurisdiction of a State Party to the present Protocol shall be executed,” and “Each State Party shall take all necessary measures to abolish the death penalty within its jurisdiction.” (Sources: un.org, 05/07/2012)[7]
 Botswana2013[8]2n/aHanging. Death penalty for murder; treason; attempt on the life of the head of state; mutiny; desertion in the face of the enemy
 Burkina Faso1988n/aDeath penalty for treason[9]
 Burundi2000[10]2009[11]
 Cameroon1997[12]n/aDeath penalty for secession; espionage; incitement to war[13]
 Cape Verde*None since independence in 19751981Last execution when a colony of Portugal was 1835. Abolished in 1981 by Constitution.
 Central African Republic1981n/aDeath penalty for treason; espionage; charlatanism; witchcraft; assassination; murder[14]
 Chad2003[15]n/aDeath penalty for murder
 Comoros1997[16]n/a
 Democratic Republic of the Congo2003[17]n/a
 Congo1982n/a
 Ivory Coast*None since independence in 1960[18]2000
 Djibouti*None since independence in 19771995
 Egypt2011n/aHanging or firing squad. Death penalty for Rape, if accompanied by kidnapping of the victim; murder; treason; organized drug trafficking
 Equatorial Guinea2010[19]n/a
 Eritrea*None since independence in 1993n/aLast execution when part of Ethiopia was 1989.
 Ethiopia2007[20]n/aDeath penalty for murder, Treason, armed conspiracy, genocide, outrages against the constitution
 Gabon1981[21]2010[22]Abolition was made in February 2010, according to Hands Off Cain press release of 14 February 2011
 Gambia2012[23]9n/aDeath penalty for treason. Abolished 1993 but was reinstated by Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council in August 1995[18]
 Ghana1993n/aDeath penalty for murder; treason; armed robbery[18]
 Guinea-Bissau19861993Abolished 1993 by constitution.
 Guinea2001[24]n/aDeath penalty for murder
 Kenya1987n/aDeath penalty for murder, armed robbery,[25] treason. On 3 August 2009, the death sentences of all 4,000 death row inmates were commuted to life imprisonment, and government studies were ordered to determine if the death penalty has any impact on crime.
 Lesotho1984n/a
 Liberia1995[18]n/aDeath penalty for armed robbery, terrorism, hijacking. On 16 September 2005, Liberia acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty, but re-introduced elements of it in July 2008.[26][27]
 Libya2010[28]n/aLibya executed more people (18) in 2010 than any other African state. Current laws allow capital punishment for high treason; attempt to forcibly change the form of government; premeditated murder[29]
 Madagascar*None since independence in 19602012On 24 September 2012 Madagascar signed the Second Additional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This will make Madagascar abolitionist (pending ratification).[30] Last execution when a colony of France was in 1958.
 Malawi1992[31]n/a
 Mali1980n/a
 Mauritania1987n/aDeath penalty for Sodomy;[32] apostasy[33] (no recorded executions).
 Mauritius19871995
 Morocco1993n/aDeath penalty for Terrorism.[25] An abolition law project is being presented to the Parliament of Morocco in spring 2007. (see Human rights in Morocco#Capital punishment)
 Mozambique19861990Abolished November 1990 by Constitution.
 Namibia*None since independence in 19901990Last execution when occupied by South Africa was in 1988. Abolished March 1990 by Constitution.
 Niger1976n/a
 Nigeria2013[34]n/aDeath penalty for sodomy,[35] kidnapping. Each of the 36 states has its own laws. In the north of the country, Sharia (Islamic law) is used. In Imo State, a bill that provided capital punishment for kidnapping was signed into law. Southern states of Nigeria have imposed a moratorium on the death penalty since 2004.[36]
 Rwanda19982007[37]Since some of the perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide fled to countries that refuse to extradite suspects to countries that use capital punishment, the Rwandan parliament voted to abolish capital punishment in 2007.
 São Tomé and Príncipe*None since independence in 19751990Abolished September 1990 by Constitution.
 Senegal19672004
 Seychelles*None since independence in 19761993Abolished June 1993 by Constitution.
 Sierra Leone1998n/aDeath penalty for treason;[38] Murder; aggravated robbery. Under the Special Court for Sierra Leone the death penalty is not a punishment for war crimes
 Somalia2013[39]6n/aHanging; Firing squad; Stoning. Somalia is the only African state that continues to carry out public executions. The Transitional Federal Government laws allow for execution (in the limited area of the country it controls) for murder and adultery.
 South Africa19891995[40]The last execution by the South African government was on 14 November 1989. An execution occurred in the internationally unrecognised "homeland" of Venda in 1991.[12] Capital punishment was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court on 6 June 1995 in the case of S v Makwanyane and Another. In 1997 the Criminal Law Amendment Act formally removed the invalidated provisions from the statute-book, and made provision for the resentencing of prisoners previously sentenced to death.[41] On 25 May 2005 the Constitutional Court ordered that all remaining death sentences in the country be set aside and the prisoners resentenced as soon as possible.[42]
 South Sudan2013[43]5n/aDeath penalty for treason; insurgency, banditry, sabotage or terrorism resulting in death; perjury in a capital case leading to wrongful execution; murder; attempted murder causing injury by a person sentenced to life for a previous murder; brigandage with murder; and drug dealing under aggravated circumstances.[44]
 Sudan2013[8]19n/aDeath penalty for sodomy;[45] Waging war against the state;[46] apostasy;[33] prostitution; treason; acts that may endanger the independence or unity of the state; murder; armed robbery; weapon possession and smuggling
 Swaziland1983[47]n/aDeath penalty for murder;[48] treason
 Tanzania1994n/aDeath penalty for murder; treason
 Togo1978[49]2009[50]
 Tunisia1991n/aDeath penalty for murder; violence and aggression; attacks against the internal security of the state; attacks against the external security of the state. Following the Jasmine Revolution the new interim government announced on 1 February 2011 that it would ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, including the Second Optional Protocol regarding the abolition of the death penalty.[51]
 Uganda2005[52]n/aDeath penalty for murder.[53] In 2009, the Supreme Court upheld a 2005 Constitutional Court ruling that although the death penalty was constitutional, its use as a mandatory punishment for certain crimes was not.[54]
 Zambia1997n/aDeath penalty for murder; aggravated robbery; high treason. President Levy Mwanawasa stated in 2004 that "For as long as I remain President, I will not execute a death warrant."[31] (He died in office in 2008.)
 Zimbabwe2003[55]n/aCurrent capital crimes are drug trafficking; treason; murder; mutiny.[56]

The Americas[edit]

Of the 35 independent states in the Americas that are UN members:

The information above is accurate as of 2013 when Cuba became a de facto abolitionist state by not having carried out an execution for ten years.

Executions in the Americas in 2010: United States (46).[2]
Executions in the Americas in 2011: United States (43), the only source of executions in the G8 countries or Western Hemisphere.[57]

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.svg icon.

KeyCountryYear of last executionExecutions 2012[6]Year abolishedNotes
 Antigua and Barbuda1991n/aDeath penalty for murder
 Argentina19162009Constitution states "The penalty of death for political offences, all kinds of torture, and flogging, are forever abolished."[58] The Military Code of Justice (including the death penalty) was abolished on 6 August 2008 and into law six months later.[59]
 Bahamas2000n/aDeath penalty for treason; Piracy; Murder
 Barbados1984[12]n/aDeath penalty for murder; Treason. Presently under review before the IACHR despite strong national support.[60][61]
 Belize1985[12]n/aDeath penalty for murder, except where extenuating circumstances can be proved[62]
 Bolivia19742007Abolished for ordinary crimes 1997.

"The death penalty does not exist"(Article 15).

 Brazil1876n/a

Brazil has always maintained the death penalty as part of its military code but capital punishment for civil offenses was abolished after Brazil became a republic in 1889, then reinstated and abolished again twice (1938–53 and 1969–78).[63][64][65][66] Only one person was ever sentenced to death during the Republican period, in 1969, and the execution was not carried out. The current Constitution of Brazil (1988) expressly forbids the use of capital punishment by the civil penal justice system.[67] For more information see Capital punishment in Brazil.

 Canada19621976Abolished in 1976 for ordinary criminal matters; abolished 1998 for military offences.

For more information see Capital punishment in Canada

 Chile1985n/aAbolished from civil justice in 2001.
 Colombia19091910Abolished in 1910
(by Constitutional reform)

Prohibited by the Colombian Constitution of 1991: "The right to life is inviolable. There will be no death penalty."

 Costa Rica1859[68]1877Abolished 1877 by Constitution.
 Cuba2003[69]n/aDeath penalty for murder, attempted murder, hijacking, acts of terrorism, treason, political offenses, child rape, molestation of a child under 12 years of age with aggaravating factors, rape of an adult with aggravating factors, rape of an adult that results in death, illness or griveous boidly harm, robbery with aggravating factors, drug offenses, production of child pornography, child trafficking, child prostitution, child corruption, piracy, . Abolitionist De Facto. The last execution took place on April 11, 2003. According to the Cuban Government, Execution sentences are carried out by firing squad in local state prisons, at sunrise, usually taking place on a Friday. In 2008, all but three of the existing death sentences were commuted to prison sentences.[70]
 Dominica1986n/a
 Dominican Republic19661966Abolished in 1966 by Constitution.
 Ecuador18841906Abolished 1906
(by Constitution)

For more information see Capital punishment in Ecuador.

 El Salvador1973n/aMay be imposed only in cases provided by military laws during a state of international war.[71] Abolished for other crimes 1983.
 Grenada1978n/a
 Guatemala2000[72]n/aLethal injection.
 Haiti19721987Abolished 1987 by Constitution.
 Guyana1997n/aDeath penalty for terrorist acts;[73] Murder; mass murder; rape; willful murder; treason; torture. The constitution states that it must not be a mandatory punishment.
 Honduras19401956Abolished 1956 by Constitution.
 Jamaica1988[74]n/aDeath penalty for murder[75]
 Mexico1961 – Military
1937 – Civilian
2005Abolished for all crimes in 2005.[76]

See Capital punishment in Mexico.

 Nicaragua19301979Abolished 1979 by Constitution
 Panama*None since independence in 19031903Abolished 1903 by Constitution.
 Paraguay19281992Abolished 1992
(by Constitution)
 Peru1979n/aDeath penalty for treason; terrorism; espionage; genocide; mutiny; desertion in times of war.[71] Abolished for other crimes 1979.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis2008[77]n/aDeath penalty for murder
 Saint Lucia1995n/aDeath penalty for murder; Treason
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1995n/aDeath penalty for murder; Treason
 Suriname1982n/aDeath penalty is de facto, but not de jure, as it was abolished by signing the treaty of San Jose in 1987. Aggravated or premeditated murder; treason[78] See Capital punishment in Suriname
 Trinidad and Tobago1999n/aDeath penalty for murder; Treason[79]
 United States2013[80]43varies by stateMethods vary by state, federal, and military policy, but includes lethal injection, hanging, firing squad, electric chair, and gas chamber. Federal law provides the death penalty for many homicide-related crimes; espionage; treason; drug trafficking.[81][82] As of March 2013, 32 of the 50 US states still exercise the death penalty. As of March 2013 bills proposing death penalty abolition are being considered by the legislatures of 13 states. Bills proposing re-instatement of the death penalty are being considered in three states.[83] Of the US non-state territories, US Samoa still has capital punishment as a local statute,[84] and the others have abolished it. In practice the death penalty is used only for murder-related charges. Sentences of death may be handed down by a jury or a judge (upon a bench trial or a guilty plea). See Capital punishment in the United States.
 Uruguay19051907Abolished 1907
(by Constitution)
 Venezuela*None since independence in 18301863Abolished in 1863
by Constitution

Asia-Pacific[edit]

Of the 57 independent countries in the Asia-Pacific region that are UN member or observer states: (Note - Taiwan is not recognized by the UN as a country so is not counted in the statistics below, although it is included for information in the Asia-Pacific table)

The information above is accurate as of 2013 when Qatar became de facto abolitionist by not having carried out an execution for 10 years.

According to Amnesty International:

Executions in Asia in 2010: China (2000+), Iran (252+), North Korea (60+), Yemen (53+), Saudi Arabia (27+), Syria (17+), Bangladesh (9+), Taiwan (4), Japan (2), Iraq (1+), Singapore (1+), Malaysia (1+), Vietnam (5+), Bahrain (1).[2]

Executions in Asia in 2011: China (2000+), Iran (360+), Saudi Arabia (82+), Iraq (68+), Yemen (41+), North Korea (30+), Bangladesh (5+), Taiwan (5), Vietnam (5+), Afghanistan (2), Malaysia (1+), Syria (1+), UAE (1).[3]

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.svg icon.

KeyCountryYear of last executionExecutions 2012[6]Year abolishedNotes
 Afghanistan2013[85]14n/aHanging; shooting. Current laws allow capital punishment for apostasy,[86] homosexuality, and murder.
 Australia1967[87]1985Capital punishment was abolished in Queensland in 1922, Tasmania in 1968, The Northern Territory; Australian Capital Territory and the Commonwealth in 1973, Victoria in 1975, South Australia in 1976, Western Australia in 1984 and New South Wales in 1985. For more information see Capital punishment in Australia.
 Bahrain2010[88]n/aDeath penalty for premeditated murder; plotting to topple the regime; collaborating with a foreign hostile country; threatening the life of the Emir; defiance of military orders in time of war or martial law
 Bangladesh20131n/aDeath penalty for murder;[89] drug offences;[90] sodomy, trafficking in children for immoral or illegal purposes; trafficking in women for purposes of prostitution, terrorism, rape, armed robbery, perjury causing wrongful execution, treason[91] and war crimes Death sentences are carried out by hanging.
 Bhutan1974[31]2004
 Brunei*None since independence in 1984n/aLast execution when a protectorate of Britain was in 1957. Death penalty for murder; unlawful possession of firearms and explosives; possession of heroin or morphine of more than 15 grams, cocaine of more than 30 grams, cannabis of more than 500 grams, syabu or methamphetamine of more than 50 grams, or opium of more than 1.2 kg[92] A new penal code announced for 2014 is expected to introduce the death penalty for Muslim adulterers.[93]
 Cambodia19891989Abolished in 1989 by Constitution.
 China2013[94]2000+[3]n/aShooting; Lethal injection. China carries out far more executions than all of the rest of the world combined, and is notable as the only country in the world that regularly executes thousands of people every year.[95] On 25 February 2011 China's newly revised Criminal Law reduced the number of crimes punishable by death by 13,from 68 to 55.[96] Among these are embezzlement; rape of children; fraud; bombing; people trafficking; piracy; rape; corruption; arson; murder; poaching; endangerment of national security; terrorism[97] (see Capital punishment in the People's Republic of China)

 Hong Kong and  Macau, have separate legal systems and have abolished the death penalty. In Hong Kong it was abolished in 1993 by the then British colonial government, and last used in 1966 (see Capital punishment in Hong Kong). In Macau it was last used in the 19th century and abolished in 1976 when Portugal abolished the death penalty on all its territories (see Capital punishment in Macau).

 Fiji*None since independence in 1970n/aLast execution when a colony of Britain was in 1964. Death penalty only for crimes under the Republic of Fiji Military Forces Act. Abolished for other crimes 1979.
 India2013[98]1n/aHanging. Death penalty for murder; instigating a child's suicide; treason; acts of terrorism; a second conviction for drug trafficking, aircraft hijacking, aggravated robbery, treason, aggravated rape and drug smuggling under aggravated circumstances. For more information see Capital punishment in India
 Indonesia2013[99]n/aFiring squad. Death penalty for murder; Drug trafficking;[31] Terrorism;[100]

Capital punishment is regulated by state Law No. 2/1964, which stipulates that death sentences should be carried out by firing squad.[101]

 Iran2013[102]314n/aFiring squad; hanging; stoning. Iran is second only to China in the number of executions it carries out—regularly killing hundreds every year (many in public)[95] Currently the death penalty can be given for murder; armed robbery; drug trafficking; kidnapping; rape; paedophilia; homosexuality; espionage; terrorism; apostasy (no recorded executions)
 Iraq2013[103]129n/aHanging. Death penalty for murder; endangering national security; distributing drugs; rape; attacks on transport convoys; financing and execution of terrorism.[104] Suspended in June 2003 after 2003 invasion; reinstated August 2004.[105][106] A total of 447 people were executed between then and the end of March 2013, with 129 in 2012 alone.[107]
 Israel1962n/aHanging; firing squad. Death penalty for crimes against humanity,[108] high treason, genocide, and crimes against the Jewish people during wartime. Only two executions: accused traitor Meir Tobiansky (posthumously acquitted) and high-ranking Nazi Adolf Eichmann. Abolished for other crimes 1954.
 Japan2013[109]7n/aHanging. Prosecutors push for the death penalty only in the case of multiple murders, or single murder with aggravating circumstances.[110] Judges usually impose death penalty in case of multiple homicides. Between 1946 and 2003 766 people were sentenced to death, 608 of whom were executed. For 40 months from 1989 to 1993 successive ministers of justice refused to authorise executions, which amounted to an informal moratorium. (See Capital punishment in Japan)
 Jordan2006[111]n/aDeath penalty for murder[112]
 Kazakhstan2003[113]n/aCurrently capital punishment for terrorism and crimes in wartime.[114] Moratorium since 17 December 2003. Abolished on 30 July 2009 for other crimes[115] On 28 March 2011 the Presidential Commission for Human Rights in Astana asked the government to abolish capital punishment.[116]
 North Korea2013[117]6n/aFiring squad. North Korea performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for prostitution;[118] “drug transactions”; plots against national sovereignty; terrorism; treason against the Motherland by citizens; treason against the people; murder, rape, armed robbery & grand theft.[119]
 South Korea1997[120]n/aDeath penalty for murder.[121] There has been an unofficial moratorium on executions since President Kim Dae-jung took office in February 1998.[122] Three bills to abolish the death penalty are currently awaiting consideration by the Legislation and Judiciary Committee in South Korea’s National Assembly.
 Kiribati*None since independence in 19791979
 Kuwait2013[123]n/aDeath penalty for drug trafficking; rape; murder
 Kyrgyzstan*None since independence in 19912007Kyrgyz authorities had extended a moratorium on executions each year since 1998. Abolished by constitution in 2007[124][125]
 Laos1989n/aDeath penalty for murder, terrorism, treason[126]
 Lebanon2004[127]n/aHanging; Firing squad. Death penalty for murder[128]
 Malaysia2011n/aHanging. Death penalty mandatory for trafficking in dangerous drugs; discharging a firearm in the commission of a scheduled offense; accomplices in case of discharge of firearm; offenses against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong’s person; murder. Discretionary for kidnapping; consorting with a person carrying or having possession of arms or explosives; waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri[129]
 Maldives*None since independence in 1965n/aLast execution when a colony of Britain was in 1952. Death penalty for murder[130]
 Marshall Islands*None since independence in 19861986Abolished in 1986
by Constitution
 Mongolia20082012After two years under an official moratorium, the State Great Khural had in 2012 formally acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This makes Mongolia abolitionist because under Article 1, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Covenant, “No one within the jurisdiction of a State Party to the present Protocol shall be executed,” and “Each State Party shall take all necessary measures to abolish the death penalty within its jurisdiction.” (See: Capital punishment in Mongolia)
 Federated States of Micronesia*None since independence in 19861986Abolished in 1986
by Constitution
 Myanmar1993n/aDeath penalty for murder, terrorism, high treason[131]
 Nauru*None since independence in 1968n/aDeath penalty for treason; Piracy; Murder
   Nepal19791997Abolished 1997 by Constitution.
 New Zealand19572007Abolished in New Zealand in 1989. In 2007 the Cook Islands became the last of New Zealand`s overseas territories to abolish capital punishment. For more information see Capital punishment in New Zealand
 Oman2007n/aDeath penalty for murder; Drug trafficking[132]
 Pakistan20121n/aHanging. Death penalty for murder, drug smuggling, terrorism, rape, unlawful assembly and blasphemy. (See Capital punishment in Pakistan)
 Palau*None since independence in 19941994
 Palestine2013 [133]6n/a
 Papua New Guinea*None since independence in 1975[134]n/aLast execution when under Australian administration in November 1954. Treason; Piracy; Attempted piracy; willful murder. Papua New Guinea voted in 2013 to introduce the death penalty for crimes such as rape, robbery and sorcery-related murder.[135] For more information, see Capital punishment in Papua New Guinea.
 Philippines1999[136]2006Abolished in 1987 under the present constitution, re-introduced in 1993, re-abolished on June 24, 2006 under Republic Act No. 9346. There are some organizations that want the re-introduction of the death penalty.[137][full citation needed]
 Qatar2003[138]n/aDeath penalty for espionage;[139] Threat to national security;[140] Apostasy[33](no recorded executions)
 Samoa*None since independence in 19622004[141]
 Saudi Arabia2013[142]79n/aDecapitation. Saudi Arabia performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for many violent and nonviolent offenses, including murder; apostasy (no recorded executions); drug trafficking; rape and armed robbery;[143] drug offenses; witchcraft; sexual misconduct. Method most often used is beheading by a sword. Bodies may be put on public display.
 Singapore2010[2]n/aHanging. Death penalty for murder; kidnapping; treason; certain firearm offenses; trafficking in more than 15 grams of heroin or morphine, 30 grams of cocaine or 500 grams of cannabis[144] (see capital punishment in Singapore)
 Solomon Islands*None since independence in 19781978
 Sri Lanka1976n/aDeath penalty for murder; perjury causing an innocent person to be executed; rape; drug trafficking. Moratorium since 1976.
 Syria2012[145]n/aHanging. Syria performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for treason; murder; political acts such as bearing arms against Syria in the ranks of the enemy, desertion of the armed forces to the enemy and acts of incitement under martial law or in wartime; violent robbery; rape; membership of the Muslim Brotherhood; drug trafficking
 Tajikistan2004n/aDeath penalty for murder with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; biocide; genocide.[146] Moratorium introduced 30 April 2004 by President Emomalii Rahmon
 Taiwan20136n/aSingle gunshot to the head or heart. Death penalty for treason; espionage; hijacking; murder; robbery with murder, rape, or arson; piracy; kidnapping. Between 2006–2010 death sentences were not carried out (see Capital punishment in Taiwan). Executions resumed in 2010. On 3 May 2011 Taiwan removed the death penalty clauses from its Military Law statutes[147]
 Thailand2009[148]n/aDeath penalty for regicide; sedition or rebellion; offenses committed against the external security of Thailand; murder or attempted murder of a foreign head of state; bribery; arson; rape; murder with intent; kidnapping; robbery resulting in death. For a full list see here (PDF)
 Timor-Leste*None since independence in 20022002.[149]Death penalty suspended following UN administration in 1999 when still a province of Indonesia. Capital Punishment abolished by constitution 2002.[149]
 Tonga1982[12]n/aHanging. Death penalty for treason, Murder. See Capital punishment in Tonga
 Turkmenistan19971999Abolished 1999 by Constitution.
 Tuvalu*None since independence in 19781978
 United Arab Emirates2011[150]1n/aDeath penalty by firing squad for murder; drug offenses;[151] rape; treason; aggravated robbery; terrorism
 Uzbekistan2005[152]2008President Islam Karimov signed a decree on 1 August 2005 that replaced the death penalty with life imprisonment on 1 January 2008[153]
 Vanuatu*None since independence in 19801980
 Vietnam2013 [154]n/aLethal injection. Death penalty for treason; taking action to overthrow the government; espionage; rebellion; banditry; terrorism; sabotage; hijacking; destruction of national security projects; undermining peace; war crimes; crimes against humanity; manufacturing, concealing and trafficking in narcotic substances; murder; rape; robbery; embezzlement; fraud[155]
 Yemen2013[156]28n/aShooting. Yemen performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for murder;[157] Adultery;[158] homosexuality;[32][159] Apostasy[33] (no recorded executions)

Europe[edit]

Of the 49 independent states in Europe that are UN members or have UN Observer status:

The information above is accurate as of 2012 when Latvia abolished capital punishment in all circumstances.

Executions in Europe in 2010: Belarus (2).[2]
Executions in Europe in 2011: Belarus (2)

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.svg icon.

KeyCountryYear of last executionExecutions 2012[6]Year abolishedNotes
 Albania1995[160]2007Ratification of Protocol No. 13 of ECHR took place on 6 February 2007, in effect by 1 June 2007.[161]
 Andorra19431990Abolished 1990 by Constitution
 Armenia*None since independence in 19911998Abolished in 1998 by Constitution. The last execution when Armenia was a part of the USSR was on 30 August 1991.
 Austria19501968Abolished in peacetime 1950. Completely abolished in 1968 by Constitution.
 Azerbaijan19931998
 Belarus2012[162]3n/aShooting. Belarus is the last remaining country in Europe to practice the death penalty. Current laws allow capital punishment for acts of aggression; murder of a representative of a foreign state or international organization with the intention to provoke international tension or war; international terrorism; genocide; crimes against the security of humanity; murder with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; terrorist acts; treason that results in loss of life; conspiracy to seize power; sabotage; murder of a police officer; use of weapons of mass destruction; and violations of the laws and customs of war.[163] See Capital punishment in Belarus.
 Belgium19501996Last execution for common law crimes was in 1863. Last execution for war crimes was in 1950. Abolished 1996 by Penal Code; since 2005 in Constitution.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina*None since independence in 19921998Last execution when part of Yugoslavia was in 1975. Abolished 1998 by Constitution
 Bulgaria19891998
 Cyprus19622002Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1983.
 Croatia*None since independence in 19911991Last execution when part of Yugoslavia was in 1987.[164] Abolished in 1990 for the Croatian Yugoslav Republic by the Constitution. Upon declaration of independence in 1991 Croatia removed itself from the jurisdiction of the Federal Yugoslav capital punishment statutes effectively achieving complete abolition.

Death penalty is prohibited by the article 21 of the Croatian Constitution.[165]

 Czech Republic*None since independence in 19931993Last execution when part of Czechoslovakia was in June 1989. Abolished 1990 by the Constitution when still a constituent part of Czechoslovakia. Upon independence on 1 January 1993 the Czech Republic became a new abolitionist state. For more info see Capital punishment in the Czech Republic.
 Denmark19501978Last execution for common law crimes 1892. Last execution for war crimes 1950. Capital punishment was retroactively carried out 1945–50 for crimes related to the German occupation in World War II, repealed in 1951 and confirmed in 1993. A similar rule was active 1952–1978 in the civil penalty law for war crimes committed under extreme circumstances. See Capital punishment in Denmark.
 Estonia19911998In Estonia the last execution took place on the 11th of September 1991 when Rein Oruste was shot with a bullet to the back of the head for the crime of murder.
 Finland19441972Last peacetime execution 1825. Last wartime execution 1944. Capital punishment was abolished on civilian crimes 1949 (all existing sentences commuted to life imprisonment) and on all crimes 1972. 1984 death penalty was outlawed in the Finnish Constitution. See Capital punishment in Finland.
 France19771981The death penalty was initially abolished by the Directory in 1795 but re-introduced by Napoleon in 1810. It was re-abolished in law in 1981 and by Constitution in 2007. See Capital punishment in France.
 Georgia1995[160]2006The death penalty was abolished for most offenses in 1997, but the constitution stated that the Supreme Court had the power to impose the death penalty in exceptionally serious cases of "crimes against life". On 27 December 2006, President Mikheil Saakashvili signed into a law a new constitutional amendment totally abolishing the death penalty in all circumstances
 Germany*None since reunification in 19901990Prohibited in West Germany by the Basic Law since 1949. US military authorities carried out an execution on West German territory in 1956. The now defunct GDR abolished the death penalty in 1987, the last execution was held in 1981.
 Greece19722001Abolished in 1994 (Law 2207/1994) except for high treason in time of war; abolished completely with the Constitutional amendment of 2001
 Hungary19881990Capital punishment was abolished in 1990 and the last execution was of Vadász Ernő on 14 July 1988 for murder.
 Iceland*None since independence in 1944[166]1928[167]Last execution in 1830 when a colony of Denmark.[166] Abolished in 1928;[167] reintroduction made unconstitutional in 1995 by unanimous vote of Parliament.[168]
 Ireland19541990See Capital punishment in Ireland. Abolished for most murders in 1964, and for remaining offences in 1990. Last death sentences passed in 1985; all since 1954 commuted to imprisonment. 2001 constitutional referendum prohibits reintroduction, even during state of emergency.
 Italy19471994On 30 November 1786 the Duchy of Tuscany (then independent, now a part of Italy) became the first state in the modern era to completely abolish the death penalty. The short lived Roman Republic of Feb–July 1849 abolished the death penalty before being overthrown by French troops. When the Kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861 all the constituent states except Tuscany allowed capital punishment until it was abolished from the penal code in 1889 – although it was maintained under military and colonial law. In 1926 Mussolini reintroduced the death penalty into Italian law. It was re-abolished from the penal code in 1944. Art. 27 of the Constitution of the Italian Republic (1948) completely abolished it for all common military and civil crimes during peacetime. The death penalty was still, formally, in force in Italy in the military penal code, only for high treachery against the Republic or only in war theatre perpetrated crimes (though no execution ever took place) until it was abolished completely from there as well, in 1994. Article 27 of Italian Constitution was changed, in 2007, to impede the reintroduction of death penalty in time of war too. See Capital punishment in Italy
 Latvia19962012Death penalty abolished for peacetime offenses 1999. Abolished for all crimes 2012.[169]
 Liechtenstein17851987
 Lithuania19951998
 Luxembourg19491979Abolished by Constitution 1979
 Macedonia*None since independence in 19911991Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1988.[160] Abolished by Constitution 1991.
 Malta*None since independence in 19642000Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1943. Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1971; part of the military code until 2000.
 Moldova*None since independence in 19912005Last execution when a part of the USSR was in 1985.[160] On 23 September 2005 the Moldovan Constitutional Court approved constitutional amendments that abolished the death penalty.[170]
 Monaco18471962Abolished by Constitution 1962
 Montenegro*None since independence in 20062006Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1992. Capital punishment abolished by Yugoslavia Federal Republic in 1995. When Montenegro declared independence in 2006 it became an abolitionist state.
 Netherlands19521982Last execution for peacetime offences 1860. Abolished for peacetime offences in 1870. Abolished in Netherlands by Constitution 1982. Last Netherlands overseas territory to abolish was Netherlands Antilles in 2010.[171]
 Norway19481979Abolished for peacetime offences in 1902, last execution for peacetime offences 1876. Last executions of wartime offenders conducted on 37 men convicted of treason in WWII in 1947–48.
 Poland19881997A criminal law reform including reintroduction of death penalty was proposed in 2004 by Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, but lost its first reading vote in the Sejm by 198 to 194 with 14 abstentions. It is said that this was only populism, as Poland was in the European Union and so this initiative hardly had a chance.[31]
 Portugal18461976Capital Punishment was abolished for political crimes in 1852 and civil crimes in 1867. It was completely abolished for all crimes in 1911, but reinstated in 1916 for treasonous offenses in time of war. It was completely abolished again in 1976.[172]
 Romania19891990[173]The last people to be convicted and executed in Romania were the former dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, following the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Their accusations ranged from crimes against humanity to high-treason. Abolished in 1990 and banned by Constitution in 1991
 Russia19962009 (severed)There have been 4 brief periods when Russia has completely abolished the death penalty, in the XVIII century Russian empress Yelizaveta Petrovna abolished it, but it was restored by the Next emperor, Peter III of Russia; then, on the 12 March 1917 to 12 July 1917 following the overthrow of the Tsar, 27 October 1917 to 16 June 1918 following the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks, and 1947–1950 after the end of the Second World War (Joseph Stalin abolished it in 1947, but he had restored it back in 1950, and for this short period, the strictest punishment in USSR was penal servitude in GULAG for 25 years). Currently the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation envisages the death penalty for five crimes: murder with aggravating circumstances, assassination attempt against a state or public figure, attempt on the life of a person administering justice or preliminary investigations, attempt on the life of a law-enforcement officer, and genocide.[174] On 16 April 1997 Russia signed the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, but has yet to ratify it. There has been a moratorium on executions since 1996; no executions in the Russian Federation since August 1996 (except one in 1999 in the Chechen Republic, a former limited recognition state). In November 2009, the Constitutional Court of Russia extended the moratorium indefinitely pending ratification of the Sixth Protocol. This has effectively severed death penalty provisions in the Criminal Code. See Capital punishment in Russia.
 San Marino14681865Capital Punishment was abolished for civil crimes in 1848. The Death penalty was completely abolished for all crimes in 1865.
 Serbia*None since independence in 20062006Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1992. Capital punishment abolished by Yugoslavia Federal Republic in 1995. When Serbia became independent in 2006 it became an abolitionist state.
 Slovakia*None since independence in 19931993Last execution when a part of Czechoslovakia was in 1989. Abolished 1990 by Constitution when still a constituent part of Czechoslovakia. Upon independence on 1 January 1993 Slovakia became a new abolitionist state.
 Slovenia*None since independence in 19911991Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1959. Abolished in Slovenian Yugoslav Republic 1989 by Constitution. Upon declaration of independence in 1991 Slovenia removed itself from the jurisdiction of the Federal Yugoslav capital punishment statutes effectively achieving complete abolition.
 Spain19751995Abolished in 1978 by constitution except for military laws during wartime. Abolished from the military penal code in 1995.[175]
 Sweden19101973Peacetime offences 1921, Wartime offences 1973. Constitutionally prohibited since 1975. See also capital punishment in Sweden.
  Switzerland19441992Capital Punishment was abolished in 1874, but reinstated in 1879. It was practiced by a few cantons (nine executions up to 1940). Abolished by popular vote in 1938, except for wartime military crimes, for which it was abolished in 1992. Banned by the 1999 constitution.
 Turkey19842004Abolished in 2004 by Constitution
 Ukraine1997[176]2000[177][178]Abolished February 2000 after the Constitutional Court ruled the death penalty unconstitutional in December 1999.[177][178] New criminal code passed in April 2000.[177][178][179]
 United Kingdom1977 (Bermuda)
1964 (UK)
1998Last execution in the UK was in 1964. The last execution on British Overseas Territory occurred in Bermuda in 1977. Abolished for murder in 1969 in Great Britain and 1973 in Northern Ireland. Abolished for all remaining offences (high treason, piracy with violence and offences under military jurisdiction) in UK in 1998. European Convention, Thirteenth Protocol ratified in 2003 confirming total abolition. See Capital punishment in the United Kingdom. The last British Territory or Crown Dependency to completely abolish capital punishment was Jersey on 10 December 2006 (see Capital punishment in Jersey).
  Vatican City1870[180]1969

Abolition chronology[edit]

The table below lists in chronological order the 100 independent states, that are either UN members or have UN observer status, that have completely abolished the death penalty. In the hundred years following the abolition of capital punishment by Venezuela in 1863 only 10 more countries were able to maintain abolition – although more tried but failed to prevent re-instatement after an initial abolition. From the 1960s there has been a growing momentum towards abolition worldwide. In the 1960s 4 countries abolished (a record up to that time for any decade), in the 1970s a limited momentum was achieved when 10 countries abolished, the 1980s saw a further 9 countries abolish, but it was the fall of Communism in 1989 which turned the trickle into a torrent – no fewer than 34 countries abolished in the 1990s, the individual years 1990 and 1998 are especially notable because 8 and 7 countries respectively abolished in those single years. This momentum is continuing as a further 26 countries abolished in the first decade of this century. Since 1985 there have been only three years when no country has abolished the death penalty, 1988, 2003 and 2011.

Note: Where a country has abolished, re-instated, and abolished again (e.g. Philippines, Switzerland, Portugal) only the later abolition date is included. Countries who have abolished and since reinstated (e.g. Liberia) are not included. Non-independent territories are considered to be under the jurisdiction of their parent country – which leads to unexpectedly late abolition dates for the UK, New Zealand and the Netherlands, where Jersey (UK), the Cook Is (NZ), and the Netherlands Antilles, were the last territories of those states to abolish capital punishment, and all were rather later than the more well known abolitions on the respective mainlands. Defunct countries such as the GDR (East Germany), which abolished capital punishment in 1987 but was dissolved in 1990, are also not included. References are in the continental tables above and not repeated here.

Year abolishedCountryNumber per yearRunning total
1863 Venezuela11
1865 San Marino12
1877 Costa Rica13
1903 Panama14
1906 Ecuador15
1907 Uruguay16
1910 Colombia17
1944 Iceland18
1949 Germany (FR)19
1956 Honduras110
1962 Monaco111
1966 Dominican Republic112
1968 Austria113
1969  Vatican City114
1972 Finland115
1973 Sweden116
1976 Canada  Portugal218
1978 Denmark  Solomon Islands  Tuvalu321
1979 Kiribati  Luxembourg  Nicaragua  Norway425
1980 Vanuatu126
1981 Cape Verde  France228
1985 Australia129
1986 Marshall Islands  Federated States of Micronesia231
1987 Haiti  Liechtenstein  East Germany233
1989 Cambodia  New Zealand[181]235
1990 Andorra  Czech Republic  Slovakia  Hungary  Ireland  Mozambique

 Namibia  Romania  São Tomé and Príncipe

843
1991 Croatia  Macedonia  Slovenia346
1992 Angola  Paraguay   Switzerland349
1993 Guinea-Bissau  Seychelles352
1994 Italy  Palau254
1995 Djibouti  Mauritius  South Africa  Spain458
1996 Belgium159
1997   Nepal  Poland261
1998 Armenia  Azerbaijan  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Bulgaria  Estonia
 Lithuania  United Kingdom
768
1999 Turkmenistan169
2000 Ivory Coast  Malta  Ukraine372
2001 Greece173
2002 Cyprus  Serbia  Timor-Leste376
2004 Bhutan  Samoa  Senegal  Turkey480
2005 Mexico  Moldova282
2006 Georgia  Montenegro  Philippines385
2007 Albania  Kyrgyzstan  Rwanda388
2008 Uzbekistan189
2009 Argentina  Burundi  Togo  Bolivia  Russia594
2010 Netherlands  Gabon296
2012 Latvia  Benin  Mongolia  Madagascar4100

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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