University of Notre Dame

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University of Notre Dame

Seal of the University of Notre Dame
Latin: Universitas Dominae Nostrae a Lacu
Motto"Vita Dulcedo Spes"
Motto in EnglishLife, Sweetness, Hope (in reference to the Blessed Virgin Mary)
Established1842
TypePrivate, coeducational
Religious affiliationRoman Catholic Church (Congregation of Holy Cross)
EndowmentUS$6.8 billion
PresidentFather John I. Jenkins, C.S.C.
ProvostTom Burish
Academic staff1,241[1]
Students11,733[2]
Undergraduates8,371
Postgraduates3,362
LocationNotre Dame, Indiana, US
41°42′11″N 86°14′20″W / 41.702995°N 86.238972°W / 41.702995; -86.238972Coordinates: 41°42′11″N 86°14′20″W / 41.702995°N 86.238972°W / 41.702995; -86.238972
CampusSuburban: 1,250 acres (5.1 km2)
Colors

Gold and blue[3][4]

         
AthleticsNCAA Division I
Sports26 teams
NicknameFighting Irish
MascotLeprechaun
AffiliationsIndependent, Big East Conference, CCHA
Websitend.edu
ND Wordmark.png
 
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University of Notre Dame

Seal of the University of Notre Dame
Latin: Universitas Dominae Nostrae a Lacu
Motto"Vita Dulcedo Spes"
Motto in EnglishLife, Sweetness, Hope (in reference to the Blessed Virgin Mary)
Established1842
TypePrivate, coeducational
Religious affiliationRoman Catholic Church (Congregation of Holy Cross)
EndowmentUS$6.8 billion
PresidentFather John I. Jenkins, C.S.C.
ProvostTom Burish
Academic staff1,241[1]
Students11,733[2]
Undergraduates8,371
Postgraduates3,362
LocationNotre Dame, Indiana, US
41°42′11″N 86°14′20″W / 41.702995°N 86.238972°W / 41.702995; -86.238972Coordinates: 41°42′11″N 86°14′20″W / 41.702995°N 86.238972°W / 41.702995; -86.238972
CampusSuburban: 1,250 acres (5.1 km2)
Colors

Gold and blue[3][4]

         
AthleticsNCAA Division I
Sports26 teams
NicknameFighting Irish
MascotLeprechaun
AffiliationsIndependent, Big East Conference, CCHA
Websitend.edu
ND Wordmark.png

The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame /ˌntərˈdm/ NOH-tər-DAYM) is a Catholic research university located in Notre Dame, an unincorporated community north of the city of South Bend, in St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States. The name of the university, "Notre Dame," is French for "Our Lady," a Catholic honorific salutation in reference to the Virgin Mary, the patron saint of the university.

The school was founded by Father Edward Sorin, CSC, who was also its first president, and even today many Holy Cross priests serve the school—most notably the president of the university. It was established as an all-male institution on November 26, 1842, on land donated by the Bishop of Vincennes, Indiana. The university first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. As of 2012 about 47 percent of the student body was female.[5] Notre Dame's Catholic character is reflected in its explicit commitment to the Catholic faith, numerous ministries funded by the school, and the architecture around campus. In 1962, Time called it one of the Catholic Ivy Universities in American Roman Catholic higher education.[6]

The university today is organized into five colleges and one professional school, and its graduate program awards 32 master's and 25 doctoral degrees.[7][8] Over 80% of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 29 single-sex residence halls, each of which fields teams for more than a dozen intramural sports, and the university counts approximately 120,000 alumni.[9]

Notre Dame's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. The football team, an Independent, has accumulated eleven consensus national championships, seven Heisman Trophy winners, and 62 members in the College Football Hall of Fame. Other ND teams, chiefly in the Big East, have accumulated 16 national championships.

Contents

History

Foundations

In 1842 the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Father Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years.[10] Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers on November 26, 1842, and began the school using Father Stephen Badin's old log chapel. They immediately acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus.

Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844.[11] Under the charter the school is officially named the University of Notre Dame du Lac (University of Our Lady of the Lake).[12] Because the university was originally only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844.[13]

Early history

More students attended the college; the first degrees were awarded in 1849.[14] The university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty.[11] With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them. The original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration, classrooms, and dormitories. Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Father Lemonnier. By 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes that were housed in the Main Building.

This Main Building, and the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879, and rebuilt before the next school year.[15] The library collection was also rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards.[16] Around the time of the fire, a Music Hall was opened. Eventually becoming known as Washington Hall, it hosted plays and musical acts put on by the school.[17]

A view of the University's historic center, the Main Quad

By 1880, a science program was established at the university, and a Science Hall was built in 1883. The hall housed multiple classrooms and science labs needed for early research at the university.[18] By 1890, individual residence halls were built to house the increasing number of students.[19]

William J. Hoynes (1846–1919) was dean of the law school 1883-1919, and when its new building was opened shortly after his death it was renamed in his honor.[20]

John Zahm C.S.C. (1851–1921) became the Holy Cross Provincial for the United States (1896–1906), with overall supervision of the university, He tried to transform Notre Dame into a great university, erecting buildings and added to the campus art gallery and library, and amassing what became a famous Dante collection. His term was not renewed because of fears he had expanded Notre Dame too quickly and had run the Holy Cross order into serious debt.[20]

Hesburgh Era: 1952-1987

Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C., (born 1917) served as president for 35 years (1952–87) of dramatic transformations. In that time the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, and the endowment by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500.[21]

Hesburgh is also credited with transforming the face of Notre Dame by making it a coeducational institution. In the mid-1960s Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College developed a co-exchange program whereby several hundred students took classes not offered at their home institution, an arrangement that added undergraduate women to a campus that already had a few women in the graduate schools. Nearly a third of accepted Notre Dame students chose not to enroll because of its single-sex status,[citation needed] and a 1968 poll indicated that nearly three-fourths of all Notre Dame students considered transferring to a coeducational school. After extensive debate, merging with St. Mary's was rejected, primarily because of the differential in faculty qualifications and pay scales. "In American college education," explained Rev. Charles E. Sheedy, C.S.C., Notre Dame's Dean of Arts and Letters, "certain features formerly considered advantageous and enviable are now seen as anachronistic and out of place.... In this environment of diversity, the integration of the sexes is a normal and expected aspect, replacing separatism." Thomas Blantz, C.S.C., Notre Dame's Vice President of Student Affairs, added that coeducation "opened up a whole other pool of very bright students."[[22] Two of the male residence halls were converted for the newly admitted female students that first year,[23][24] while two others were converted for the next school year.[25][26] The first female student, a transfer from St. Mary's College, graduated in 1972 with a bachelor's degree in marketing.[27]

Malloy Era: 1987-2005

In 18 years under President Edward Malloy, C.S.C., (1987–2005), there was a rapid growth in the school's reputation, faculty, and resources. He increased the faculty by more than 500 professors; the academic quality of the student body has improved dramatically, the average SAT score rose from 1240 to 1360; the number of minority students more than doubled; the endowment grew from $350 million to more than $3 billion; the annual operating budget rose from $177 million to more than $650 million; and annual research funding improved from $15 million to more than $70 million. Notre Dame’s most recent capital campaign raised $1.1 billion, far exceeding its goal of $767 million, and is the largest in the history of Catholic higher education.[28]

Jenkins Era: 2005-present

Currently Notre Dame is led by John I. Jenkins, C.S.C., the 17th president of the university.[29] Jenkins took over the position from Edward "Monk" Malloy, CSC, on July 1, 2005.[30] In his inaugural address, Jenkins described his goals of making the university a leader in research that recognizes ethics and building the connection between faith and studies.[31]

Campus

Notre Dame's campus is located in Notre Dame, Indiana, an unincorporated community in north Indiana, just north of South Bend and four miles (6 km) from the Michigan state line.[32] Development of the campus began in the spring of 1843 when Father Sorin and some of his congregation built the "Old College," a building used for dormitories, a bakery, and a classroom.

A year later, after an architect arrived, a small "Main Building" was built allowing for the launch of the college.[33] Today the campus lies on 1,250 acres (5.1 km2) just south of the Indiana Toll Road and includes 138 buildings located on quads throughout the campus.[34]

Historic Washington Hall on the Main Quad.

A number of the buildings that Father Sorin built still stand on the campus, while others have been replaced. The Old College building has become one of two seminaries on campus run by the Congregation of Holy Cross.[35] The current Basilica of the Sacred Heart is located on the spot of Sorin's original church, which became too small for the growing college and the Main Building, after a fire destroyed parts of it, has become home to Notre Dame's administration. There are two lakes located on campus, and near the lakes is the Grotto to Our Lady of Lourdes, which was built in 1896 as a replica of the original in Lourdes, France.[36]

Environmental sustainability

The University of Notre Dame has made being a sustainability leader an integral part of their mission, creating the Office of Sustainability in 2008 to achieve a number of goals in the areas of power generation, design and construction, waste reduction, procurement, food services, transportation, and water.[37]

As of 2012 four building construction projects were pursuing LEED Certified status and three were pursuing LEED Silver.[38] Notre Dame’s dining services sources 40% of its food locally and offers sustainably-caught seafood as well as many organic, fair-trade, and vegan options.

The Main Quad in Autumn

[39] On the Sustainable Endowments Institute’s College Sustainability Report Card 2010, University of Notre Dame received a "B" grade.[40]

New buildings

The university continues to expand and add new buildings each year. Since 2004, many buildings have been built—the most prominent being the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center,[41] the Guglielmino Complex,[42] and the Jordan Hall of Science.[43] Additionally, a new male residence hall, Duncan Hall, began construction on March 8, 2007,[44] and began accepting residents for the Fall 2008 semester. Ryan Hall has recently finished construction and began housing undergraduate women in the fall of 2009. A new engineering building, Stinson-Remick Hall, a new combination Center for Social Concerns/Institute for Church Life building, Geddes Hall, and a law school addition have recently been completed.[45] Additionally the new hockey arena opened in the fall of 2011.

LaFortune Student Center

The LaFortune Student Center, commonly known as "LaFortune" or "LaFun," is a 4-story building of 83,000 square feet[46] that provides the Notre Dame community with a meeting place for social, recreational, cultural, and educational activities. The building was constructed in 1883 as a science building but was converted to a student center during the 1950s.[47] LaFortune employs 35 part-time student staff, 29 full-time non-student staff, and has an annual budget of $1.2 million.[46]

Many businesses, services, and Divisions of Student affairs[47] are found within. The building also houses restaurants from national restaurant chains.[48]

The building is named for Joseph LaFortune, an oil executive from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Joseph LaFortune was the father of Tulsa former mayor Robert J. LaFortune and the grandfather of former Tulsa mayor Bill LaFortune.

Legends of Notre Dame

Legends of Notre Dame (commonly referred to as Legends) is a music venue, public house, and restaurant located on the campus of the University of Notre Dame, just 100 yards south of Notre Dame Stadium. The former Alumni Senior Club[49] opened its doors the first weekend in September 2003[50] after a $3.5 million renovation and transformed into the all-ages student hang-out that currently exists. Legends is made up of two parts: The Restaurant and Alehouse and the nightclub.

London Centre

The university has had a presence in London, England since 1968. Since 1998, its London Centre has been based in the former United University Club at 1, Suffolk Street in Trafalgar Square. The Center enables the Colleges of Arts & Letters, Business Administration, Science, Engineering and the Law School to develop their own programs in London, as well as hosting conferences and symposia.[51]

Organization and administration

Since 1967 Notre Dame has been governed by a Board of Trustees, and not directly by the leadership of Holy Cross. The university is governed by two groups, the Board of Fellows and the Board of Trustees.[52] The Fellows of the University are a group of six Holy Cross religious and six lay members who have final say over the operation of the university. The fellows vote on potential trustees and sign off on all major decisions by that body. The trustees select the president from the United States Province of the Congregation of Holy Cross. In addition to the president, these groups help to maintain the bylaws and elect other officers of the university.[53] Finally, the provost of the university, as of 2012 Thomas Burish, works under the president to oversee many of the academic activities and functions of the university.[54]

Academics

As of fall 2006, Notre Dame had 11,603 students and employed 1241 full-time faculty members and another 166 part-time members to give a student/faculty ratio of 13:1.[1]

Colleges

The College of Arts and Letters was established as the university's first college in 1842 with the first degrees given in 1849.[55] The university's first academic curriculum was modeled after the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum from Saint Louis University.[56] Today the college, housed in O'Shaughnessy Hall,[57] includes 20 departments in the areas of fine arts, humanities, and social sciences, and awards Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degrees in 33 majors, making it the largest of the university's colleges. There are around 2,500 undergraduates and 750 graduates enrolled in the college.[58]

The College of Science was established at the university in 1865 by president Father Patrick Dillon. Dillon's scientific courses were six years of work, including higher-level mathematics courses.[59] Today the college, housed in the newly-built Jordan Hall of Science,[60]

The Hesburgh Library, which is the center of the campus' intellectual life.

includes over 1,200 undergraduates in six departments of study – biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, pre-professional studies, and applied and computational mathematics and statistics (ACMS) – each awarding Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degrees.[61] According to university statistics, its science pre-professional program has one of the highest acceptance rates to medical school of any university in the United States.[62]

The School of Architecture was established in 1899,[63] although degrees in architecture were first awarded by the university in 1898.[64] Today the school, housed in Bond Hall,[65] offers a five-year undergraduate program leading to the Bachelor of Architecture degree. One year of study is completed in Rome by all students enrolled in the school.[66]

The College of Engineering was established in 1920,[67] however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s.[68] Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering,[69] includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively.[70]

The Mendoza College of Business was established by Father John Francis O'Hara in 1921, although a foreign commerce program was launched in 1917.[71] Today the college offers degrees in accountancy, finance, management, and marketing and enrolls over 1,600 students.[72] In the 2010 Bloomberg/Businessweek Undergraduate Business School Rankings, The Mendoza College of Business was ranked as the top overall school.

All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested.[73] The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring.[74] This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding.[75]

Graduate and professional schools

The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees.[76] Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program.[77] Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program[78] offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years.[79]

In addition to the programs offered by each of the colleges, the Notre Dame Law School offers a professional program for students. Established in 1869, Notre Dame was the first Catholic university in the United States to have a law program.[80] Today the program has consistently ranked among the top law schools in the nation according to US News and World Report.[81] The Law School grants the professional Juris Doctor degree as well as the graduate LL.M. and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees.[77] Currently, the law school is experiencing an expansion that will double the size of its learning space and is expected to be in operation for the Spring 2009 semester. It is the only accredited American law school to offer a full year of study abroad in London.[citation needed]

The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices.[82]

Though Notre Dame does not have a medical school of its own, it hosts a regional campus of the Indiana University School of Medicine,[83] where Indiana University medical students may spend the first two years of their medical education before transferring to the main medical campus at IUPUI.

Libraries

The interior of the Kresge Law Library at the Notre Dame Law School

The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books.[84] The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown.[85][86] Another piece of artwork associated with the Library is the statue of Moses by Joseph Turkalj. This statue, popularly known as "First Down Moses" because of the manner in which his right arm is outstretched with his right index finger in the air, is at a side entrance to the building. The library system also includes branch libraries for Architecture, Chemistry & Physics, Engineering, Law, the Life Sciences, and Mathematics as well as information centers in the Mendoza College of Business, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, and a slide library in O'Shaughnessy Hall.[87] The library system holds over three million volumes, was the single largest university library in the world upon its completion,[88] and remains one of the 100 largest libraries in the country.[89]

Rankings

University rankings
National
ARWU[90]90-110
Forbes[91]12
U.S. News & World Report[92]17
Washington Monthly[93]16
Global
ARWU[94]201-300
QS[95]235
Times[96]94

Notre Dame was ranked 94th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. In 2012–2013, Notre Dame ranked 17th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2013.[97] Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 12th among colleges in the United States for 2012.[98] U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall.[81] BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall.[99] It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. Additionally, The Washington Monthly ranked the university 13th nationally in its 2006 edition.[100] The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally,[101] while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally.[102] The Princeton Review rated Notre Dame as the sixth most LGBT-Unfriendly College in the United States.[103] Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries.[104] According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $121,000, making it the 8th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 41st in the same peer group.[105]

Named by Newsweek as one of the "25 New Ivies,"[106] it is also an Oak Ridge Associated University.[107]

Research

Zahm

Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon.[108]

Other science

In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene.[109] Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936,[110] and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.

Lobund Institute

The Lobund Institute grew out of pioneering research in germ-free-life which began in 1928. This area of research originated in a question posed by Pasteur as to whether animal life was possible without bacteria. Though others had taken up this idea, their research was short lived and inconclusive. Lobund was the first research organization to answer definitively, that such life is possible and that it can be prolonged through generations. But the objective was not merely to answer Pasteur's question but also to produce the germ free animal as a new tool for biological and medical research. This objective was reached and for years Lobund was a unique center for the study and production of germ free animals and for their use in biological and medical investigations. Today the work has spread to other universities. In the beginning it was under the Department of Biology and a program leading to the master's degree accompanied the research program. In the 1940s Lobund achieved independent status as a purely research organization and in 1950 was raised to the status of an Institute. In 1958 it was brought back into the Department of Biology as integral part of that department, but with its own program leading to the degree of PhD in Gnotobiotics.[111]

Hallway within Hurley Hall

English

Richard T. Sullivan taught English from 1936 to 1974 and published six novels, dozens of short stories, and various other efforts. He was known as a regional writer and a Catholic spokesman.[112]

Frank O'Malley was an English professor during the 1930s–1960s. Influenced by Jacques Maritain, John U. Nef, and others, O'Malley developed a concept of Christian philosophy that was a fundamental element in his thought. Through his course "Modern Catholic Writers" O'Malley introduced generations of undergraduates to Gabriel Marcel, Graham Greene, Evelyn Waugh, Sigrid Undset, Paul Clandel, and Gerard Manley Hopkins.[113]

European émigrés

The rise of Hitler and other dictators in the 1930s forced numerous Catholic intellectuals to flee Europe; president John O’Hara brought many to Notre Dame. From Germany came Anton-Hermann Chroust (1907–1982) in classics and law,[114] and Waldemar Gurian a German Catholic intellectual of Jewish descent. Positivism dominated American intellectual life in the 1920s onward but in marked contrast, Gurian received a German Catholic education and wrote his doctoral dissertation under Max Scheler.[115] Ivan Meštrović (1883–1962), a renowned sculptor, brought Croatian culture to campus, 1955–62.[116] Yves Simon (1903–61), brought to ND in the 1940s the insights of French studies in the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition of philosophy; his own teacher Jacques Maritain (1882–73) was a frequent visitor to campus.[117]

The exiles developed a distinctive emphasis on the evils of totalitarianism. For example the political science courses of Gerhart Niemeyer (1907–97) discussed communist ideology and were particularly accessible to his students. He came to ND in 1955, and was a frequent contributor to the National Review and other conservative magazines.[118]

Political science

The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition.[119]

Research

As of 2012 research continued in many fields. The university president, John Jenkins, described his hope that Notre Dame would become "one of the pre–eminent research institutions in the world" in his inaugural address.[120] The university has many multi-disciplinary institutes devoted to research in varying fields, including the Medieval Institute, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace studies, and the Center for Social Concerns.[121] Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development,[122][123] genome mapping,[124] the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China,[125] studies in fluid mechanics,[126] and marketing trends on the Internet.[127]

Endowment

Notre Dame's financial endowment was started in the early 1920s by university president James Burns, and increased to US$7 million by 1952 when Hesburgh became president. By the 1980s it reached $150 million, and in 2000 it returned a record 57.9% investment.[128] For the 2007 fiscal year, the endowment had grown to approximately $6.5 billion, putting the university in the top-15 largest endowments in the country.[129] As of October 2009, Notre Dame's endowment is valued at $5.5 billion.[129]

Student life

In 2009 the Notre Dame student body consisted of 11,733 students, with 8,371 undergraduates and 3,362 graduate and professional students.[2] Around 21–24% of students are children of alumni,[130] and although 37% of students come from the Midwestern United States, the student body represents all 50 states and 100 countries.[2] The Princeton Review ranks the school as the fifth highest "dream school" for parents to send their children.[131] The school has been previously criticized for its lack of diversity,[132] and The Princeton Review ranks the university highly among schools at which "Alternative Lifestyles [are] Not an Alternative."[133] However, it has also been commended by some diversity oriented publications; Hispanic Magazine ranks the university ninth on its list of the top–25 colleges for Latinos,[134] and the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education recognizes the university for raising enrollment of African-American students.[135] With 6,000 participants, the university's intramural sports program has been named by Sports Illustrated as the best program in the country,[136] while The Princeton Review named it as the top school where "Everyone Plays Intramural Sports."[137] The annual Bookstore Basketball tournament is the largest outdoor five-on-five tournament in the world with over 700 teams participating each year,[138] while the Notre Dame Men's Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament that raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh.[139]

The strictly measured federal graduation rate for athletes was 86% for freshmen who entered between 2000 and 2002. This is one of the highest in the country.[140]

Residence halls

A view of South Quad, which houses a large number of undergraduates.

About 80% of undergraduates and 20% of graduate students live on campus.[2] The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus, while all on-campus undergraduates live in one of the 29 residence halls.[141] Because of the religious affiliation of the university, all residence halls are single-sex, with 15 male dorms and 14 female dorms.[142] The university maintains a visiting policy (known as parietal hours) for those students who live in dormitories, specifying times when members of the opposite sex are allowed to visit other students' dorm rooms; however, all residence halls have 24-hour social spaces for students regardless of gender. Many residence halls have at least one nun and/or priest as a resident. There are no traditional social fraternities or sororities at the university, but a majority of students live in the same residence hall for all four years. Some intramural sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football.[143] At the end of the intramural season, the championship game is played on the field in Notre Dame Stadium.

Religious life

The university is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross. More than 93% of students identify as Christian, with over 80% of the total being Catholic.[144] The Basilica of the Sacred Heart is on campus and each residence hall has a chapel. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over 100 times per week on campus.[143] There are multitudes of religious statues and artwork around campus, most prominent of which are the statue of Mary on the Main Building, the Notre Dame Grotto, and the Word of Life mural on Hesburgh Library depicting Christ as a teacher. Additionally, every classroom displays a crucifix.[132] There are many religious clubs at the school, including Council #1477 of the Knights of Columbus (KOC), Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, The Mormon Club, and many more. The Notre Dame KofC are known for being the first collegiate council of KofC, operating a charitable concession stand during every home football game and owning their own building on campus which can be used as a cigar lounge.[145]

The Golden Dome of the Main Building with the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in the foreground.

The University was founded by a group of Catholic missionary priests and brothers from France, members of the Congregation of Holy Cross (in Latin, Congregatio a Sancta Cruce; more commonly referred to as "CSC," which is also the initials placed after all members' names). The land where they founded the school was donated to them by the Bishop of Vincennes, Indiana. They saw a large part of their early mission to be caring for and evangelizing the local Potawatomi tribes. Upon arrival on the lake shore in the cold of winter, they dedicated their new school and all their endeavors to the Virgin Mary under the name Notre Dame du Lac, which is French for Our Lady of the Lake.

This Catholic mission of the Congregation, its schools at the site, and their successors has shaped the campus and the university. Fifty-seven chapels are located throughout the campus.

While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, approximately 80% of undergraduates enrolled self-identify as Catholic. There are many Catholic clubs, organizations, and ministries on campus. There is a large campus ministry program and many volunteer opportunities. There is no compulsory participation in any religious liturgies. Students and clubs of other religions and Christian denominations are welcomed and supported.

Nearly every residence hall has a priest in residence. Every residence hall (and many academic buildings) contains a chapel, where Sunday and daily masses are celebrated during the school year. One dorm is named after a saint (Saint Edward). Sunday and daily masses as well as daily confessions are held in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in the center of campus.

Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes" ("Come to me, all you"; Matthew 11:28a). Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where Mary is reputed to have appeared to St. Bernadette in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary. Behind her approximately 1,000 feet (300 m) is a statue of the founder of the school, Edward Sorin.

The interior of the Basilica of the Sacred Heart.

The 14-story Hesburgh Library sports a 134-foot-tall (41 m) stone mosaic on its southern face of Christ surrounded by the Apostles and notable scholarly saints and doctors of the Church. This mosaic is entitled "The Word of Life," but is affectionately referred to as 'Touchdown Jesus' because of Christ's upraised arms and the visibility of the mosaic from the stadium through the uprights of the northern endzone. Next to the library is Ivan Meštrović's large bronze statue of Moses with finger upraised (affectionately known as 'Firstdown Moses').

The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. Until the 1970s, many of the support staff were nuns and monks.

The university supports many Church-related organizations and ministries.

The university has a highly regarded theology program, both undergraduate and graduate, with many scholars, including Lawrence Cunningham, John Cavadini, and Gary Anderson.

University by-laws require that the President of the University be a priest of the United States Province of the Congregation of Holy Cross. Until 1967, when governance was transferred to a lay board of trustees, the university was entirely governed by the leadership of the Holy Cross order.

Although the faculty was well over 85% Catholic before 1970, search practices have broadened. In recent years about half the new faculty hires have been Catholics, and Catholics now comprise 52% of the faculty.[146]

However, in a policy statement the University declares that "the Catholic identity of the University depends upon ... the continuing presence of a predominant number of Catholic intellectuals" on the faculty. As the provost has explained, the aim is "to have a majority of faculty who are Catholic, who understand the nature of the religion, who can be living role models, who can talk with students about issues outside the classroom and can infuse values into what they do."[147]

The Grotto to Our Lady of Lourdes, one of the many spiritual places on campus

In 2009 the University was criticized by many Catholic bishops for conferring an honorary degree on President Barack Obama. President Obama's promotion of abortion access and types of embryonic stem cell research that result in the destruction of human embryos conflicts with Catholic doctrine on the sanctity of life.[148][149][150][151]

Student-run media

As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news.[152] The Observer is staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College, the women's college located nearby. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students.[153]

The television station, NDtv, grew from one show in 2002 to a full 24-hour channel with original programming by September 2006.[154] WSND-FM serves the student body and larger South Bend community at 88.9 FM, offering students a chance to become involved in bringing classical music, fine arts and educational programming, and alternative rock to the airwaves. Another radio station, WVFI, began as a partner of WSND-FM. More recently, however, WVFI has been airing independently and is streamed on the Internet.[155] Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876,[156] the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork.[153] The Dome yearbook is published annually. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.[157]

Community development

The first phase of Eddy Street Commons, a $215 million development located adjacent to the University of Notre Dame campus and funded by the university, broke ground on June 3, 2008.[158][159] The Eddy Street Commons drew union protests when workers hired by the City of South Bend to construct the public parking garage picketed the private work site after a contractor hired non-union workers.[160] The developer, Kite Realty out of Indianapolis, has made agreements with major national chains rather than local businesses, a move that has led to criticism from alumni and students.[161][162]

Athletics

Notre Dame teams are known as the Fighting Irish. They compete as a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I level (non-football sub-level), primarily competing in the Big East Conference for all sports since the 1995-96 season.[163] The Fighting Irish previously competed in the Horizon League from 1982-83 to 1985-86, and again from 1987-88 to 1994-95. Men's sports include baseball, basketball, crew, cross country, fencing, football, golf, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming & diving, tennis and track & field; while women's sports include basketball, cross country, fencing, golf, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming & diving, tennis, track & field and volleyball. The football team competes as an Football Bowl Subdivision (FCS) Independent[164] since its inception in 1887. Both fencing teams compete in the Midwest Fencing Conference,[165] and the men's ice hockey team competes in Hockey East.[166]

The Fighting Irish name was used in the early 1920s with respect to the football team and was popularized by alumnus Francis Wallace in his New York Daily News columns.[167] The official colors of Notre Dame are gold and blue[168] which are worn in competition by its athletic teams. In addition, the color green is often worn because of the Fighting Irish nickname.[169] The Notre Dame Leprechaun is the mascot of the athletic teams. Created by Theodore W. Drake in 1964, the leprechaun was first used on the football pocket schedule and later on the football program covers. The leprechaun was featured on the cover of Time in November 1964 and gained national exposure.[170]

In September 2012, however, Notre Dame announced that it would leave the Big East and join the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) for all sports except football and men's hockey, with the exact date of the conference move to be determined.[171] The university marching band plays at home games for most of the sports. The band, which began in 1846 and has a claim as the oldest university band in continuous existence in the United States, was honored by the National Music Council as a "Landmark of American Music" during the United States Bicentennial.[172] The band regularly plays the school's fight song the Notre Dame Victory March, which was named as the most played and most famous fight song by Northern Illinois Professor William Studwell.[173] According to College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology published in 1998, the “Notre Dame Victory March” ranks as the greatest fight song of all time.[173]

According to some analysts without direct connection to the university or its athletic department, Notre Dame promotes Muscular Christianity through its athletic programs.[174][175] Neither the university nor its athletic department have ever commented on this assertion.

Football

The Notre Dame football team has a long history, first beginning when the Michigan Wolverines football team brought football to Notre Dame in 1887 and played against a group of students.[176] In the long history since then, 13 Fighting Irish teams have won consensus national championships (although the university only claims 11),[163] along with another nine teams being named national champion by at least one source.[177] Additionally, the program has the most members in the College Football Hall of Fame,[178][179] is tied with Ohio State University with the most Heisman Trophies won,[180] and have the second highest winning percentage in NCAA history.[181] With the long history, Notre Dame has accumulated many rivals, and its annual game against USC for the Jeweled Shillelagh has been named by some as one of the most important in college football[182] and is often called the greatest intersectional rivalry in college football in the country.[183][184][185][186][187]

George Gipp was the school’s legendary football player during 1916–20. He played semiprofessional baseball and smoked, drank, and gambled when not playing sports. He was also humble, generous to the needy, and a man of integrity.[188] It was in 1928 that famed coach Knute Rockne used his final conversation with the dying Gipp to inspire the Notre Dame team to beat the Army team and "win one for the Gipper." The 1940 film, Knute Rockne, All American, starred Pat O'Brien as Knute Rockne and Ronald Reagan as Gipp.

Today the team competes in Notre Dame Stadium, an 80,795-seat stadium on campus.[189] The current head coach is Brian Kelly, hired from the University of Cincinnati on December 11, 2009.[190] Kelly's record in three seasons at Notre Dame is 28–10.[191] He succeeded Charlie Weis, who was fired in November 2009 after five seasons.[192][193] Although Weis led his team to two Bowl Championship Series bowl games,[194] his overall record was 35–27,[195] mediocre by Notre Dame standards, and the 2007 team had the most losses in school history.[196] The football team generates enough revenue to operate independently while $22.1 million is retained from the team's profits for academic use. Forbes named the team as the most valuable in college football, worth a total of $101 million in 2007.[197]

Football Gameday Traditions

During home games, activities occur all around campus and different dorms decorate their halls with a traditional item (e.g. Zahm House's two-story banner). Traditional activities begin at the stroke of midnight with the Drummers' Circle. This tradition involves the drum line of the Band of the Fighting Irish and ushers in the rest of the festivities that will continue the rest of the gameday Saturday. Later that day, the trumpet section will play the Notre Dame Victory March and the Notre Dame Alma Mater under the dome. The band entire will play a concert at the steps of Bond Hall, from where they will march into Notre Dame Stadium, leading fans and students alike across campus to the game.[198]

Men's basketball

The men's basketball team has over 1,600 wins, one of only 12 schools who have reached that mark, and have appeared in 28 NCAA tournaments.[199] Former player Austin Carr holds the record for most points scored in a single game of the tournament with 61.[200] Although the team has never won the NCAA Tournament, they were named by the Helms Athletic Foundation as national champions twice.[199] The team has orchestrated a number of upsets of number one ranked teams, the most notable of which was ending UCLA's record 88-game winning streak in 1974.[201] The team has beaten an additional eight number-one teams, and those nine wins rank second, to UCLA's 10, all-time in wins against the top team.[199] The team plays in newly renovated Purcell Pavilion, which opened for the beginning of the 2009–2010 season,[202] The team is coached by Mike Brey, who, as of the 2011–12 season, his twelfth, has achieved a 259–130 record.[203] Just in 2009 they were invited to the NIT, where they advanced to the semifinals but were beaten by Penn State who went on and beat Baylor in the championship. The 2010–11 team concluded its regular season ranked number seven in the country, with a record of 25–5, Brey's fifth straight 20-win season, and a second place finish in the Big East.

Other sports

Notre Dame has been successful in other sports besides football, with an additional 14 national championships in various sports. Three teams have won multiple national championships with the fencing team leading them with seven,[204] followed by the men's tennis and women's soccer teams each with two.[205][206] The men's cross country,[206] men's golf,[206] and women's basketball teams have each won one in their histories.[207]

In the first ten years that Notre Dame competed in the Big East Conference its teams won a total of 64 championships.[208] In 2006–07, Notre Dame's hockey team finished the regular season ranked #1.[citation needed] The women's swimming and diving team holds the Big East record for consecutive conference championships in any sport with 14 straight conference titles (1997–2010)."Notre Dame Claims 14th Consecutive BIG EAST Title" (Press release). University of Notre Dame Sports Information. http://www.und.com/sports/w-swim/recaps/022010aaa.html. Retrieved May 17, 2010.

Music

The Band of the Fighting Irish is the oldest university band in continuous existence.[209] It was formed in 1846. The all-male Glee Club was formed in 1915.[210]

The "Notre Dame Victory March" is the fight song for the University of Notre Dame. It was written by two brothers who were Notre Dame graduates. The Rev. Michael J. Shea, a 1904 graduate, wrote the music, and his brother, John F. Shea, who earned degrees in 1906 and 1908, wrote the original lyrics. The lyrics were revised in the 1920s; it first appeared under the copyright of the University of Notre Dame in 1928. The chorus is, "Cheer cheer for old Notre Dame, wake up the echos cheering her name. Send a volley cheer on high, shake down the thunder from the sky! What though the odds be great or small, old Notre Dame will win over all. While her loyal sons are marching, onward to victory!"

The chorus of the song is one of the most recognizable collegiate fight songs in the United States, and was ranked first among fight songs by Northern Illinois University Professor William Studwell, who remarked it was "more borrowed, more famous and, frankly, you just hear it more."[173]

In the film Knute Rockne, All American, Knute Rockne (played by Pat O'Brien) delivers the famous "Win one for the Gipper" speech, at which point the background music swells with the Notre Dame Victory March. George Gipp was played by Ronald Reagan, whose nickname "The Gipper" was derived from this role. This scene was parodied in the movie Airplane! with the same background music, only this time honoring George Zipp, one of Ted Striker's former comrades. The song also was prominent in the movie Rudy, with Sean Astin as Daniel "Rudy" Ruettiger, who harbored dreams of playing football at the University of Notre Dame despite significant obstacles.

Alumni

Condoleezza Rice '75 MA

Notre Dame alumni number near 120,000,[211] and are members of 275 alumni clubs around the world.[212] Many alumni give yearly monetary support to the university, with a school-record 53.2% giving some donation in 2006.[213] Many buildings on campus are named for those whose donations allowed their building, including residence halls,[214][215] classroom buildings,[216] and the performing arts center.[41]

Notre Dame alumni work in various fields. Alumni working in political fields include state governors,[217] members of the United States Congress,[218] and former United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.[219] A notable alumnus of the College of Science is Nobel Prize winner Eric F. Wieschaus.[citation needed] A number of university heads are alumni, including Notre Dame's current president, Rev. John Jenkins.[220] Additionally, many alumni are in the media, including talk show hosts Regis Philbin[221] and Phil Donahue,[222] and television and radio personalities such as Mike Golic[223] and Hannah Storm.[224] With the university having high profile sports teams itself, a number of alumni went on to become involved in athletics outside the university, including professional baseball, basketball, football, and ice hockey players, such as Joe Theisman, Joe Montana,[225] Tim Brown, Ross Browner, Rocket Ismail, Megan Duffy,[226] Jeff Samardzija,[227] Jerome Bettis, Brett Lebda Olympic gold medalist Mariel Zagunis, professional boxer Mike Lee, former football coaches such as Charlie Weis[228] and Knute Rockne,[229] and Basketball Hall of Famers Austin Carr and Adrian Dantley. Other notable alumni include prominent businessman Edward J. DeBartolo, Jr. and astronaut Jim Wetherbee.[230][231]

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Further reading

External links