United States presidential election, 1976

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United States presidential election, 1976
United States
1972 ←
November 2, 1976
→ 1980

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout53.5%[1]
 Carter cropped.jpgGerald Ford, official Presidential photo.jpg
NomineeJimmy CarterGerald Ford
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Home stateGeorgiaMichigan
Running mateWalter MondaleBob Dole
Electoral vote297240
States carried23 + DC27
Popular vote40,831,88139,148,634
Percentage50.1%48.0%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1976United States presidential election in Alaska, 1976United States presidential election in Arizona, 1976United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1976United States presidential election in California, 1976United States presidential election in Colorado, 1976United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1976United States presidential election in Delaware, 1976United States presidential election in Florida, 1976United States presidential election in Georgia, 1976United States presidential election in Hawaii, 1976United States presidential election in Idaho, 1976United States presidential election in Illinois, 1976United States presidential election in Indiana, 1976United States presidential election in Iowa, 1976United States presidential election in Kansas, 1976United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1976United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1976United States presidential election in Maine, 1976United States presidential election in Maryland, 1976United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1976United States presidential election in Michigan, 1976United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1976United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1976United States presidential election in Missouri, 1976United States presidential election in Montana, 1976United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1976United States presidential election in Nevada, 1976United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1976United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1976United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1976United States presidential election in New York, 1976United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1976United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1976United States presidential election in Ohio, 1976United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1976United States presidential election in Oregon, 1976United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1976United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1976United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1976United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1976United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1976United States presidential election in Texas, 1976United States presidential election in Utah, 1976United States presidential election in Vermont, 1976United States presidential election in Virginia, 1976United States presidential election in Washington, 1976United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1976United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1976United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1976United States presidential election in Delaware, 1976United States presidential election in Maryland, 1976United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1976United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1976United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1976United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1976United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1976United States presidential election in Vermont, 1976United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1976ElectoralCollege1976.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Carter/Mondale, Red denotes those won by Ford/Dole. Ronald Reagan received an electoral vote from a "faithless elector" in Washington. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Gerald Ford
Republican

Elected President

Jimmy Carter
Democratic

 
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United States presidential election, 1976
United States
1972 ←
November 2, 1976
→ 1980

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout53.5%[1]
 Carter cropped.jpgGerald Ford, official Presidential photo.jpg
NomineeJimmy CarterGerald Ford
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Home stateGeorgiaMichigan
Running mateWalter MondaleBob Dole
Electoral vote297240
States carried23 + DC27
Popular vote40,831,88139,148,634
Percentage50.1%48.0%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1976United States presidential election in Alaska, 1976United States presidential election in Arizona, 1976United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1976United States presidential election in California, 1976United States presidential election in Colorado, 1976United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1976United States presidential election in Delaware, 1976United States presidential election in Florida, 1976United States presidential election in Georgia, 1976United States presidential election in Hawaii, 1976United States presidential election in Idaho, 1976United States presidential election in Illinois, 1976United States presidential election in Indiana, 1976United States presidential election in Iowa, 1976United States presidential election in Kansas, 1976United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1976United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1976United States presidential election in Maine, 1976United States presidential election in Maryland, 1976United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1976United States presidential election in Michigan, 1976United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1976United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1976United States presidential election in Missouri, 1976United States presidential election in Montana, 1976United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1976United States presidential election in Nevada, 1976United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1976United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1976United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1976United States presidential election in New York, 1976United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1976United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1976United States presidential election in Ohio, 1976United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1976United States presidential election in Oregon, 1976United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1976United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1976United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1976United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1976United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1976United States presidential election in Texas, 1976United States presidential election in Utah, 1976United States presidential election in Vermont, 1976United States presidential election in Virginia, 1976United States presidential election in Washington, 1976United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1976United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1976United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1976United States presidential election in Delaware, 1976United States presidential election in Maryland, 1976United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1976United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1976United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1976United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1976United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1976United States presidential election in Vermont, 1976United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1976ElectoralCollege1976.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Carter/Mondale, Red denotes those won by Ford/Dole. Ronald Reagan received an electoral vote from a "faithless elector" in Washington. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Gerald Ford
Republican

Elected President

Jimmy Carter
Democratic

The United States presidential election of 1976 was the 48th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976. The winner was the relatively unknown former governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic candidate, over the incumbent President Gerald Ford, the Republican candidate.

President Richard Nixon had resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, but before doing so, he appointed Ford as Vice President via the Twenty-fifth Amendment. Ford was thus the only sitting President who had never been previously elected to national office. Saddled with a poor economy, the fall of South Vietnam, and paying a heavy political price for his pardon of Nixon, Ford first faced serious opposition from within his own party, when he was challenged for the Republican Party's nomination by former California governor Ronald Reagan. The race was so close that Ford was not able to secure the nomination until the Party Convention. Carter, who was less well known than other Democratic hopefuls, ran as a Washington outsider and reformer. Carter narrowly won the election, becoming the first president elected from the Deep South since Zachary Taylor in 1848.

Nominations[edit]

Democratic Party[edit]

Democratic candidates

Candidates gallery[edit]

The surprise winner of the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination was Jimmy Carter, a former state senator and governor of Georgia. When the primaries began, Carter was little-known at the national level, and many political pundits regarded a number of better-known candidates, such as Senator Henry M. Jackson of Washington, Congressman Morris Udall of Arizona, Governor George Wallace of Alabama, and California Governor Jerry Brown, as the favorites for the nomination. However, in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Carter realized that his status as a Washington outsider, political centrist, and moderate reformer could give him an advantage over his better-known establishment rivals. Carter also took advantage of the record number of state primaries and caucuses in 1976 to eliminate his better-known rivals one-by-one.

Senator Jackson made a fateful decision not to compete in the early Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary, which Jimmy Carter won after liberals split their votes among four other candidates. Though Jackson went on to win the Massachusetts and New York primaries, he was forced to quit the race on May 1 after losing the critical Pennsylvania primary to Carter by twelve percentage points. Carter then defeated Governor Wallace, his main conservative challenger, by a wide margin in the North Carolina primary, thus forcing Wallace to end his campaign. Congressman Udall, a liberal, then became Carter's main challenger. He finished second to Carter in the New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, New York, Michigan, South Dakota, and Ohio primaries, and won the caucuses in his home state of Arizona, while running even with Carter in the New Mexico caucuses. However, the fact that Udall finished second to Carter in most of these races meant that Carter steadily accumulated more delegates for the nomination than he did.

As Carter closed in on the nomination, an "ABC" (Anybody But Carter) movement started among Northern and Western liberal Democrats who worried that Carter's Southern upbringing would make him too conservative for the Democratic Party. The leaders of the "ABC" movement - Idaho Senator Frank Church and California Governor Jerry Brown - both announced their candidacies for the Democratic nomination and defeated Carter in several late primaries. However, their campaigns started too late to prevent Carter from gathering the remaining delegates he needed to capture the nomination.

By June 1976, Carter had captured more than enough delegates to win the Democratic nomination. At the 1976 Democratic National Convention, Carter easily won the nomination on the first ballot; Udall finished in second place. Carter then chose Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale, a liberal and political protégé of Hubert Humphrey, as his running mate.

Republican Party[edit]

Republican candidates

First ballot vote for the presidential nomination by state delegations

Candidates gallery[edit]

The 1976 Republican National Convention at Kemper Arena in Kansas City. Vice-Presidential Candidate Bob Dole is on the far left, then Nancy Reagan, Ronald Reagan is at the center shaking hands with President Gerald Ford, Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller is just to the right of Ford, followed by Susan Ford and First Lady Betty Ford.

The contest for the Republican Party's presidential nomination in 1976 was between two serious candidates: Gerald Ford, the leader of the Republican Party's moderate wing and the incumbent president, from Michigan; and Ronald Reagan, the leader of the Republican Party's conservative wing and the former two-term governor of California. The presidential primary campaign between the two men was hard-fought and relatively even; by the start of the Republican Convention in August 1976, the race for the nomination was still too close to call. Ford defeated Reagan by a narrow margin on the first ballot at the 1976 Republican National Convention in Kansas City, and chose Senator Bob Dole of Kansas as his running mate in place of incumbent Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller. The 1976 Republican Convention was the last political convention to open with the presidential nomination still being undecided until the actual balloting at the convention.

Others[edit]

General election[edit]

Fall campaign[edit]

Carter and Ford in debate

One of the advantages Ford held over Carter as the general election campaign began was that, as president, he was privileged to preside over events dealing with the United States Bicentennial; this often resulted in favorable publicity for Ford. The Washington, D.C., fireworks display on the Fourth of July was presided over by the president and televised nationally.[2] On July 7, 1976, the president and First Lady served as hosts at a White House state dinner for Elizabeth II and Prince Philip of the United Kingdom, which was televised on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) network. These events were part of Ford's "Rose Garden" strategy to win the election; instead of appearing as a typical politician, Ford presented himself as a "tested leader" who was busily fulfilling the role of national leader and Chief Executive. Not until October did Ford leave the White House to campaign actively across the nation.

Jimmy Carter ran as a reformer who was "untainted" by Washington political scandals, [3] which many voters found attractive in the wake of the Watergate scandal, which had led to President Richard Nixon's resignation. Ford, although personally unconnected with Watergate, was seen by many as too close to the discredited Nixon administration, especially after he granted Nixon a presidential pardon for any crimes he might have committed during his term of office. Ford's pardon of Nixon caused his popularity, as measured by public-opinion polls, to plummet. Ford's refusal to explain his reasons for pardoning Nixon publicly (he would do so in his memoirs several years later), also hurt his image.

Ford unsuccessfully asked Congress to end the 1950s-era price controls on natural gas, which caused a dwindling of American natural gas reserves after the 1973 Oil Crisis.[4] Carter stated during his campaign that he opposed the ending of the price controls and thought such a move would be "disastrous."[4]

After the Democratic National Convention, Carter held a huge 33-point lead over Ford in the polls. However, as the campaign continued, the race greatly tightened. During the campaign Playboy magazine published a controversial interview with Carter; in the interview, Carter admitted to having "lusted in my heart" for women other than his wife, which cut into his support among women and evangelical Christians. Also, on September 23, Ford performed well in what was the first televised presidential debate since 1960. Polls taken after the debate showed that most viewers felt that Ford was the winner. Carter was also hurt by Ford's charges that he lacked the necessary experience to be an effective national leader, and that Carter was vague on many issues.

Carter campaign headquarters

However, Ford also committed a costly blunder in the campaign that halted his momentum. During the second presidential debate on October 6, Ford stumbled when he asserted that "there is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and there never will be under a Ford administration." He added that he did not "believe that the Poles consider themselves dominated by the Soviet Union", and made the same claim with regards to Yugoslavia and Romania.[5] (Yugoslavia was not a Warsaw Pact member.) Ford refused to retract his statement for almost a week after the debate, as a result his surge in the polls stalled and Carter was able to maintain a slight lead in the polls.

A vice-presidential debate, the first ever formal one of its kind,[6] between Robert Dole and Walter Mondale also hurt the Republican ticket when Dole asserted that military unpreparedness on the part of Democratic presidents was responsible for all of the wars the U.S. had fought in the 20th century. Dole, a World War II veteran, noted that in every 20th-century war from World War I to the Vietnam War, a Democrat had been President. Dole then pointed out that the number of U.S. casualties in "Democrat wars" was roughly equal to the population of Detroit. Many voters felt that Dole's criticism was unfairly harsh and that his dispassionate delivery made him seem cold. Years later, Dole would remark that he regretted the comment, having viewed it as hurting the Republican ticket.[7] One factor which did help Ford in the closing days of the campaign was a series of popular television appearances he did with Joe Garagiola, Sr., a retired baseball star for the St. Louis Cardinals and a well-known announcer for NBC Sports. Garagiola and Ford appeared in a number of shows in several large cities. During the show Garagiola would ask Ford questions about his life and beliefs; the shows were so informal, relaxed, and laid-back that some television critics labelled them the "Joe and Jerry Show." Ford and Garagiola obviously enjoyed one another's company, and they remained friends after the election was over.

Results[edit]

Election results by county.
Election results by congressional district.

Despite his campaign's blunders, Ford managed to close the remaining gap in the polls and by election day the race was judged to be even. Election day was November 2, and it took most of that night and the following morning to determine the winner. It wasn't until 3:30 am (EST), that the NBC television network was able to pronounce that Carter had carried Mississippi, and had thus accumulated more than the 270 electoral votes needed to win (seconds later, ABC News also declared Carter the winner based on projections for Carter in Wisconsin and Hawaii; CBS News announced Carter's victory at 3:45 am).[8] Carter defeated Ford by two percentage points in the national popular vote.

The electoral vote was the closest since 1916; Carter carried 23 states with 297 electoral votes, while Ford won 27 states and 240 electoral votes (one elector from Washington state, pledged to Ford, voted for Reagan). Carter's victory came primarily from his near-sweep of the South (he lost only Virginia and Oklahoma) and his narrow victories in large Northern states such as New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Ford did well in the West, carrying every state except Hawaii. The most tightly contested state in the election was Oregon, which Ford won by a very narrow margin.

A switch of 3,687 votes in Hawaii and 5,559 votes in Ohio from Carter to Ford would have resulted in Ford winning the election with 270 electoral votes.[9] By percentage of the vote, the states that secured Carter's victory were Wisconsin (1.68% margin) and Ohio (.27% margin). Had Ford won these states and all other states he carried, he would have won the presidency. The 27 states Ford won were and remain the most states ever carried by a losing candidate for president of the United States.

Carter was the first Democrat since John F. Kennedy in 1960 to carry the states of the Deep South, and the first since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 to carry a majority of all southern states. Carter performed very strongly in his home state of Georgia, carrying 66.7% of the vote and every county in the state. His 50.1% of the vote was the only time since 1964 that a Democrat managed to obtain a majority of the popular vote in a presidential election until Barack Obama won 52.9% of the vote in 2008. Carter is one of five Democrats since the American Civil War to obtain a majority of the popular vote, the others being Samuel J. Tilden, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Barack Obama.[10]

Had Ford won the election, the provisions of the 22nd amendment would have disqualified him from running in 1980, because he had served more than two years of Nixon's second term.

This election represents the last time to date that Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina would vote Democratic, and the last time North Carolina would vote Democratic until 2008.

Statistics[edit]

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPctVice-presidential candidateHome stateElect. vote
James Earl Carter, Jr.DemocraticGeorgia40,831,88150.08%297Walter Frederick MondaleMinnesota297
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.RepublicanMichigan39,148,63448.02%240Bob DoleKansas241
Ronald Wilson ReaganRepublicanCalifornia(a)(a)1
Eugene McCarthy(none)Minnesota740,4600.91%0 (b) (b)0
Roger MacBrideLibertarianVermont172,5530.21%0David BerglandCalifornia0
Lester MaddoxAmerican IndependentGeorgia170,2740.21%0William DykeWisconsin0
Thomas J. AndersonAmerican (c)158,2710.19%0Rufus Shackelford 0
Peter CamejoSocialist WorkersCalifornia90,9860.11%0Willie Mae Reid0
Gus HallCommunistNew York58,7090.07%0Jarvis Tyner0
Margaret WrightPeople's49,0130.06%0Benjamin Spock0
Lyndon LaRoucheU.S. LaborNew York40,0430.05%0R. Wayne Evans0
Other70,7850.08%Other
Total81,531,584100%538538
Needed to win270270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1976 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 7, 2005).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 7, 2005).

(a) Mike Padden, a Republican faithless elector from Washington, gave Ronald Reagan one electoral vote.
(b) The running mate of McCarthy varied from state to state.
(c) Research has not yet determined whether Anderson's home state was Tennessee or Texas at the time of the 1976 election.

Popular vote
Carter
  
50.08%
Ford
  
48.02%
McCarthy
  
0.91%
MacBride
  
0.21%
Maddox
  
0.21%
Others
  
0.57%
Electoral vote
Carter
  
55.20%
Ford
  
44.61%
Reagan
  
0.19%

Results by state[edit]

[11]

States/districts won by Carter/Mondale
States/districts won by Ford/Dole
Jimmy Carter
Democratic
Gerald Ford
Republican
Eugene McCarthy
Independent
Roger MacBride
Libertarian
MarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %#
Alabama9659,17055.739504,07042.61----1,4810.13-155,10013.111,182,850AL
Alaska344,05835.65-71,55557.903---6,7855.49--27,497-22.25123,574AK
Arizona6295,60239.80-418,64256.37619,2292.59-7,6471.03--123,040-16.57742,719AZ
Arkansas6499,61464.946268,75334.93-6470.08----230,86130.01769,396AR
California453,742,28447.57-3,882,24449.354558,4120.74-56,3880.72--139,960-1.787,867,117CA
Colorado7460,35342.58-584,36754.05726,1072.41-5,3300.49--124,014-11.471,081,135CO
Connecticut8647,89546.90-719,26152.068-------71,366-5.171,381,526CT
Delaware3122,59651.983109,83146.57-2,4371.03----12,7655.41235,834DE
D.C.3137,81881.63327,87316.51----2740.16-109,94565.12168,830DC
Florida171,636,00051.93171,469,53146.64-23,6430.75-1030.00-166,4695.283,150,631FL
Georgia12979,40966.7412483,74332.96-9910.07-1750.01-495,66633.781,467,458GA
Hawaii4147,37550.594140,00348.06----3,9231.35-7,3722.53291,301HI
Idaho4126,54937.12-204,15159.884---3,5581.04--77,602-22.76340,932ID
Illinois262,271,29548.13-2,364,26950.102655,9391.19-8,0570.17--92,974-1.974,718,833IL
Indiana131,014,71445.70-1,183,95853.3213-------169,244-7.622,220,362IN
Iowa8619,93148.46-632,86349.47820,0511.57-1,4520.11--12,932-1.011,279,306IA
Kansas7430,42144.94-502,75252.49713,1851.38-3,2420.34--72,331-7.55957,845KS
Kentucky9615,71752.759531,85245.57-6,8370.59-8140.07-83,8657.191,167,142KY
Louisiana10661,36551.7310587,44645.95-6,5880.52-3,3250.26-73,9195.781,278,439LA
Maine4232,27948.07-236,32048.91410,8742.25-100.00--4,041-0.84483,208ME
Maryland10759,61253.0410672,66146.96-------86,9516.071,432,273MD
Massachusetts141,429,47556.11141,030,27640.44-65,6372.58-1350.01-399,19915.672,547,557MA
Michigan211,696,71446.44-1,893,74251.832147,9051.31-5,4060.15--197,028-5.393,653,749MI
Minnesota101,070,44054.9010819,39542.02-35,4901.82-3,5290.18-251,04512.871,949,931MN
Mississippi7381,30949.567366,84647.68-4,0740.53-2,7870.36-14,4631.88769,360MS
Missouri12998,38751.1012927,44347.47-24,0291.23----70,9443.631,953,600MO
Montana4149,25945.40-173,70352.844-------24,444-7.44328,734MT
Nebraska5233,69238.46-359,70559.1959,4091.55-1,4820.24--126,013-20.74607,668NE
Nevada392,47945.81-101,27350.173---1,5190.75--8,794-4.36201,876NV
New Hampshire4147,63543.47-185,93554.7544,0951.21-9360.28--38,300-11.28339,618NH
New Jersey171,444,65347.92-1,509,68850.081732,7171.09-9,4490.31--65,035-2.163,014,472NJ
New Mexico4201,14848.28-211,41950.754---1,1100.27--10,271-2.47416,590NM
New York413,389,55851.95413,100,79147.52----12,1970.19-288,7674.436,525,225NY
North Carolina13927,36555.2713741,96044.22----2,2190.13-185,40511.051,677,906NC
North Dakota3136,07845.80-153,47051.6632,9520.99-2560.09--17,392-5.85297,094ND
Ohio252,011,62148.92252,000,50548.65-58,2581.42-8,9610.22-11,1160.274,111,873OH
Oklahoma8532,44248.75-545,70849.96814,1011.29-----13,266-1.211,092,251OK
Oregon6490,40747.62-492,12047.78640,2073.90-----1,713-0.171,029,876OR
Pennsylvania272,328,67750.40272,205,60447.73-50,5841.09----123,0732.664,620,787PA
Rhode Island4227,63655.364181,24944.08-4790.12-7150.17-46,38711.28411,170RI
South Carolina8450,82556.178346,14043.13-------104,68513.04802,594SC
South Dakota4147,06848.91-151,50550.394---1,6190.54--4,437-1.48300,678SD
Tennessee10825,87955.9410633,96942.94-5,0040.34-1,3750.09-191,91013.001,476,346TN
Texas262,082,31951.14261,953,30047.97-20,1180.49-2630.01-129,0193.174,071,884TX
Utah4182,11033.65-337,90862.4443,9070.72-2,4380.45--155,798-28.79541,198UT
Vermont381,04443.14-102,08554.3434,0012.13-----21,041-11.20187,855VT
Virginia12813,89647.96-836,55449.2912---4,6480.27--22,658-1.341,697,094VA
Washington9717,32346.11-777,73250.00836,9862.38-5,0420.32--60,409-3.881,555,534WA
West Virginia6435,91458.076314,76041.93-------121,15416.14750,674WV
Wisconsin111,040,23249.50111,004,98747.83-34,9431.66-3,8140.18-35,2451.682,101,336WI
Wyoming362,23939.81-92,71759.3036240.40-890.06--30,478-19.49156,343WY
TOTALS:53840,831,88150.0829739,148,63448.02240740,4600.91-172,5530.21-1,683,2472.0681,531,584US

Close states[edit]

Gerald Ford (right) watching election returns with Joe Garagiola on election night in 1976. Garagiola is reacting to television reports that Ford had just lost Texas to Carter.
A campaign button from election night where Carter and Mondale spent the evening in Flint Michigan at a rally It is notable as only a handful of counties in Michigan went to Carter in 1976, and no surrounding counties where Carter held the rally went to him.
A Ford-Dole campaign button.

States where margin of victory was under 5% (299 electoral votes):

  1. Oregon, 0.17%
  2. Ohio, 0.27%
  3. Maine, 0.84%
  4. Iowa, 1.01%
  5. Oklahoma, 1.21%
  6. Virginia, 1.34%
  7. South Dakota, 1.48%
  8. Wisconsin, 1.68%
  9. California, 1.78%
  10. Mississippi, 1.88%
  11. Illinois, 1.97%
  12. New Jersey, 2.16%
  13. New Mexico, 2.47%
  14. Hawaii, 2.53%
  15. Pennsylvania, 2.66%
  16. Texas, 3.17%
  17. Missouri, 3.63%
  18. Washington, 3.88%
  19. Nevada, 4.36%
  20. New York, 4.43%

States where margin of victory was more than 5%, but less than 10% (105 electoral votes):

  1. Connecticut, 5.16%
  2. Florida, 5.29%
  3. Michigan, 5.39%
  4. Delaware, 5.41%
  5. Louisiana, 5.78%
  6. North Dakota, 5.86%
  7. Maryland, 6.08%
  8. Kentucky, 7.18%
  9. Montana, 7.44%
  10. Kansas, 7.55%
  11. Indiana, 7.62%

Voter demographics[edit]

Social groups and the presidential vote, 1980 and 1976
Size[A 1]'80 Carter'80 Reagan'80 Anderson'76 Carter'76 Ford
Party
Democratic43662667722
Independent233054124354
Republican2811844990
Ideology
Liberal185727117026
Moderate51424885148
Conservative31237142970
Ethnicity
Black10821438216
Hispanic2543677524
White88365584752
Sex
Female48454675048
Male52375475048
Religion
Protestant46375664455
White Protestant41316264357
Catholic25405175444
Jewish54539146434
Family income
Less than US$10,00013504165840
$10,000–$14,99915474285543
$15,000–$24,99929385374850
$25,000–$50,00024325883662
Over $50,000525658
Occupation
Professional or manager39335694157
Clerical, sales, white-collar11424884653
blue-collar17464755741
Agriculture329663
Unemployed3553576534
Education
Less than high school11504535841
High school graduate28435145446
Some college28355585149
College graduate273551114555
Union membership
Labor union household28474475939
No member of household in union62355584355
Age
18–21 years old64443114850
22–29 years old174343115146
30–44 years old31375474949
45–59 years old23395564752
60 years or older18405444752
Region
East25424795147
South27445135445
White South22356034652
Midwest27405174850
Far West19355394651
Community size
City over 250,00018543586040
Suburb/small city53375385347
Rural/town29395454753

Source: CBS News/ New York Times interviews with 12,782 voters as they left the polls, as reported in the New York Times, November 9, 1980, p. 28, and in further analysis. The 1976 data are from CBS News interviews.

  1. ^ "Size" = share of 1980 national total

Unique facts and characteristics[edit]

See also[edit]

Books[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 21, 2012. 
  2. ^ Election of 1976: A Political Outsider Prevails. at the Wayback Machine (archived August 2, 2003) C-SPAN. Retrieved on June 20, 2012.
  3. ^ http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1976
  4. ^ a b Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. pp. 321–322. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. 
  5. ^ "Debating Our Destiny: The Second 1976 Presidential Debate - October 6, 1976". Pbs.org. October 6, 1976. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  6. ^ http://www.janda.org/politxts/Presidential%20debates/debates.76/vp-76.html
  7. ^ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/debatingourdestiny/interviews/dole.html
  8. ^ Jules Witcover. Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, 1972–1976 (New York: Viking), p. 11.
  9. ^ How Close Were U.S. Presidential Elections? at the Wayback Machine (archived August 25, 2012)
  10. ^ Six won the plurality of the popular vote: Grover Cleveland, Woodrow Wilson, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton, and Al Gore. Though Gore won the plurality of the popular vote in 2000, his opponent George W. Bush won the majority of the electoral vote. Cleveland won the plurality of the popular vote in 1884, 1888, and 1892 along with the majority of the electoral vote in 1884 and 1892, but his opponent won the majority of the electoral vote in 1888. Wilson in 1912 and 1916, Truman in 1948, Kennedy in 1960, and Clinton in 1992 and 1996 all won the plurality of the popular vote and the majority of the electoral vote.
  11. ^ "1976 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  12. ^ "1976 Presidential General Election Results - Virginia". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 

External links[edit]