University of Mississippi

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The University of Mississippi
OleMissLogo.svg
The University of Mississippi logo
MottoPro scientia et sapientia (Latin)
Motto in EnglishOn behalf of knowledge and wisdom
Established1848
TypePublic
Sea-grant
Space-grant
Flagship
Endowment$462 million[1]
ChancellorDaniel W. Jones
Academic staff729[2]
Students

17,142 in Oxford;

21,535 systemwide[3]
LocationOxford, Mississippi, United States
34°21′59″N 89°32′12″W / 34.3663°N 89.5368°W / 34.3663; -89.5368Coordinates: 34°21′59″N 89°32′12″W / 34.3663°N 89.5368°W / 34.3663; -89.5368
CampusRural 2,000+ acres
Sports teamsRebels
ColorsHarvard Crimson and Yale Blue         
(adopted in 1893)[4]
Websitewww.olemiss.edu
Ole Miss rebels Logo.svg
 
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The University of Mississippi
OleMissLogo.svg
The University of Mississippi logo
MottoPro scientia et sapientia (Latin)
Motto in EnglishOn behalf of knowledge and wisdom
Established1848
TypePublic
Sea-grant
Space-grant
Flagship
Endowment$462 million[1]
ChancellorDaniel W. Jones
Academic staff729[2]
Students

17,142 in Oxford;

21,535 systemwide[3]
LocationOxford, Mississippi, United States
34°21′59″N 89°32′12″W / 34.3663°N 89.5368°W / 34.3663; -89.5368Coordinates: 34°21′59″N 89°32′12″W / 34.3663°N 89.5368°W / 34.3663; -89.5368
CampusRural 2,000+ acres
Sports teamsRebels
ColorsHarvard Crimson and Yale Blue         
(adopted in 1893)[4]
Websitewww.olemiss.edu
Ole Miss rebels Logo.svg

The University of Mississippi (colloquially known as Ole Miss) is a public, coeducational research university in Oxford, Mississippi, United States. Founded in 1848, the school is composed of the main campus in Oxford, four branch campuses located in Booneville, Grenada, Tupelo, and Southaven, as well as the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. It also operates the University of Mississippi Field Station in Abbeville. It is both a sea-grant and space-grant institute. Sixty-two percent of undergraduates are from Mississippi and twenty-five percent of all students are minorities. International students come from seventy-four nations. Ole Miss is Mississippi's second largest university with a total enrollment of 21,528 in fall 2012. The Oxford campus is the second-largest main campus in the state with a fall 2012 enrollment of 17,142.

History[edit]

Founding, expansion, and tradition[edit]

The Lyceum, William Nichols, architect (1848).

The Mississippi Legislature chartered the University of Mississippi on February 24, 1844. The university opened its doors to its first class of 80 students four years later in 1848. For 23 years, the university was Mississippi's only public institution of higher learning, and for 110 years it was the state's only comprehensive university.[5]

When the university opened, the campus consisted of only six buildings: two dormitories, two faculty houses, a steward’s hall, and the Lyceum at the center. Constructed from 1846 to 1848, the Lyceum is the oldest building on campus. Originally, the Lyceum housed all of the classrooms and faculty offices of the university. The building’s north and south wings were added in 1903, and the Class of 1927 donated the clock above the eastern portico. The Lyceum is now the home of the university's administration offices. The columned facade of the Lyceum is represented on the official crest of the university, along with the date of establishment.[6]

In 1854, the university established the fourth state-supported, public law school in the United States and began offering engineering education.[7][8]

With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, classes were interrupted when the entire student body from the University of Mississippi enlisted in the Confederate army. Their company, Company A, 11th Mississippi Infantry, was nicknamed the University Greys, and suffered a 100% casualty rate during the Civil War.[9] A great number of those casualties occurred during Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863, when the University Greys made the deepest encroachment into Union territory. Some of the soldiers actually crossed the Union defensive fortification wall, only to be killed, wounded or captured. On the very next day, July 4, Confederate forces surrendered at Vicksburg, Mississippi; the two battles together are commonly viewed as the turning point in the war. When Ole Miss re-opened, only one member of the University Greys was able to visit the university to address the student body.

The Lyceum was used as a hospital during the Civil War for both Union and Confederate soldiers, especially those who were wounded at the battle of Shiloh. Two hundred and fifty soldiers who died in the campus hospital were buried in a cemetery on the grounds of the university.[10][11]

The university was led, during the post-war period, by former Confederate general A.P. Stewart, a Rogersville, Tennessee native, who was Chancellor from 1874-1886.[12]

The university became coeducational in 1882 and was the first such institution in the Southeast to hire a female faculty member, doing so in 1885.[13]

The student yearbook was published for the first time in 1897. As a way to find a name for the book, a contest was held to solicit any suggestions from the student body. Elma Meek, a student at the time, submitted the winning entry of Ole Miss. This sobriquet was chosen not only for the yearbook, but also became the name by which the University is now known.[14] Ole Miss is defined as the school's intangible spirit, which is separate from the tangible aspects of the university.[15][16] Meek's source for the term is unknown. Some historians theorize she either made a simple diminutive of "Old Mississippi" or, more likely, derived it from "ol' missus", African American eye dialect for a plantation's "old mistress." [17][18][19]

The university began medical education in 1903, when the University of Mississippi School of Medicine was established on the parent campus in Oxford. In that era, the university only provided two-year pre-clinical education certificates, and graduates went out of state to complete their doctor of medicine degrees. In 1950, the Mississippi Legislature voted to create a four-year medical school. On July 1, 1955, the University Medical Center opened in Jackson, Mississippi, as a four-year medical school. In 1955, the University of Mississippi School of Medicine moved to Jackson where its curriculum was expanded to four years in the brand-new Medical Center. The University of Mississippi Medical Center, as it is now called, is the health sciences campus of the University of Mississippi and houses the University of Mississippi School of Medicine along with five other health science schools: nursing, dentistry, health related professions, graduate studies and pharmacy. (The School of Pharmacy is headquartered on the Oxford campus)[20]

During the 1930s, an attempt by Mississippi Governor Theodore G. Bilbo to move The University of Mississippi to Jackson, was prevented by then Chancellor Alfred Hume by giving Mississippi legislators a grand tour of Ole Miss and the surrounding city of Oxford. It so impressed the legislators that the move was defeated.

During World War II, UM was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[21]

Integration of 1962 and legacy[edit]

James Meredith walking to class at the University of Mississippi, accompanied by U.S. Marshals.
Civil Rights Monument (statue of James Meredith sculptor: Rod Moorhead) on the Ole Miss campus.

Desegregation came to Ole Miss in the early 1960s with the activities of United States Air Force veteran James Meredith from Kosciusko, Mississippi. Even Meredith's initial efforts required great courage. All involved knew how violently Dr. William David McCain and the white political establishment of Mississippi had recently reacted to similar efforts by Clyde Kennard to enroll at Mississippi Southern College (now the University of Southern Mississippi).[22][23][24][25]

Meredith won a lawsuit that allowed him admission to The University of Mississippi in September 1962. He attempted to enter campus on September 20, September 25, and again on September 26,[26] only to be blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross R. Barnett, who proclaimed that "...No school in our state will be integrated while I am your Governor. I shall do everything in my power to prevent integration in our schools."[27]

After the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held both Barnett and Lieutenant Governor Paul B. Johnson, Jr. in contempt with fines of more than $10,000 for each day they refused to allow Meredith to enroll,[28] Meredith, escorted by a force of U.S. Marshals, entered the campus on September 30, 1962.[29]

Segregationists had gathered and rioted at the school; there were more people from around the South than students. Thousands of students, residents from the surrounding area and many from out of state, many armed, were involved.[30] Many Mississippi citizens joined in on "their battle against 'Catholic, Communist, Northern'" intervention in Mississippi white people's business. The protesters swarmed the campus in a violent effort to prevent Meredith's enrollment and enforce segregationist laws of Mississippi at the time.

Two people were killed by gunfire during the riot, a French journalist, Paul Guihard and an Oxford repairman, Ray Gunter.[31][32] One-third of the US Marshals, 166 men, were injured, as were 40 soldiers and National Guardsmen.[30]

After control was re-established by federal forces, Meredith, thanks to the protection afforded by federal marshals, was able to enroll and attend his first class on October 1. Following the riot, elements of an Army National Guard division were stationed in Oxford to prevent future similar violence. While most Ole Miss students did not riot prior to his official enrollment in the university, many harassed Meredith during his first two semesters on campus.

According to first person accounts chronicled in Nadine Cohodas's book The Band Played Dixie, students living in Meredith's dorm bounced basketballs on the floor just above his room through all hours of the night. When Meredith walked into the cafeteria for meals, the students eating would all turn their backs. If Meredith sat at a table with other students, all of whom were white, the students would immediately get up and go to another table. Many of these events are featured in the 2012 ESPN documentary film "The Ghosts of Ole Miss"

In 2002 the university marked the 40th anniversary of integration with a year-long series of events. It was entitled, " Open Doors: Building on 40 Years of Opportunity in Higher Education, and included an oral history of Ole Miss, various symposiums, the April unveiling of a $130,000 memorial and a reunion of the federal marshals. It culminate[d] in September 2003 with an international conference on race." That year 13% of the student body was African American, and Meredith's son Joseph graduated as the top doctoral student at the School of Business Administration.[33]

The site of the riots, known as Lyceum-The Circle Historic District, was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the United States Secretary of the Interior on October 7, 2008.[34] The district includes:

Additionally, on April 14, 2010, The University campus was declared a National Historic Site by the Society of Professional Journalists to honor reporters who covered the 1962 riot including French reporter Paul Guihard.[35]

From September 2012 to May 2013, the university commemorated its golden anniversary of integration with a program called “Opening the Closed Society.” The program’s name is a reference to “Mississippi: The Closed Society,” a 1964 book by James W. Silver, an Ole Miss history professor.[36] The events included lectures by prominent figures like Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. and the singer and activist Harry Belafonte, movie screenings, panel discussions and a “walk of reconciliation and redemption.” [37] Myrlie Evers-Williams, widow of slain civil rights activist and former president of the NAACP, closed the observance on May 11, 2013, by delivering the address at the university's 160th commencement.[38]

Recent history[edit]

The University was chosen to host the first presidential debate of 2008, between Senator John S. McCain and then-Senator Barack Obama which was held September 26, 2008. This was the first presidential debate to be held in Mississippi.[39][40]

The university adopted a new on-field mascot for athletic events in the fall of 2010.[41] Colonel Reb, retired from the sidelines of sporting events in 2003, was officially replaced by the Rebel Black Bear. All university sports teams are still officially referred to as the Rebels.[42]

The University's 25th Rhodes Scholar was named in 2008, and, over the past 10 years, the university has produced five Truman, eight Goldwater and six Fulbright scholars, as well as one Marshall, one Udall and one Gates Cambridge scholar.[43]

The University of Mississippi crowned the first African American Homecoming Queen. Courtney Roxanne Pearson was nominated for Homecoming Queen and succeeded on Oct. 13, 2012 where she was crowned.Pearson received 1,477 votes, compared to 1,387 ballots cast for Ashleigh Davis of Gulfport.Pearson is the daughter of Cynthia McNutt Pearson of Winona and Kerry Pearson of Oxford.[44]

Academics[edit]

University rankings
National
Forbes[45]278
U.S. News & World Report[46]141
Washington Monthly[47]136
Global

With 2,563 full-time employees on the Oxford and satellite campuses, including 779 full-time faculty, Ole Miss is the largest employer in Lafayette County. More than 82 percent of full-time faculty hold the highest degrees in their fields.[48] The student-faculty ratio at University of Mississippi is 19:1, and the school has 47.4 percent of its classes with fewer than 20 students. The most popular majors at University of Mississippi include: Elementary Education and Teaching; Marketing/Marketing Management, General; Finance, General; Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Administration, Other; and Business Administration and Management, General. The average freshman retention rate, an indicator of student satisfaction, is 80.8 percent.[49]

Divisions of the University[edit]

Ventress Hall

The degree-granting divisions located at the Main Campus in Oxford:

Medicinal marijuana farmed by the University for the government

The colleges at the University of Mississippi Medical Center campus in Jackson:

University of Mississippi Medical Center surgeons, led by Dr. James Hardy, performed the world's first human lung transplant, in 1963, and the world's first animal-to-human heart transplant, in 1964. The heart of a chimpanzee was used for the heart transplant because of Dr. Hardy's research on transplantation, consisting of primate studies during the previous nine years.[50][51]

The University of Mississippi Field Station located in Abbeville is a natural laboratory used to study, research and teach about sustainable freshwater ecosystems.

Since 1968, the school operates the only legal marijuana farm and production facility in the United States. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) contracts to the university the production of cannabis for the use in approved research studies on the plant as well as for distribution to the seven surviving medical cannabis patients grandfathered into the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program (established in 1978 and canceled in 1991).[52]

The university houses one of the largest blues music archives in the United States. Some of the contributions to the collection were donated by BB King who donated his entire personal record collection. The Mamie and Ellis Nassour Arts & Entertainment Collection, highlighted by a wealth of theater and film scripts, photographs and memorabilia, was dedicated in September 2005. The archive includes the first ever commercial blues recording, a song called "Crazy Blues" recorded by Mamie Smith in 1920.[53]

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The first commercial blues recording was Mamie Smith's performance of Perry Bradford's "Crazy Blues" in 1920.

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Special programs[edit]

Center for Intelligence and Security Studies[edit]

The Center for Intelligence and Security Studies (CISS) delivers academic programming to prepare outstanding students for careers in intelligence analysis in both the public and private sectors. In addition, CISS personnel engage in applied research and consortium building with government, private and academic partners. In late 2012, the United States Director of National Intelligence designated CISS as an Intelligence Community Center of Academic Excellence ("CAE"). CISS is one of only 29 college programs in the United States with this distinction.[54]

Chinese Language Flagship Program[edit]

The university offers the Chinese Language Flagship Program, a study program aiming to provide Americans with an advanced knowledge of Chinese.[55]

Croft Institute for International Studies[edit]

The Croft Institute for International Studies at the University of Mississippi is a privately funded, select-admissions, undergraduate program for high achieving students who pursue the B.A. degree in international studies. Croft students combine a regional concentrations in Europe, East Asia, Latin America, or the Middle East with a thematic concentration in global economics and business, international governance and politics, or social and cultural identity. The program emphasizes intensive foreign language training, qualitative and quantitative skills, mandatory study abroad for a semester or more, and a yearlong senior thesis.

ISO (International Student Organisation)[edit]

The University of Mississippi has several student organizations to help students get to know each other and get suited with life at the University. One organization is the "ISO," which works to gather all international students but organizing different activities and events. Notable events of the "ISO" includes the cultural night, date auction and ISO international sports tournament.

SECU: SEC Academic Initiative[edit]

The University of Mississippi is a member of the SEC Academic Consortium. Now renamed the SECU, the initiative was a collaborative endeavor designed to promote research, scholarship and achievement amongst the member universities in the Southeastern Conference. The SECU formed its mission to serve as a means to bolster collaborative academic endeavors of Southeastern Conference universities. Its goals include highlighting the endeavors and achievements of SEC faculty, students and its universities and advancing the academic reputation of SEC universities.[56][57]

In 2013, the University of Mississippi participated in the SEC Symposium in Atlanta, Georgia which was organized and led by the University of Georgia and the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute. The topic of the Symposium was titled, the "Impact of the Southeast in the World's Renewable Energy Future."[58]

Rankings and accolades[edit]

Livability.com ranks Oxford No. 2 on its third annual listing of top college towns, praising the town’s genteel atmosphere, cultural and social opportunities, and abundance of outdoor activities. Oxford was No. 9 on last year’s list. Ole Miss is No. 18 on Forbes’ “Best Value Colleges,” part of the annual America’s Top Colleges section. It is the only SEC school to make the Top 20 list.[59] For the fourth year in a row, The Chronicle of Higher Education named the University of Mississippi as one of the “2012 Great Colleges to Work For,” putting the institution in elite company. The results, released in The Chronicle’s fifth annual report on The Academic Workplace, are based on a survey of more than 46,000 employees at 294 colleges and universities.[60] The University of Mississippi was included in “Fiske Guide to Colleges 2012″ featuring more than 300 of the best and most interesting colleges and universities in three nations. UM is the only Mississippi institution included in the publication. In 2012, the Ole Miss campus was ranked safest in the SEC and in the top 10 nationally by CollegeSafe.com.[61] U.S. News & World Report ranks the Professional MBA program at the UM School of Business Administration as one of the top 14 in the nation.[62] The university’s Patterson School of Accountancy is ranked No. 10 in the nation – atop all other SEC programs – for undergraduate education by the Public Accounting Report. Also, the school’s master’s and doctoral programs are ranked at Nos. 11 and 12, respectively, in their categories.

The Army ROTC program received one of eight prestigious MacArthur Awards in February 2012. Presented by the U.S. Army Cadet Command and the Gen. Douglas MacArthur Foundation, the award recognizes the ideals of “duty, honor and country” as advocated by MacArthur. For its life-changing work in 12 Delta communities, the UM School of Pharmacy won the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy’s 2011-12 Lawrence C. Weaver Transformative Community Service Award. AACP presents the award annually to one pharmacy school that not only demonstrates a major commitment to addressing unmet community needs through education, practice and research but also serves as an example of social responsiveness for others. Ole Miss continues to be the premiere destination for college tailgating as the Grove claimed second place in Southern Living’s “South’s Best Tailgate” contest in 2012. The William Winter Institute for Racial Reconciliation at the University of Mississippi was honored by the International Association of Official Human Rights Agencies with its 2012 International Award. The accolade from the nonprofit organization devoted to promoting civil and human rights around the world was presented in New Orleans.[63]

Athletics[edit]

Archie Manning's uniform number as the official speed limit on campus.

Archie Manning's uniform number, 18, is the official speed limit of the Oxford campus.[64] In March 2012, Ross Bjork was named the University's new athletics director.[65]

Student life[edit]

Student media[edit]

These five publications are a part of the S. Gale Denley Student Media Center at Ole Miss. The current director of student media is Patricia Thompson.

Student housing[edit]

Approximately 4,386 students live on campus in the fourteen residence halls available. All freshmen (students with less than 30 credit hours) are required to live in campus housing their first year unless they meet certain commuter guidelines.[70] The Department of Student Housing is an auxiliary, meaning that it is self-supporting and does not receive appropriations from state funds. All rent received from students pays for housing functions such as utilities, staff salaries, furniture, supplies, repairs, renovations and new buildings.[71] Most of the residence staff members are students, including day-to-day management, conduct board members and maintenance personnel.[72] Upon acceptance to The University of Mississippi, a housing application is submitted with a processing fee.[72] On-campus housing cost ranges from $4,000 to over $8,000 (the highest price being that of the newly renovated Village apartments) per semester depending on the occupancy and room type.[72] Students (with more than 30 credit hours) have the option to live off campus in unaffiliated housing.[72]

Graduate students, undergraduate students aged 21 or older, students who are married, and students with families may live in the Village Apartments. The complex consists of three two-story buildings and is adjacent to the University of Mississippi Law School. Undergraduates over 21, married students, and graduate students may live in the one-bedroom apartments. Graduate students and students over 21 may live in studio-style apartments. Students with children may live in the two-bedroom apartments.[73] Children living in the Village Apartments are zoned to the Oxford School District.[74] Residents are zoned to Bramlett Elementary School (PreK-1), Oxford Elementary School (2-3), Della Davidson Elementary School (4-5), Oxford Middle School (6-8), and Oxford High School (9-12).[75]

The new contemporary-style residence halls, Minor Hall (formerly Ridge West), Ridge North, and Ridge South consist of three adjacent buildings with a shared courtyard in the center. Constructed in 2012, Minor and the Ridges offer a personal sink and bathroom for each room. Each room is also designed for two people. Typically, membership in certain academic programs is a requirement to be eligible to live in any of the Ridges.

Greek life[edit]

Despite the relatively small number of Greek-letter organizations on campus, a third of all undergraduates participate in Greek life at Ole Miss. The tradition of Greek life on the Oxford campus is a deep-seated one. In fact, the first fraternity founded in the South was the W.W.W. (or Rainbow Society), founded at Ole Miss in 1848. The fraternity merged with Delta Tau Delta in 1886.[76] Delta Kappa Epsilon followed shortly after at Ole Miss in 1850, as the first to have a house on campus in Mississippi. Delta Gamma Women's Fraternity was founded in 1873 at the Lewis School for Girls in nearby Oxford. All Greek life at Ole Miss was suspended from 1912 to 1926 due to statewide anti-fraternity legislation.[77]

Today, sorority chapters are very large, with many boasting of around 300 + active members. Recruitment is fiercely competitive and potential sorority members are encouraged to secure personal recommendations from Ole Miss sorority alumnae in order to increase the chances of receiving an invitation to join one of the 9 NPC sororities on campus. Fraternity recruitment is also fierce with only 14 active IFC Fraternity chapters on campus.

NPC Sororities

Inactive Chapters:

Future Chapters:

IFC Fraternities

Inactive Chapters:

NPHC Fraternities and Sororities
Other Fraternities and Sororities

Associated Student Body[edit]

The Associated Student Body (ASB) is the Ole Miss student government organization. The student body, excluding the Medical Center, includes 16,058 undergraduates, 1,992 graduate students, 520 law students and 223 students in the Doctor of Pharmacy program.16.5% of the student body is African American. The current Associated Student Body President is Gregory Alston.

Noteworthy alumni[edit]

Noteworthy alumni in fiction[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mississippi Business Journal http://msbusiness.com/blog/2013/03/18/board-in-no-hurry-to-find-permanent-president-for-valley/ |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  2. ^ [www.olemiss.edu/info/stats_factsOLE MISS FACTS 2011-12]
  3. ^ Diggs, Mitchell. "Assistant Director of Public Relations at the University of Mississippi". Ole Miss News. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  4. ^ Ole Miss Traditions
  5. ^ "The University of Mississippi - History". Olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  6. ^ "Virtual Tours - The University of Mississippi". Olemiss.edu. 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  7. ^ "List of law schools in the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  8. ^ "School of Engineering • About Us". Engineering.olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  9. ^ 11th Mississippi Infantry: A Brief History" by Steven Davis http://faculty.swosu.edu/scott.long/11thmiss/homepage/history.htm
  10. ^ "Confederate Cemetery - About - Google". Maps.google.com. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  11. ^ http://www.civilwarcenter.olemiss.edu/cemeteries_csa.html
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  13. ^ "Sarah Isom Center for Women". Olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  14. ^ The Ole Miss Student Yearbook
  15. ^ Everett, Frank E. (1962). Frank E. Everett Collection (MUM00123). The Department of Archives and Special Collections, J.D. Williams Library, The University of Mississippi. 
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  17. ^ Cabaniss, J. A. (1949). The University of Mississippi; Its first hundred years. University & College Press Of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0-87805-000-0. 
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  32. ^ Riches, William T. Martin. The Civil Rights Movement: Struggle and Resistance. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 
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  51. ^ Time Magazine: Surgery: First Heart Transplant - January 31, 1964
  52. ^ CNN: Government runs nation's only legal pot garden - May 18, 2009
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  65. ^ "Ross Bjork Press Conference" March 22, 2012
  66. ^ The DM
  67. ^ The Ole Miss
  68. ^ About | Rebel Radio. Myrebelradio.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  69. ^ NewsWatch
  70. ^ Student Housing — The University of Mississippi
  71. ^ Student Housing — The University of Mississippi
  72. ^ a b c d Student Housing and Residence Life — The University of Mississippi
  73. ^ "Village." University of Mississippi. Retrieved on February 2, 2012.
  74. ^ "Campus Map." University of Mississippi. Retrieved on February 2, 2012.
  75. ^ "Our Schools." Oxford School District. Retrieved on February 2, 2012.
  76. ^ The New York Times: Two secret societies united, Delta Tau Delta and the Rainbow Society join hands; Published March 28, 1885; Accessed December 08, 2007
  77. ^ Lee Maurice Russell: Fortieth Governor of Mississippi: 1920-1924
  78. ^ John Grisham » Bio

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