University of Pittsburgh

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University of Pittsburgh
University of Pittsburgh Seal
MottoVeritas et Virtus (Latin)
Motto in EnglishTruth and Virtue
EstablishedFebruary 28, 1787
TypeState-related[1]
EndowmentUS$2.635 billion[2]
ChancellorMark Nordenberg
ProvostPatricia E. Beeson
Academic staff4,938[3][4]
Students28,766[5][3]
Undergraduates18,427[5][3]
Postgraduates10,339[3]
LocationPittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
CampusUrban, 132 acres (53 ha)
Former namesPittsburgh Academy (1787–1819)
Western University of Pennsylvania (1819–1908)
ColorsBlue & Gold            
Athletics17 varsity teams
NCAA Division I
Big East, EWL, EAGL, ACC (July 1, 2013)[6]
NicknamePitt, Panthers
MascotRoc the Panther
AffiliationsAAU, APLU, EDUCAUSE, MSA, ORAU, URA
Websitepitt.edu
Pitt school logo
 
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University of Pittsburgh
University of Pittsburgh Seal
MottoVeritas et Virtus (Latin)
Motto in EnglishTruth and Virtue
EstablishedFebruary 28, 1787
TypeState-related[1]
EndowmentUS$2.635 billion[2]
ChancellorMark Nordenberg
ProvostPatricia E. Beeson
Academic staff4,938[3][4]
Students28,766[5][3]
Undergraduates18,427[5][3]
Postgraduates10,339[3]
LocationPittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
CampusUrban, 132 acres (53 ha)
Former namesPittsburgh Academy (1787–1819)
Western University of Pennsylvania (1819–1908)
ColorsBlue & Gold            
Athletics17 varsity teams
NCAA Division I
Big East, EWL, EAGL, ACC (July 1, 2013)[6]
NicknamePitt, Panthers
MascotRoc the Panther
AffiliationsAAU, APLU, EDUCAUSE, MSA, ORAU, URA
Websitepitt.edu
Pitt school logo
At 535 feet (163 m), Pitt's Cathedral of Learning, here viewed from the Frick Fine Arts Building, is the Western Hemisphere's tallest educational structure.

The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related[7] research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. Founded as Pittsburgh Academy in 1787 on what was then the American frontier, Pitt is one of the oldest continuously chartered institutions of higher education in the United States. Pitt evolved into the Western University of Pennsylvania with an alteration to its charter in 1819, and upon relocating to its current campus in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh in 1908, the school received its current moniker, the University of Pittsburgh. For most of its history Pitt was a private institution, until it became part of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education in 1966.[8]

Pitt has consistently placed in the top cluster of U.S. public research universities and among the overall top 25 research universities according to the Center for Measuring University Performance,[9] is listed as one of U.S. News & World Report's top 20 public universities,[10] and has been listed among the best colleges for the quality of life of its students.[11] Pitt has also been named as a "best value" by various publications,[12][13][14] and has appeared in multiple rankings of the world's top universities.[15][16][17][18]

Pitt is among the nation's and world's most active research institutions as evidenced by its $822 million in annual research expenditures, its standing among the top five schools in the amount of National Institutes of Health research allocations, and its election as one of the 61 North American members of the Association of American Universities.[19] Pitt and its medical school are also closely affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, one of the nation's leading academic medical centers.[20]

Pitt is popularly recognized for its centerpiece building, the Cathedral of Learning, for its central role in developing the first polio vaccine,[21] and for fielding nationally competitive NCAA Division I athletic programs.[22]

Contents

History of the University

Hugh Henry Brackenridge, founder of Pittsburgh Academy in 1787, was a fiery revolutionary, an early supporter of the U.S. Constitution, and is considered America's first novelist.

The founding

Founded by Hugh Henry Brackenridge as Pittsburgh Academy in 1787, the University of Pittsburgh is one of the few universities and colleges established in the 18th century in the United States. It is the oldest continuously chartered institution of learning in the U.S. west of the Allegheny Mountains.[7] The school began its life as a preparatory school, presumably in a log cabin, possibly as early as 1770[23] in Western Pennsylvania, then a frontier.[24] Hugh Henry Brackenridge sought and obtained a charter for the school from the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that was passed by the assembly on February 28, 1787, just ten weeks before the opening of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.[25][26] A brick building was erected in 1790 on the south side of Third Street and Cherry Alley for the Pittsburgh Academy.[27][28][29] The small two-story brick building, with a gable facing the alley, contained three rooms: one below and two above.[30]

The Western University

Within a short period, more advanced education in the area was needed, so in 1819 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania amended the school's 1787 charter to confer university status. The school took the name the Western University of Pennsylvania, or WUP, and was intended to be the western sister institution to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.[31][32] By 1830, WUP had moved into a new three-story, freestone-fronted building, with Ionic columns and a cupola, near its original buildings fronting the south side of Third Street, between Smithfield Street and Cherry Alley in downtown Pittsburgh. By the 1830s, the university faced severe financial pressure to abandon its traditional liberal education in favor of the state legislature's desire for it to provide more vocational training. The decision to remain committed to liberal education nearly killed the university, but it persevered despite its abandonment by the city and state.[33] It was also during this era that founder of Mellon Bank, Thomas Mellon (Class of 1837), graduated and later taught at WUP.[27][28][29]

Fires

Western University of Pennsylvania, the previous name of Pitt, is depicted in this 1833 oil painting at its location on 3rd Avenue in downtown Pittsburgh.

The University's buildings, along with most of its records and files, were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1845 that wiped out 20 square blocks of Pittsburgh. Classes were temporarily held in Trinity Church until a new building was constructed on Duquesne Way (on what was the site of the former Horne's department store). Only four years later, in 1849, this building also was destroyed by fire. Due to the catastrophic nature of these fires, operations were suspended for a few years to allow the University time to regroup and rebuild. By 1854, WUP had erected a new building on the corner of Ross and Diamond (now Forbes Avenue) streets (site of the present day City-County building) and classes resumed in 1855. It is during this era, in 1867, that Samuel Pierpoint Langley, astronomer, inventor, aviation pioneer and future Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was chosen as director of the Allegheny Observatory that was donated to WUP in 1865. Langley was professor of astronomy and physics and remained at WUP until 1891, when he was succeeded by another prominent astronomer, James Keeler. Growing quickly during this period, WUP outgrew its downtown facilities and the university moved its campus to Allegheny City (present-day North Side).[27][28][29]

A move north

Western University of Pennsylvania's campus on Observatory Hill on Pittsburgh's North Side from 1890 to 1909

The University eventually found itself on a 10-acre (4.0 ha) site on the North Side's Observatory Hill at the location of its Allegheny Observatory. There, it constructed two new buildings, Science Hall and Main Hall, that were occupied by 1889 and 1890 respectively. During this era, the first collegiate football team was formed at Pitt in 1889. In 1892, the Western Pennsylvania Medical College was amalgamated into the University. By 1893, the University had graduated its first African-American, William Dammond.[34] In 1895, WUP established its School of Law and Andrew Carnegie and George Westinghouse were elected to the Board of Trustees, where they joined Andrew Mellon who was elected in 1894. The Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy and Pittsburgh Dental School also joined the University in 1896. In 1898, the first women, sisters Margaret and Stella Stein, graduated from the University.[35] During this period, University engineering professor Reginald Fessenden was conducting pioneering work in radio broadcasting. By 1904, playing at Exposition Park, the University had its first undefeated football team.[27][28][29][36]

A new name and home

Thaw Hall, c. 1910

Citing a need to avoid confusion, distinguish itself from the University of Pennsylvania, and return to its roots by identifying itself with the city, the Western University of Pennsylvania, by act of the state legislature, was renamed the University of Pittsburgh in the summer of 1908. During this time, the University had also outgrown its accommodations on what is now the North Side of Pittsburgh and its departments had been scattered throughout the city for years. To consolidate all of its components on one campus, WUP bought 43 acres (170,000 m2) of land in December 1907 in what is now the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh and began relocating departments there by 1909.[37] The initial campus plan for the University centered on the winning submission from a national architectural contest that incorporated a Greek Acropolis design by Henry Hornbostel for 30 buildings.[38] However, due to financial and other constraints, only four of the buildings were constructed in this style, of which only Thaw Hall remains today. It was also during this period that the university, led by Chancellor Samuel McCormick, would again fend off pressures to abandon the school's commitment to liberal education in favor of more technical-based training. During his administration, McCormick would also lead the university into a new level of national recognition, expansion, and growth, as well as began institutional support of athletics.[39]

A national landmark

In the 1920s, new university chancellor John Gabbert Bowman declared that he had a vision for a centerpiece "tall building" for the university. The 14 acres (5.7 ha) Frick Acres property in Oakland was soon purchased and plans for the campus shifted focus from the hillside to a neo-Gothic Revival plan that today comprises the Cathedral of Learning, Heinz Memorial Chapel, Stephen Foster Memorial, and Clapp Hall buildings. By 1925, Bowman had settled on a design by Charles Klauder for the "tall building": an attention-getting 535-foot (163 m) tower whose great height, with open spaces all around, would suggest the "character that ought to be in an educated man." The building's "parallel lines going up and up...would express courage [and] fearlessness" and it would "unify Pittsburgh into a community conscious of its character." The Cathedral is "cut off" flat at the top to suggest that its lines, like education, have no ending. The building was financed by donors as well as a campaign to collect dimes from local school children. Bowman was a persuasive leader and although the Great Depression intervened, the Cathedral of Learning, on which construction was begun in 1926, started hosting classes in 1931 and was formally dedicated in 1937. Today, it remains the second tallest university building in the world and contains an equally-impressive interior highlighted by a half-acre (2,000 m²) Gothic hall Commons Room with 52-foot (16 m) tall arches currently surrounded by 29 Nationality Rooms, however seven more Nationality Rooms are in the making.[40]

Development of the polio vaccine

Jonas Salk developed the first polio vaccine at the University of Pittsburgh.

In the early 20th century, epidemics of polio began to hit the United States and other industrialized countries. As hospital wards filled with patients in iron lungs, and tens of thousands were left disabled, fear of contracting polio grew rampant and led to the closing of many public facilities. Meanwhile, Dr. Jonas Salk had set up the University of Pittsburgh's Virus Research Lab in the basement of what is now Salk Hall. By 1951, Salk and his team had begun immunization experiments in monkeys using dead polio virus. Soon, however, Salk began to test inoculations in paralyzed polio patients and by 1953 human trials among the general population were initiated. By the spring of the following year, the largest controlled field trials in medical history were underway, and by 1955 the vaccine developed by Jonas Salk and his team of Pitt researchers was declared effective. By 1962, Salk's vaccine had reduced the incidence of polio in the United States by 95 percent. The breakthroughs in immunology and vaccine development at Pitt by Salk and his team are considered one of the most significant scientific and medical achievements in history.[41][42]

State relations

In 1966, Pitt was designated by Pennsylvania as a state-related university. As such, Pitt receives public funds ($185.4 million in fiscal year 2011) covering about 9% of its operating budget and offers reduced tuition to Pennsylvania residents. Pitt remains under independent control, but is typically categorized as a public university. Upon affiliation with the state, subsidized tuition led to a massive influx of new students and rapid expansion of Pitt's size and scope. In the 1970s, Pitt's football team returned to greatness with a national championship season in 1976 led by Hall of Fame running back Tony Dorsett and continued success in the 1980s with players such as Hall of Fame quarterback Dan Marino. In the 1980s, significant medical research in the field of organ transplantation was conducted by Thomas Starzl, establishing Pitt as the world leader in the field of organ transplantation. In 1991, long-time chancellor Wesley Posvar retired after 24 years in office. His administration is best known for elimination of the university's debt from its 1960s financial crisis and for increasing the school's prestige and endowment. Under Posvar, Pitt's operating budget grew sevenfold to $630 million and its endowment tripled to $257 million.[43]

Present day

Mark Nordenberg has been chancellor of the University since 1995 and is leading Pitt through a period of substantial progress, including a $2-billion capital-raising campaign that is over three quarters of the way toward achieving its goal[44] and a $1-billion 12-year facilities plan.[45] Major initiatives and events that have occurred during his tenure include the construction of the Petersen Events Center, a major expansion of on-campus housing, the growth of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the restructuring of its relationship with the university, a series of disruptive bomb threats that occurred in 2012, and the growth of Pitt's endowment to its current value of $2.635 billion.[2]

Location and campus

The University of Pittsburgh's main campus comprises approximately 132 urban acres (0.53 km2) located in Pittsburgh's historic Oakland neighborhood. Much of the campus, including its centerpiece 42-story Cathedral of Learning, falls within the Oakland Civic Center/Schenley Farms National Historic District.[46] The campus contains an eclectic mix of architecture that includes Greek revival, Neogothic, Italian Renaissance, and modern. It has been termed "a theme park of replica buildings, representing the architecture of the past speaking to the present."[47] The campus has won multiple Green Star Awards from the Professional Grounds Management Society.[48][49][50]

The University of Pittsburgh's main campus can be thought to be made up of four contiguous sections: upper (sports complexes, residence halls); mid (Benedum, Chevron, Allen and Thaw Halls); lower (Cathedral of Learning, Union, Posvar Hall); and on the west end of campus, the medical center complex. The campus is generally bordered by Darragh Street/McKee Place to the west and Bellefield Avenue/Dithridge Street to the east; Forbes and Fifth avenues traverse the campus from west to east. Although generally within walking distance, the university also runs a bus and shuttle service between various campus locations and bordering neighborhoods.

The main campus abuts or is within a short walking distance of many recreational, cultural, and educational institutions that also populate the Oakland neighborhood. The campus is directly adjacent to Schenley Plaza, the main branch of the Carnegie Public Library, the Carnegie Museums of Natural History and Art, and the Carnegie Music Hall. Carlow University is just west of campus, adjacent to the University's medical center complexes. Carnegie Mellon University, Central Catholic High School and historic Schenley Park, site of the Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens, lie across Junction Hollow on the east end. Some Pitt professors also hold adjunct professorships at Carnegie Mellon and vice-versa.

Historic buildings

There are two University buildings listed separately on the National Register of Historic Places: Allegheny Observatory (in Pittsburgh's Riverview Park on the Northside) and the Cathedral of Learning.[51] Twenty-one of Pitt's buildings (including the 5 residence halls that make up Schenley Quadrangle, see below) are contributing properties to the Schenley Farms-Oakland Civic Center Historic District that has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district.[46]

Due to the historical nature of various sites in or around Pitt's buildings, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has placed historical markers outside the Allegheny Observatory,[52] Posvar Hall,[53][54] Salk Hall,[55] Stephen Foster Memorial,[56] and the William Pitt Union.[57] In addition, a Pennsylvania Historical Marker has been placed on campus near the Cathedral of Learning to mark the significance of the University of Pittsburgh itself.[58] Another state historical marker has been placed to highlight the significance of Pitt's involvement in the archaeological excavation at the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Avella, Pennsylvania.[59]

In addition, the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation has designated the following Pitt buildings as Pittsburgh Historic Landmarks: Allegheny Observatory, Allen Hall, Alumni Hall, Bellefield Hall, Chancellor's Residence, Cathedral of Learning, the Cathedral of Learning interior rooms, Gardner Steel Conference Center, Heinz Memorial Chapel, Thaw Hall, Salk Hall, Schenley Quadrangle residence halls, Stephen Foster Memorial, the University Child Development Center, and the William Pitt Union.[60][61]

Other Pitt buildings not designated individually as landmarks, but listed among the 16 Pitt-owned contributing properties to the Schenley Farms Historic District, include Clapp Hall, O'Hara Student Center, Ruskin Hall, Thackeray Hall, Frick Fine Arts Building, Music Building, and the University Club.[62]

Historic structures within, adjacent to, or near Pitt's campus, but not belonging to the university, include the Carnegie Museum buildings, Frick School, Forbes Field wall remnant, Magee Estate iron fence, the Schenley Fountain, Mellon Institute, Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens, the Pittsburgh Athletic Association, St. Paul's Cathedral, St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church, Schenley High School, Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, and the Stephen Foster sculpture. Many of these buildings and their facilities are integrated into the events and activities of the university.

Other buildings

The majority of Pitt-owned facilities are clustered in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh which includes the Schenley Farms Historic District, however a few prominent facilities are scattered elsewhere throughout the city, including the adjacent Shadyside neighborhood. Pitt also maintains regional Pennsylvania campuses in Bradford, Greensburg, Johnstown, and Titusville, as well as a Computer Center in RIDC Park in Blawnox, the Plum Boro Science Center in Plum, the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (U-PARC) in Harmarville, and the Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology in Linesville.[63] The university also has a major archeological research site, the Allen L. Cook Spring Creek Preserve, in Spring Creek, Wyoming.[64][65]

Athletic facilities of the University of Pittsburgh Panthers that are located in Oakland in the upper campus and include the Charles L Cost Sports Center, Fitzgerald Field House, the Petersen Events Center, Trees Hall and Trees Field. An approximately $30 million upgrade of on-campus sports facilities, termed the Petersen Sports Complex, is under construction and will include new soccer, baseball, softball facilities, as well as clear space for the future construction of a new track and field and band complex following its completion.[66] Athletic facilities in Pittsburgh that are located outside of the Oakland neighborhood include Heinz Field and the UPMC Sports Performance Complex.

Major on-campus residence halls include the Litchfield Towers, Schenley Quadrangle, Bouquet Gardens and Ruskin Hall located on the lower campus, Lothrop Hall and Forbes Hall on the medical campus, and Pennsylvania, Panther, and Sutherland halls located on the upper campus.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), which is consistently ranked in U.S. News & World Report's "Honor Roll" of America's top hospitals,[67] consists of the following hospitals and facilities in the Oakland area, many of which have shared use with various university departments: UPMC Presbyterian Hospital, UPMC Montefiore Hospital, Magee-Women's Hospital of UPMC, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic in Thomas Detre Hall, Eye and Ear Institute, Forbes Tower (home to the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences), Iroquois Building, Kaufman Medical Building, Medical Arts Building, 230 McKee Place, and UPMC University Center. UPMC academic hospitals and facilities that are scattered elsewhere throughout the city include the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC campus in the Lawrencevville neighborhood, the UPMC Sports Performance Complex on the South Side, and UPMC Shadyside and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute in the Hillman Cancer Center both located in the Shadyside neighborhood adjacent to Oakland.

Panthers

In the fall of 1909, the University of Pittsburgh was the first college or university to adopt the panther (Puma concolor) as its mascot.[68] Popular as photo sites, there are ten representations of Panthers in and about Pitt's campus, and ten more painted fiberglass panthers placed around the campus by the Pitt Student Government. These fiberglass panther structures are given to a campus group for a year and painted by the group to reflect their interests. The oldest representations are four panthers that guard each corner of the Panther Hollow bridge. Other Oakland locations include both inside and in front of the William Pitt Union, outside the Petersen Events Center, "Pitt the Panther" on the carousel in Schenley Plaza, the Panther head fountain on the front of the Cathedral of Learning, and the Pitt Panther statue outside Heinz Field on Pittsburgh's North Side.

Education

Commons Room in the Cathedral of Learning

Throughout its history, Pitt has been committed to a liberal arts education with a well-rounded curriculum in the arts, sciences, and humanities.[33] Pitt has an increasing emphasis on undergraduate research experience and for providing real-world opportunities such as co-ops and internships.[69] Undergraduate degrees can be earned as Bachelor's of Arts, Bachelor's of Science, and Bachelor's of Philosophy. Along with providing certificate programs, graduate level masters, professional, and doctoral degrees are also awarded. Pitt has also initiated a University-wide Outside the Classroom Curriculum (OCC) that includes a structured series of extracurricular programs and experiences designed to complement students' academic studies and help develop personal attributes and professional skills.[70] Students who complete the OCC requirements receive an OCC "transcript" and a green cord of distinction to wear at commencement.[71]

Schools

Bachelor's, master's, doctoral and professional programs are offered through the following academic units:

International studies

The Indian Classroom, one of 29 Nationality Rooms in the Cathedral of Learning

Pitt’s history of commitment to international education is illustrated by its unique collection of 29 Nationality Rooms on the first and third floors of the Cathedral of Learning. As a further demonstration of this commitment, Pitt is one of the country’s leading producers of both Fulbright scholars and Peace Corps volunteers[72][73] and one of less than 20 American universities to claim five or more area studies programs that have been competitively designated as National Resource Centers by the U.S. Department of Education.[74]

Pitt's National Resource Centers include Asian, European, Latin American, Russian and East European, and Global studies,[75] as well as Pitt's International Business Center.[74] In addition, Pitt's Asian Studies Center has been awarded status as a Confucius Institute by the Chinese Ministry of Education.[76][77] Further, Pitt is home to one of just ten European Union Centers of Excellence in the U.S., funded by the European Commission.[citation needed]

The University Center for International Studies (UCIS) coordinates international education curricula, centers on topical specializations in international studies, and the centers for area studies, including the National Resource Centers, among existing faculty and departments throughout the university. It does not itself give degrees but awards certificates of attainment to degree candidates in the University's schools and also operates certificate programs in African Studies (undergraduate) and in Global Studies (undergraduate & graduate).[78] UCIS also operates the Study Abroad Office,[79] Nationality Rooms and Intercultural Exchange Programs.[80]

Pitt's study abroad program, under the auspices of UCIS, helps to facilitate student study in over a hundred different countries, and oversees a variety of programs including the Panther Programs, which are course taught abroad that have been developed and are accompanied by faculty of the university; two-way exchange agreements with foreign institutions; and Pitt-recognized, third-party exchange programs.[81] The university also offers several study abroad scholarships, including those through the Nationality Rooms program.[82] In addition, following the decision to end a 24-year sponsorship of the Semester at Sea program due to academic, administrative and safety concerns,[83] Pitt has created a Multi-region Academic Program (PittMAP) that involves international travel, accompanied by university faculty, to three different continents for the comparative study of one of six rotating global study themes.[84][85]

Rankings

Pitt rankings

ARWU World[15]56
ARWU United States[15]37
  ARWU Life Sciences[86]40
  ARWU Clinical Medicine[87]12
  ARWU Social Sciences[88]47
CMUP Research Universities[9]25
FSPI[89]31
HEEACT World[90]24
GUR Global[91]42
SCImago Worldwide[92]26
THES World[93]59
USNWR National University[94]58
USNWR National Best Values[95]39
USNWR National Top Publics[96]20
  USNWR Business[97]79
  USNWR Education[98]23
  USNWR Engineering[99]48
  USNWR Law[100]69
  USNWR Library & Information[101]10
  USNWR Medical (research)[102]14
  USNWR Medical (primary care)[103]18
  USNWR Nursing[104]7
  USNWR Pharmacy[105]14
  USNWR Physical Therapy[106]2
  USNWR Public Affairs[107]27
  USNWR Public Health[108]11
  USNWR Social Work[109]14
Washington Monthly National[110]43
Wuhan International ESI[111]29
Webometrics World[112]39
The lawn of the Cathedral of Learning.

The Center for Measuring University Performance has ranked Pitt, along with only six other schools, in the top tier of U.S. public research universities and in the 6th tier (or top 25) among all universities according to its 2009 annual report.[9]

In 2011, U.S. News & World Report ranked Pitt 19th in comparison to other public universities in the United States and 58th among all national universities.[10] In addition, U.S. News ranked Pitt 45th on the dimension of "best value" among all national universities,[12] Princeton Review placed Pitt among its "Best Value Public Colleges",[14] while Kiplinger rated Pitt the best value in Pennsylvania and eighth best nationally for out-of-state students among public universities in their 2011 rankings.[13]

In worldwide evaluations of universities, Newsweek ranked Pitt 37th in its "The Top 100 Global Universities."[113] Pitt ranked 50th worldwide (and 37th in the U.S.) in the Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities.[15] Pitt ranked 116th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings,[114] coming 39th in the United States, and attaining 99th for Arts & Humanities.[115] Pitt ranks 24th of all universities in the world for the impact and performance of its scientific public publications according to the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities produced by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT).[18] Pitt ranks as the 26th best higher education research institution worldwide according to SCImago Institutions Rankings' 2009 World Report.[92] Other world rankings include 29th in the world in the latest ranking by the Research Center for Chinese Science Evaluation at Wuhan University,[116] 37th in the world in the latest Webometrics rankings,[112] and 42nd in the world according to both the 2006 G-Factor International University Ranking[117] as well as the Russian-based 2009 Global University Ranking.[17]

In addition to its academic rankings, Pitt has also been recognized for its positive campus atmosphere, with The Princeton Review rating Pitt as having the 8th happiest student body and the 11th best quality of life in the nation in 2010.[11]

Many of university's individual schools, departments, and programs are highly regarded in their particular field as evidenced by the number of Pitt programs that were ranked in the latest National Research Council rankings.[118] Particularly well regarded programs include Pitt's Department of Philosophy, which has long been renowned in the U.S. and worldwide, and is especially strong in the areas of mathematical and philosophical logic, metaphysics, history and philosophy of science, philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of mind and psychology, and semantics.[119][120]

The University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences, including Medicine, Dental, Nursing, Pharmacy, Public Health, and Rehabilition are also all highly ranked and regarded in their respective fields.[121] In addition, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, is consistently honored as one of America's top hospitals.[67]

The university's Joseph M. Katz School of Business MBA program is ranked first in the U.S. in "Value for Money," 51st overall in the nation, and its faculty research is ranked 47th in the world by the 2007 Financial Times ranking.[122] The Joseph Katz Graduate School consistently ranks among the top ten public business schools in the U.S. according to The Wall Street Journal.

Pitt's law school faculty has been ranked 21st in the nation based upon standard objective measures of scholarly impact.[123] Overall Pitt's Law School is ranked 63rd by The Law School 100,[124] is listed among the nation's top law schools by The Princeton Review,[125] and was ranked 71st by U.S. News & World Report in 2011,[100][126] down from a peak ranking of 48th in 2004.[127]

Pitt is home to the Gertrude E. and John M. Petersen Institute of NanoScience and Engineering, which was ranked second in the nation in 2006 for microscale and nanoscale research by the leading global trade publication, Small Times. Pitt also has a recognized program in Radio-frequency identification device (RFID) technology, with its research program rated among the top three in the world along with MIT and the University of Cambridge in England.[128]

Scholars

A class meets outside on the steps of Heinz Chapel

Pitt students have regularly won national and international scholarships and fellowship awards, including four Rhodes Scholarships since 2006.[129][130] In 2007, in addition to the three national military academies, Pitt was one of only nine universities, and the only public university, to claim both Rhodes and Marshall Scholars. Since 1995, Pitt undergraduates have also won seven Marshall Scholarships, five Truman Scholarships,[131] five Udall Scholarships, a Churchill Scholarship, a Gates Cambridge Scholarship,[132] 35 Goldwater Scholarships,[133] 23 Boren Scholarships,[134] and three Mellon Humanities Fellowships.[135][136]

Pitt is also a leading producer of Fulbright scholars, placing in the top 20 of all universities in the number of student scholars.[137]

Pitt alumni have won awards such as the Nobel Peace Prize, the Nobel Prize in medicine, the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, the Shaw Prize in medicine, the Albany Prize in medicine, the Fritz Medal in engineering, the Templeton Prize, and the Grainger Challenge Prize for sustainability.[72][138]

Research

Pitt, one of 62 elected members of the Association of American Universities, had $822.5 million in research and development expenditures in 2010, ranking 11th among all universities in the United States.[139] Of that amount, $594.7 million was received from federal sources, the fifth largest amount of federal research sponsorship among universities and the third most among public universities.[140] Pitt ranked in the top 25 of all universities in the world for the impact and performance of its scientific public publications, including in the top ten for clinical medicine, according to the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities produced by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan.[18] Pitt is also ranked 29th in the world based on Essential Science Indicators according to the Research Center for Chinese Science Evaluation of Wuhan University.[116] Pitt places much emphasis on undergraduate research and has integrated such research experience as a key component of its undergraduate experience.[69]

Pitt is a major center of biomedical research; in FY 2008, it ranked fifth in the nation in competitive peer-reviewed NIH funding allocations,[19] and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center ranked 13th among hospitals nationwide by USNews in 2009.[20]

Collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University

Pitt neighbors the campus of Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), and in some cases, buildings of the two universities are intermingled. This helps to facilitate a myriad of academic and research collaborations between the two schools,[141] including such projects as the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, the Pittsburgh Life Sciences Greenhouse, the Immune Modeling Center, the Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, as well as the National Science Foundation-supported Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center.[142][143] Further, the universities also offer multiple dual and joint degree programs such as the Medical Scientist Training Program, the Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology Graduate Program, and the Law and Business Administration program. Some professors hold joint professorships between the two schools, and students at each university may take classes at the other (with appropriate approvals).[144] Pitt students and faculty also have access to the CMU library system, as well as the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, through the Oakland Library Consortium.[145] The two universities also co-host academic conferences, such as the 2012 Second Language Research Forum.[146]

Community

Pitt was ranked second overall, and the top public university in the nation, as a "Best Neighbor" for positive impact on its urban community, including both commercial and residential activities such as revitalization, cultural renewal, economics, and community service and development according to the 2009 "Saviors of Our Cities" ranking.[147] Pitt was also listed as a "best neighbor" in the previous ranking released in 2006.[148] These rankings reflect the statistics that each year Pitt spends more than $1.7 billion in the community and supports nearly 33,800 jobs in Allegheny County. Pitt's research program alone imports more than $822 million into the region each year (more than $3.60 for each $1 of state appropriations), and supports some 23,100 local jobs.[149][150][151] Pitt students also spend more than $213 million on goods, services, and rental payments within the local economy.[72] Pitt ranked sixth in the number of startups spawned by technologies developed by its researchers according to Association of University Technology Managers.[152]

Pitt and its medical school are closely affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. With over 50,000 employees and more than $7 billion in annual revenue, the Medical Center is the largest employer in Western Pennsylvania.[153]

Through the Pitt Volunteer Pool, faculty and staff members donate more than 10,000 hours annually to community service projects for agencies such as the Salvation Army, Pittsburgh AIDS Task Force, and Greater Pittsburgh Community Food Bank.

Pitt also is a leading producer of Peace Corps volunteers.[72][154] According to the Peace Corps' 2008 ranking of colleges and universities, only 14 schools in the nation produced more Peace Corp volunteers.[155] Pitt's graduate school also ranked 10th for most alumni Peace Corps volunteers.[156]

Athletics

The University of Pittsburgh's sponsors 19 varsity sports teams, called the "Pittsburgh Panthers" or "Pitt Panthers," that participate at the highest level of competitive collegiate athletics in the United States, NCAA Division I (Division I FBS for football). The varsity teams compete as members of the Big East Conference, Eastern Wrestling League, East Atlantic Gymnastics League, and Eastern College Athletic Conference. There are also approximate 30 additional athletic teams that compete at the non-varsity club sports level.

Pitt’s highest-profile athletic programs, American football and men’s basketball, are consistently competitive. Pitt has been regularly ranked as having one of the best combinations of football and basketball programs by multiple sports media outlets,[157][158] including CBS Sports,[159] ESPN,[22] and Sports Illustrated.[160]

On September 18, 2011, it was announced that the Atlantic Coast Conference had officially extended an invitation to Pittsburgh to join the ACC after approving the university's application. The University of Pittsburgh will officially join the ACC on July 1, 2013.[6]

Scholar athletes

During 2006–2007 school year, of approximately 450 Pitt student athletes, 311 had term grade point averages exceeding 3.0, 23 had a perfect average of 4.0, and 124 were named Big East Academic All-Stars.[161]

Football

Traditionally the most popular sport at the University of Pittsburgh, football has been played at the highest levels at the University since 1890. During the more than 100 years of competitive football at Pitt, the University has helped pioneer the sport by, among other things, instituting the use of numbers on jerseys[162] and desegregating the Sugar Bowl. Some of college football's all-time greatest coaches and players have plied their trade at Pitt, including Pop Warner, Jock Sutherland, Marshall Goldberg, Joe Schmidt, Mike Ditka, Tony Dorsett, Hugh Green, Mark May, Dan Marino, Bill Fralic, Curtis Martin, Darrelle Revis, Russ Grimm and Larry Fitzgerald. Among the top schools in terms of all-time wins, Pitt teams have claimed nine National Championships[163] and boast 86 players that have been chosen as first-team All-Americans.

Basketball

Pitt first sponsored varsity men's basketball in 1905 and became an early national power after winning two Helms Foundation National Championships in 1927–28 and 1929–30. Those teams, coached by the innovative and legendary Naismith Hall of Fame inductee "Doc" Carlson, were led by National Player of the Year and Hall of Famer Charlie Hyatt. Following a Final Four appearance in 1941, Pitt appeared in a handful of NCAA tournaments throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, including an Elite Eight appearance in 1974 led by All-American Billy Knight. Pitt joined the Big East Conference in 1982, and by the end of the decade had secured a pair of Big East regular season championships led by All-Americans Charles Smith and Jerome Lane. In the 2000s (decade), led by coach Jamie Dixon, an era of consistent national and conference competitiveness has been achieved, including reaching the number one ranking in various national polls. Since 2002, Pitt has appeared in nine straight NCAA tournament appearances advancing to five Sweet Sixteens and an Elite Eight. During this time, Pitt and has won three Big East regular season championships, two Big East Tournament Championships, and has advanced to six Big East Tournament Championship games.

The Pittsburgh Panthers women's varsity basketball program started during the 1914–1915 school year and lasted until 1927 before going on hiatus until 1970. Pitt's women's team has posted several NCAA, NWIT, and EAIAW tournament appearances. Led head coach Agnus Berenato, Pitt has played in post-season tournaments each of the last five seasons, including three NCAA Tournaments appearances where it advanced to the Sweet Sixteen in 2008 and 2009.

Olympic sports

The current Panther logo is a stylized panther head introduced in 1997 designed to suggest that it was cut by a welding torch from steel.

Pitt has had a long history of success in other intercollegiate athletic events. In Track and Field, Pitt has produced several Olympic and NCAA champions such as 800 m Olympic gold medalist John Woodruff, two-time 110 m hurdle Olympic gold medalist Roger Kingdom, and seven-time NCAA champion and 2005 World Champion triple jumper Trecia-Kaye Smith.[164] The wrestling program has a rich history and is among the leaders in producing individual national champions with 16.[165] Pitt's women's volleyball team, one of the winningest program in the nation,[166] has won 11 Big East championships, and appeared in 11 NCAA tournaments since the program began in 1974.[167] Pitt's swimming and diving teams have produced several Olympians and won 19 men's and nine women's Big East Championships since joining the conference in 1983. Pitt women's gymnastics is a regular qualifier for the NCAA Northeast Regional Championship.[168] Baseball, Pitt's oldest varsity sport, has produced several major league players and has become a regular participant in the Big East post-season championship.[169] Other varsity sports have also found varying degrees of success and include cross country, soccer, softball, and tennis.

Support groups

The history-rich University of Pittsburgh Varsity Marching Band was founded in 1911 and performs at athletic and other events. The Pitt cheerleading squad has won multiple cheerleading national championships, including three straight from 1992–1994. The Pitt dance team also has been competitive in national competitions.[170][171]

People

Heads of the University

William Jacob Holland served as Chancellor from 1891 to 1901, and was also a world renowned entomologist.

The University of Pittsburgh has had many individuals lead it throughout its history. During the academy days, the title of Principal was worn by the head of the school. Due to fires, early records are incomplete. When Pittsburgh Academy transitioned into the Western University, the title was changed to Chancellor. This title has lasted except for a brief change during Wesley Posvar's administration when it was transiently switched to President. Samuel McCormick oversaw the name change from the Western University of Pennsylvania to the University of Pittsburgh in 1908 and is therefore listed with the chancellors of the University of Pittsburgh. Acting chancellors are also included in the list below. For more information on past heads of the University, and for photos, please see Pitt History: Heads of the University.

Notable alumni and faculty

Alumni have won awards and prizes that include the Academy Award, the Super Bowl, the Nobel Prize, the Pulitzer Prize, the National Medal of Arts, the National Medal of Science, the Perkin Medal, the National Medal of Technology, and the MacArthur "Genius Award".[72][138][172][173] The faculty and alumni have been pioneers in such fields as astronomy, aviation, virology, nuclear energy, psychology, genetics in addition to being given popular titles such as the Father of Radio Broadcasting, the Father of Television, the Father of CPR, the Father of the MRI, and the Father of Organ Transplantation.

Student life

Traditions

See also: Hail to Pitt, Pitt Victory Song, University of Pittsburgh Alma Mater, Pitt football traditions

Annual Bonfire and Pep Rally hosted by the Pitt Program Council is held prior to or during some football games. Held on the lawn of the Cathedral of Learning, it often involves the band, cheerleaders, football team, visiting dignitaries, and giveaways.[174][175]

A concert during Fall Fest 2008

Bigelow Bash is a spring festival held by the Pitt Program Council between the William Pitt Union and the Cathedral of Learning, involving a range of activities, novelties, and bands.[176]

E-Week is a spring celebration organized by the Engineer Student Council for a week-long, fun-filled series of activities and competitions to demonstrate engineering skills and foster a spirit of camaraderie. Activities include games such as Monopoly, Ingenuity, Jeopardy, Assassins, and include a talent show, relay race, mini-Olympics, and blood drive. The festivities reach climax with a parade on Friday, a soapbox derby on Saturday, and the "e-ball finale" on Saturday evening. Each year, a unique theme is chosen. Each engineering department competes against the others, while some smaller departments join forces.[177][178]

Fall Fest is an annual fall festival held by the Pitt Program Council between the William Pitt Union and the Cathedral of Learning, also involving a range of activities, novelties, and bands.[179]

Football Tunnel is a tradition where student organizations, carrying standards, form a tunnel for the football players to run through as they enter the football field from the locker room. Originally, this long standing tradition involved only Pitt fraternities and sororities. The tradition was briefly lost following the 1999 season when Pitt's football program transitioned from playing in Pitt Stadium to Three Rivers Stadium in 2000 followed by Heinz Field in 2001. The tradition was resurrected beginning with the 2008 football season.[180]

Forbes Field Home Plate Slide is a tradition for good luck on midterm and finals in which students slide into or step on a former home plate from Forbes Field, where the Pittsburgh Pirates played for many seasons. The plate is on display inside Posvar Hall near its original location.[181][182][183][184]

Greek Week Greek Week is a year long initiative for the Greek organizations on campus to raise money for different charitable organizations through different events. The two biggest events each year are the Pitt Dance Marathon and Greek Sing. The Pitt Greeks have signed a contract with the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute to raise $500,000 over the next five years. Yearlong fundraising activities are also held to support other charitable organizations such as the Ronald McDonald House, Make a Wish Foundation, and the Pittsburgh Food Bank.[185]

Homecoming, as in other universities, revolves around one home football game each year. Pitt's homecoming involves activities hosted by the Pitt Program Council highlighted by fireworks and a laser-light display between the William Pitt Union and the Cathedral of Learning.[186] This is followed by Casino Night in the union, the football game, and a homecoming cruise on a Gateway Clipper Party Liner.[187][188][189]

Honors Convocation is a ceremony whose modern incarnation was begun in 1977, but whose roots date to the 1930s' Scholar's Day and Tap Day.[190] The Honors Convocation is typically held in late winter to present awards and recognition for academic and service achievements of the students, faculty, alumni, and staff throughout the schools and departments of the university.[191]

Lantern Night is an annual ceremony, initiated in 1921 one of the University’s longest standing traditions. It is a formal induction for freshman women to university life and unites them as they begin their education at Pitt. Traditionally held on the evening before the first day of classes, the ceremony today takes place in Heinz Chapel. Part of the Lantern Night tradition is for a distinguished alumna to give the freshman address, while other distinguished alumnae are flame bearers who light the lanterns given to each freshman woman as a keepsake.[192][193]

Omicron Delta Kappa Walk is a stone walkway between the Cathedral of Learning and Heinz Memorial Chapel that contains the engraved names of Pitt's Omicron Delta Kappa Senior of the Year award winners. The walk is the only one of its kind in the country.[194]

Panther Sendoff is an annual free reception typically held in Alumni Hall to congratulate each year's graduating class and wish them well.[195]

Rubbing the Panther Nose is as another good luck tradition in which students rub the nose of the Millennium Panther outside the William Pitt Union prior to exams.[196] This tradition has further grown into one that is used by the wider university community when seeking general good fortune and was featured in a national television advertisement for the 2012 Hyundai Tucson automobile.[197]

University of Pittsburgh Annual Jazz Seminar and Concert is a fall lecture and concert series founded by Dr. Nathan Davis, professor in the Music Department, and University officials in 1970. Renowned jazz musicians, critics, and historians lead seminar sessions for students and others in the local jazz community. These sessions are free and open to the public and deal with topics ranging from entering the music business to practice techniques, composing, arranging, and individual instrument mastery. Previous musicians who have attending include Dizzy Gillespie, Kenny Clarke, Sonny Rollins, Dexter Gordon, and Max Roach.[198]

Varsity Walk

Varsity Walk is a walkway between the Cathedral of Learning and Heinz Memorial Chapel on which is carved the names of former Pitt athletes (each year since 1950) who have promoted the University through their athletic (Panther Award) or academic (Blue-Gold Award) achievements.[199]

Victory Lights is a tradition where golden flood lights illuminate the top of the Cathedral of Learning after every football victory.[175][200][201]

Pitt Arts

Pitt Arts is a program founded by the University in 1997 to encourage students to explore and connect to the art and cultural opportunities of the City of Pittsburgh via three programs. Art Encounters provides trips to arts events for undergrads that include free tickets, transportation, a catered reception, and encounters with international artists and thinkers. Free Visits grants undergrad and grad students free admission using their Pitt IDs to the Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Senator John Heinz History Center, Phipps Conservatory, Mattress Factory, and the Andy Warhol Museum. Cheap Seats is a program that everyone at Pitt can use to take advantage of deeply-discounted tickets to the most sought-after arts events in the area, including the Pittsburgh ballet, opera, symphony, theater, concerts, and other cultural district activities.[202][203]

Student theater

Pitt's Stephen Foster Memorial contains two theaters.


Student music

The Music Building once served as home to the original studio for Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood


Student media


Student organizations

There are over 350 student clubs and organizations at the University of Pittsburgh all sizes and covering all manner of interests.[223] Some of the larger ones include the following, presented in alphabetical order.

Black Action Society is the recognized student organization for promoting the cultural, educational, political, and social needs of black students at the university. It comprises nine committees including the publication of the student-run publication BlackLine as well as community outreach, political action, and programing.[224] In the past the BAS has hosted lectures by such figures as Cornel West, Spike Lee, and Carol Mosley-Braun.

Blue and Gold Society, founded in 1991, is a group of undergraduate student leaders chosen as liaisons between the student community and the Pitt Alumni Association.[225]

Graduate and Professional Student Assembly (GPSA) is the student government that represents the interests of all graduate and professional student at the University of Pittsburgh and serves as the umbrella organization for all of the graduate/professional school student governments. GPSA's mission is to ensure that the concerns of these students are heard and also provides services and programs such travel grants, legal and financial consulting, and social functions.[226]

Hillel: Jewish Student Union (JSU), is a pluralistic Jewish community that serves all Pitt undergraduates. Programs take place on campus and at the Hillel Jewish University Center at 4607 Forbes Avenue. Events include holiday, interfaith, Jewish education, social action, arts and cultural programming as well as no-fee weekly Shabbat services and dinner every Friday night. [227]

Student Government Board (SGB) is the governing body that provides undergraduate students with representation to the university administration, presenting their needs, interests, and concerns. Another important aspect of the SGB is allocation of the student activities fee, which provides money to over 350 student organizations at the University of Pittsburgh. The SGB also has ten standing committees who address various aspects of campus life, including diversity, freshman involvement, and governmental relations.[228]

Oakland Zoo is the student athletic cheering section, and is an officially recognized student club by the University of Pittsburgh. At over 2,000 members, it is the largest such group at the University. The group helps participate with the Athletic Department and Pitt Student Government Board in setting student ticket policy as well as organizing special student events.[229]

Pitt Pathfinders is a student-run organization that hosts campus tours, assists prospective students in making well-informed college-related decisions, and promotes Pitt pride.[230]

Pitt Program Council is the all-campus programming organization at the university. Comprising eight student committees, a variety of programs and festivities are planned and sponsored including Fall Fest, Bigelow Bash, Homecoming Laser and Fireworks Show, as well as trips to New York City, Cedar Point, Spring break in Panama City Beach, FL. Other activities include art gallery exhibits, films, horseback riding, sports tournaments, lectures, fitness and dance classes, and Black and White Ball.[231]

Quo Vadis is a student organization that conducts guided tours and interpretations of the Cathedral of Learning's 29 Nationality Rooms.[232]

Rainbow Alliance is a student advocacy group for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Allied students. Among other activities, Pitt Rainbow Alliance holds an Annual Drag Show to raise money for Pittsburgh AIDS Task Force.[233]

Telefact is an informational telephone service run by students that researches and answers callers' questions. The service is free to use and can be reached at 412–624-FACT.

University of Pittsburgh Mock Trial is a year long extracurricular activity open to Pitt undergraduates that provides an opportunity to learn about the practice of litigation through a series of team-based mock trial competitions. Pitt Mock Trial has qualified for American Mock Trial Association post-season tournaments each of the last six years, finishing in the fifth overall place at the 2008 National Championship Tournament.[234][235]

William Pitt Debating Union is a co-curricular program and hub for a wide range of debating activities, including intercollegiate policy debate, public debate, and debate outreach. 1981 National Debate Tournament champions,[236] it has qualified for the National Debate Tournament forty times[237] and is one of the oldest organizations of its kind in the nation, growing from the University’s Division of Public Speaking in 1912.[238]

Greek life

As of 2008, the University of Pittsburgh Greek system raised $285,000 for the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute. The effort is part of the Pittsburgh Greek system's five-year pledge to raise $500,000 for the cancer center.[185]

FraternitiesSororities

Regional campuses

Regional campuses offer Master's, Bachelor's, and Associate's degrees at four locations in Western Pennsylvania. They also allow students to take preliminary courses and relocate to other regional campuses or the Oakland campus to complete their degrees. They offer several degrees and certificates:

References and notes

Cathedral Commons Room during Homecoming
View from the cloister in the Frick Fine Arts Building
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  4. ^ This figure reflects the total number of faculty at the Pittsburgh campus only. 403 additional faculty serve the four regional campuses for a university-wide total of 5,210 faculty members.
  5. ^ a b This enrollment figure reflects the total headcount of full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate students attending classes at the University of Pittsburgh-Pittsburgh Campus in Fall 2010 only. An additional 6,911 full-time and part-time undergraduate students attend the university across the four regional campuses for a university-wide headcount of 35,734 total students, 25,282 of which are undergraduates.
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  7. ^ a b Upon joining the Commonwealth System of Higher Education in 1966, the University of Pittsburgh legally remained a private entity and in practice, retained the administrative and academic freedom of a private institution. It sets its own standards for student admission and retention, faculty, and teaching. Its assets remain in the hands of the corporation, its employees are employed by the corporation, and its affairs are governed by an independent Board of Trustees.A In-state tuition is subsidized by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the state provides approximately 11% of its operating budget.B The University of Pittsburgh is categorized as a public university in the Carnegie Foundation ClassificationsC and is typically listed as a public university in third party publications.D For simplicity, Pitt sometimes refers to itself a "public university". :AAlberts, Robert C. (1986). Pitt: The Story of the University of Pittsburgh 1787–1987. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 343. ISBN 0-8229-1150-7. http://digital.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=pittmiscpubs&idno=00c50130m&seq=363. :B"University of Pittsburgh Trustees Approve 2008–09 Budget, Set Tuition Rates". University of Pittsburgh: News From Pitt. 08-07-11. http://www.news.pitt.edu/m/FMPro?-db=ma&-lay=a&-format=d.html&id=3379&-Find. Retrieved July 15, 2008. :C"Classifications: University of Pittsburgh-Main Campus". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/classifications/sub.asp?key=748&subkey=16063&start=782. Retrieved July 15, 2008. :D"Best Colleges Overview: University of Pittsburgh". USNews.com. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/pittsburgh-pa/university-of-pittsburgh-3379. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
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External links

Further reading

Coordinates: 40°26′40″N 79°57′12″W / 40.444565°N 79.953274°W / 40.444565; -79.953274