United States presidential election, 1972

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United States presidential election, 1972
United States
1968 ←
November 7, 1972
→ 1976

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout55.2%[1]
 Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.jpgGeorgeStanleyMcGovern.png
NomineeRichard NixonGeorge McGovern
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Home stateCaliforniaSouth Dakota
Running mateSpiro AgnewSargent Shriver
(replacing Thomas Eagleton)
Electoral vote52017
States carried491 + DC
Popular vote47,168,71029,173,222
Percentage60.7%37.5%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1972United States presidential election in Alaska, 1972United States presidential election in Arizona, 1972United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1972United States presidential election in California, 1972United States presidential election in Colorado, 1972United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1972United States presidential election in Delaware, 1972United States presidential election in Florida, 1972United States presidential election in Georgia, 1972United States presidential election in Hawaii, 1972United States presidential election in Idaho, 1972United States presidential election in Illinois, 1972United States presidential election in Indiana, 1972United States presidential election in Iowa, 1972United States presidential election in Kansas, 1972United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1972United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1972United States presidential election in Maine, 1972United States presidential election in Maryland, 1972United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1972United States presidential election in Michigan, 1972United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1972United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1972United States presidential election in Missouri, 1972United States presidential election in Montana, 1972United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1972United States presidential election in Nevada, 1972United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1972United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1972United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1972United States presidential election in New York, 1972United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1972United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1972United States presidential election in Ohio, 1972United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1972United States presidential election in Oregon, 1972United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1972United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1972United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1972United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1972United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1972United States presidential election in Texas, 1972United States presidential election in Utah, 1972United States presidential election in Vermont, 1972United States presidential election in Virginia, 1972United States presidential election in Washington, 1972United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1972United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1972United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1972United States presidential election in Delaware, 1972United States presidential election in Maryland, 1972United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1972United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1972United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1972United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1972United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1972United States presidential election in Vermont, 1972United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1972ElectoralCollege1972.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Nixon/Agnew, Blue denotes those won by McGovern/Shriver. Gray is the electoral vote for John Hospers by a Virginia faithless elector. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Richard Nixon
Republican

Elected President

Richard Nixon
Republican

 
Jump to: navigation, search
United States presidential election, 1972
United States
1968 ←
November 7, 1972
→ 1976

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout55.2%[1]
 Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.jpgGeorgeStanleyMcGovern.png
NomineeRichard NixonGeorge McGovern
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Home stateCaliforniaSouth Dakota
Running mateSpiro AgnewSargent Shriver
(replacing Thomas Eagleton)
Electoral vote52017
States carried491 + DC
Popular vote47,168,71029,173,222
Percentage60.7%37.5%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1972United States presidential election in Alaska, 1972United States presidential election in Arizona, 1972United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1972United States presidential election in California, 1972United States presidential election in Colorado, 1972United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1972United States presidential election in Delaware, 1972United States presidential election in Florida, 1972United States presidential election in Georgia, 1972United States presidential election in Hawaii, 1972United States presidential election in Idaho, 1972United States presidential election in Illinois, 1972United States presidential election in Indiana, 1972United States presidential election in Iowa, 1972United States presidential election in Kansas, 1972United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1972United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1972United States presidential election in Maine, 1972United States presidential election in Maryland, 1972United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1972United States presidential election in Michigan, 1972United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1972United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1972United States presidential election in Missouri, 1972United States presidential election in Montana, 1972United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1972United States presidential election in Nevada, 1972United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1972United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1972United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1972United States presidential election in New York, 1972United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1972United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1972United States presidential election in Ohio, 1972United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1972United States presidential election in Oregon, 1972United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1972United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1972United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1972United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1972United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1972United States presidential election in Texas, 1972United States presidential election in Utah, 1972United States presidential election in Vermont, 1972United States presidential election in Virginia, 1972United States presidential election in Washington, 1972United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1972United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1972United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1972United States presidential election in Delaware, 1972United States presidential election in Maryland, 1972United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1972United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1972United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1972United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1972United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1972United States presidential election in Vermont, 1972United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1972ElectoralCollege1972.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Nixon/Agnew, Blue denotes those won by McGovern/Shriver. Gray is the electoral vote for John Hospers by a Virginia faithless elector. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Richard Nixon
Republican

Elected President

Richard Nixon
Republican

The United States presidential election of 1972 was the 47th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. The Democratic Party's nomination was eventually won by Senator George McGovern of South Dakota, who ran an anti-war campaign against incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon, but was handicapped by his outsider status, limited support from his own party, the perception of many voters that he was a left-wing extremist and the scandal that resulted from the firing of vice-presidential nominee Thomas Eagleton.

Emphasizing a good economy and his successes in foreign affairs, such as coming near to ending American involvement in the Vietnam War and establishing relations with China, Nixon decisively defeated McGovern. Overall, Nixon won 60.7% of the popular vote, a percentage only slightly lower than Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964, but with a larger margin of victory in the popular vote (23.2%), the fourth largest in presidential election history. He received almost 18 million more popular votes than McGovern, the widest margin of any United States presidential election. McGovern only won the electoral votes of Massachusetts and the District of Columbia. No candidate since had managed to equal or surpass Nixon's total percentage or margin of the popular vote, and his electoral vote total and percentage has been surpassed only once, and his state total matched only once, by Ronald Reagan in 1984.

Also in this election, Shirley Chisholm became the first African American to run for a major party nomination, and Patsy Mink was the first Asian American candidate to run for the Democratic Party nomination. It also was the first time that Hawaii was carried by a Republican, becoming the last of the 50 states to do so. Together with the House and Senate elections of 1972, it was the first electoral event in which people aged 18 to 20 could vote in any state, according to the provisions of the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. This is also the most recent presidential election where at least one electoral vote was won by a candidate who, at the time of the election, was neither a Republican or Democrat.

Democratic nomination[edit]

Overall, 15 people declared their candidacy for the Democratic Party nomination. They were:[2]

Candidates gallery[edit]

Primaries[edit]

Senate Majority Whip Ted Kennedy, the youngest brother of late President John F. Kennedy and late Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, was the favorite to win the 1972 nomination, but he announced he would not be a candidate.[3] The favorite for the Democratic nomination then became Ed Muskie,[4] the 1968 vice-presidential nominee.[5] Muskie's momentum collapsed just prior to the New Hampshire primary, when the so-called "Canuck letter" was published in the Manchester Union-Leader. The letter, actually a forgery from Nixon's "dirty tricks" unit, claimed that Muskie had made disparaging remarks about French-Canadians – a remark likely to injure Muskie's support among the French-American population in northern New England. Subsequently, the paper published an attack on the character of Muskie's wife Jane, reporting that she drank and used off-color language during the campaign. Muskie made an emotional defense of his wife in a speech outside the newspaper's offices during a snowstorm. Though Muskie later stated that what had appeared to the press as tears were actually melted snowflakes, the press reported that Muskie broke down and cried, shattering the candidate's image as calm and reasoned.[6]

Nearly two years before the election, South Dakota Senator George McGovern entered the race as an anti-war, progressive candidate.[7] McGovern was able to pull together support from the anti-war movement and other grassroots support to win the nomination in a primary system he had played a significant part in designing.

On January 25, 1972, New York Representative Shirley Chisholm announced she would run, and became the first African American woman to run for the Democratic or Republican presidential nomination. Hawaii Representative Patsy Mink also announced she would run and became the first Asian American to run for the Democratic presidential nomination.[8]

On April 25, George McGovern won the Massachusetts primary. Two days later, journalist Robert Novak claimed in a column that a Democratic senator whom he did not name said of McGovern: "The people don't know McGovern is for amnesty, abortion, and legalization of pot. Once middle America – Catholic middle America, in particular – finds this out, he's dead." The label stuck and McGovern became known as the candidate of "amnesty, abortion, and acid." It became Humphrey's battle cry to stop McGovern — especially in the Nebraska primary.[9][10]

Alabama Governor George Wallace, an anti-integrationist, did well in the South (he won every county in the Florida primary) and in the North among alienated and dissatisfied voters. What might have become a forceful campaign was cut short when Wallace was shot in an assassination attempt by Arthur Bremer on May 15. Wallace was struck by four bullets and left paralyzed. The day after the assassination attempt, Wallace won the Michigan and Maryland primaries, but the shooting effectively ended his campaign.

In the end, McGovern won the nomination by winning primaries through grassroots support in spite of establishment opposition. McGovern had led a commission to re-design the Democratic nomination system after the divisive nomination struggle and convention of 1968. The fundamental principle of the McGovern Commission—that the Democratic primaries should determine the winner of the Democratic nomination—have lasted throughout every subsequent nomination contest. However, the new rules angered many prominent Democrats whose influence was marginalized, and those politicians refused to support McGovern's campaign (some even supporting Nixon instead), leaving the McGovern campaign at a significant disadvantage in funding compared to Nixon.

Primary results[edit]

Statewide contest by winner

Primaries popular vote results:[11]

Notable endorsements[edit]

Edmund Muskie

Hubert Humphrey

George McGovern

George Wallace

Shirley Chisholm

Terry Sanford

Henry M. Jackson

1972 Democratic National Convention[edit]

Video from the Florida conventions

Results:

The vice presidential vote[edit]

With hundreds of delegates angry at McGovern for one reason or another, the vote was chaotic, with at least three other candidates having their names put into nomination and votes scattered over 70 candidates.[21] The eventual winner was Senator Thomas Eagleton.

The vice-presidential balloting went on so long that McGovern and Eagleton were forced to make their acceptance speeches at around two in the morning, local time.

After the convention ended, it was discovered that Eagleton had undergone psychiatric electroshock therapy for depression and had concealed this information from McGovern. A Time magazine poll taken at the time found that 77 percent of the respondents said "Eagleton's medical record would not affect their vote." Nonetheless, the press made frequent references to his "shock therapy," and McGovern feared that this would detract from his campaign platform.[22] McGovern subsequently consulted confidentially with preeminent psychiatrists, including Eagleton's own doctors, who advised him that a recurrence of Eagleton's depression was possible and could endanger the country should Eagleton become president.[23][24][25][26][27] McGovern had initially claimed that he would back Eagleton "1000 percent," only to ask Eagleton to withdraw three days later. This perceived lack of conviction in sticking with his running mate was disastrous for the McGovern campaign.

After a week in which six prominent Democrats refused the vice-presidential nomination, Sargent Shriver, brother-in-law to John, Robert, and Ted Kennedy, former Ambassador to France and former Director of the Peace Corps, accepted. He was officially nominated by a special session of the Democratic National Committee. By this time, McGovern's poll ratings had plunged from 41 to 24 percent.

Republican nomination[edit]

Republican candidates:

Candidates gallery[edit]

Primaries[edit]

Richard Nixon was a popular incumbent president in 1972, as he was credited with achieving détente with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. Polls showed that Nixon held a strong lead in the Republican primaries. He was challenged by two candidates, liberal Pete McCloskey of California and conservative John Ashbrook of Ohio. McCloskey ran as an anti-war candidate, while Ashbrook opposed Nixon's détente policies towards China and the Soviet Union. In the New Hampshire primary McCloskey garnered 19.8% of the vote to Nixon's 67.6%, with Ashbrook receiving 9.7%.[28] Nixon won 1323 of the 1324 delegates to the Republican convention, with McCloskey receiving the vote of one delegate from New Mexico. Vice president Spiro Agnew was re-nominated by acclamation; while both the party's moderate wing and Nixon himself had wanted to replace him with a new running-mate (the moderates favoring Nelson Rockefeller, and Nixon favoring John Connally), it was ultimately concluded that the loss of Angew's base of conservative supporters would be too big of a risk.

Primary results[edit]

Primaries popular vote result:[29]

Convention[edit]

Seven members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War were brought on federal charges for conspiring to disrupt the Republican convention.[30] They were acquitted by a federal jury in Gainesville, Florida.[30]

Third parties[edit]

The only major third party candidate in the 1972 election was conservative Republican Representative John G. Schmitz, who ran on the American Party ticket (the party on whose ballot George Wallace ran in 1968). He was on the ballot in 32 states and received 1,099,482 votes. Unlike Wallace, however, he did not win a majority of votes cast in any state, and received no electoral votes.

Libertarian nominee John Hospers

John Hospers of the newly formed Libertarian Party was on the ballot only in Colorado and Washington and received 3,573 votes, winning no states. However, he did receive one electoral vote from Virginia from a Republican faithless elector (see below). The Libertarian vice-presidential nominee Theodora "Tonie" Nathan became the first woman in U.S. history to receive an electoral vote.[31]

Linda Jenness was nominated by the Socialist Workers Party, with Andrew Pulley as her running-mate. Benjamin Spock and Julius Hobson were nominated for president and vice-president, respectively by, the People's Party.

General election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

Richard Nixon during an August 1972 campaign stop
George McGovern speaking at an October 1972 campaign rally

McGovern ran on a platform of immediately ending the Vietnam War and instituting guaranteed minimum incomes for the nation's poor. His campaign was harmed by his views during the primaries (which alienated many powerful Democrats), the perception that his foreign policy was too extreme, and the Eagleton debacle. With McGovern's campaign weakened by these factors, the Republicans successfully portrayed him as a radical left-wing extremist incompetent to serve as president. Nixon led in the polls by large margins throughout the entire campaign. He ran a campaign with an aggressive policy of keeping tabs on perceived enemies, and his aides committed the Watergate burglary to steal Democratic Party information during the campaign.

Results[edit]

Election results by county.
1972 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District

Nixon's percentage of the popular vote was only slightly less than Lyndon Johnson's record in the 1964 election, and his margin of victory was slightly larger. Nixon won a majority vote in 49 states, including McGovern's home state of South Dakota. Only Massachusetts and the District of Columbia voted for the challenger, resulting in an even more lopsided Electoral College tally. The election saw the lowest voter turnout for a presidential election since 1948, with only 55 percent of the electorate voting, perhaps because of voter apathy caused by the foregone conclusion of a Nixon landslide. It was also the first election since 1808 in which New York did not have the largest number of electors in the Electoral College, having fallen to 41 electors versus California's 45.

Although the McGovern campaign believed that its candidate had a better chance of defeating Nixon because of the new Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution that lowered the national voting age to 18 from 21, a majority of those under 21 voted for Nixon.[32] The 1972 election was the first in American history in which a Republican candidate carried every single Southern state, continuing the region's transformation from a Democratic bastion into a Republican one. By this time, all the Southern states except Arkansas and Texas had been carried by a Republican in either the previous election or the 1964 election. As a result of this election, Massachusetts was the only state not to be carried by Nixon in any of his three presidential campaigns. As of 2012, this is also the last election where Minnesota was carried by the Republican candidate (Minnesota later being the only state not won by Ronald Reagan in either 1980 or 1984). This election also made Nixon the second former Vice President in American history to be elected and reelected, after Thomas Jefferson in 1800 and 1804.

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPctVice-presidential candidateHome stateElect. vote
Richard Milhous NixonRepublicanCalifornia47,168,71060.67%520Spiro Theodore AgnewMaryland520
George Stanley McGovernDemocraticSouth Dakota29,173,22237.52%17Robert Sargent ShriverMaryland17
John G. SchmitzAmerican IndependentCalifornia1,100,8681.42%0Thomas J. AndersonTennessee0
Linda JennessSocialist WorkersGeorgia83,380(b)0.11%0Andrew PulleyIllinois0
Benjamin SpockPeople'sCalifornia78,7590.10%0Julius HobsonDistrict of Columbia0
Louis FisherSocialist LaborIllinois53,8140.07%0Genevieve GundersonMinnesota0
Gus HallCommunistNew York25,5970.03%0Jarvis TynerPennsylvania0
Evelyn ReedSocialist WorkersNew York13,8780.02%0Clifton DeBerryIllinois0
E. Harold MunnProhibitionMichigan13,4970.02%0Marshall UncapherKansas0
John G. HospersLibertarianCalifornia3,6740.00%1(a)Theodora NathanOregon1(a)
Other28,6280.04%Other
Total77,744,027100%538538
Needed to win270270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1972 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 7, 2005). Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 7, 2005). Source (Close States): http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/stats.php?year=1972&f=0&off=0&elect=0 (Retrieved: January 24, 2013).

(a)A Virginia faithless elector, Roger MacBride, though pledged to vote for Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew, instead voted for Libertarian candidates John Hospers and Theodora "Tonie" Nathan.[31]
(b)In Arizona, Pima and Yavapai counties had a ballot malfunction that counted many votes for both a major party candidate and Linda Jenness of the Socialist Workers Party. A court ordered that the ballots be counted for both. As a consequence, Jenness received 16% and 8% of the vote in Pima and Yavapai, respectively. 30,579 of her 30,945 Arizona votes are from those two counties. Some sources do not count these votes for Jenness.

Popular vote
Nixon
  
60.67%
McGovern
  
37.52%
Schmitz
  
1.42%
Others
  
0.4%
Electoral vote
Nixon
  
96.65%
McGovern
  
3.16%
Hospers
  
0.19%

Results by state[edit]

[33]

States/districts won by Nixon/Agnew
States/districts won by McGovern/Shriver
Richard Nixon
Republican
George McGovern
Democratic
John Schmitz
American Independent
MarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %#
Alabama9728,70172.439256,92325.54-11,9181.18-471,77846.891,006,093AL
Alaska355,34958.13332,96734.62-6,9037.25-22,38223.5195,219AK
Arizona6402,81261.646198,54030.38-21,2083.25-204,27231.26653,505AZ
Arkansas6445,75168.826198,89930.71-3,0160.47-246,85238.11647,666AR
California454,602,09655.00453,475,84741.54-232,5542.78-1,126,24913.468,367,862CA
Colorado7597,18962.617329,98034.59-17,2691.81-267,20928.01953,884CO
Connecticut8810,76358.578555,49840.13-17,2391.25-255,26518.441,384,277CT
Delaware3140,35759.60392,28339.18-2,6381.12-48,07420.41235,516DE
D.C.335,22621.56-127,62778.103----92,401-56.54163,421DC
Florida171,857,75971.9117718,11727.80----1,139,64244.122,583,283FL
Georgia12881,49675.0412289,52924.65-8120.07-591,96750.391,174,772GA
Hawaii4168,86562.484101,40937.52----67,45624.96270,274HI
Idaho4199,38464.24480,82626.04-28,8699.30-118,55838.20310,379ID
Illinois262,788,17959.03261,913,47240.51-2,4710.05-874,70718.524,723,236IL
Indiana131,405,15466.1113708,56833.34----696,58632.772,125,529IN
Iowa8706,20757.618496,20640.48-22,0561.80-210,00117.131,225,944IA
Kansas7619,81267.667270,28729.50-21,8082.38-349,52538.15916,095KS
Kentucky9676,44663.379371,15934.77-17,6271.65-305,28728.601,067,499KY
Louisiana10686,85265.3210298,14228.35-52,0994.95-388,71036.971,051,491LA
Maine4256,45861.464160,58438.48-1170.03-95,87422.98417,271ME
Maryland10829,30561.2610505,78137.36-18,7261.38-323,52423.901,353,812MD
Massachusetts141,112,07845.23-1,332,54054.20142,8770.12--220,462-8.972,458,756MA
Michigan211,961,72156.20211,459,43541.81-63,3211.81-502,28614.393,490,325MI
Minnesota10898,26951.5810802,34646.07-31,4071.80-95,9235.511,741,652MN
Mississippi7505,12578.207126,78219.63-11,5981.80-378,34358.57645,963MS
Missouri121,154,05862.2912698,53137.71----455,52724.591,852,589MO
Montana4183,97657.934120,19737.85-13,4304.23-63,77920.08317,603MT
Nebraska5406,29870.505169,99129.50----236,30741.00576,289NE
Nevada3115,75063.68366,01636.32----49,73427.36181,766NV
New Hampshire4213,72463.984116,43534.86-3,3861.01-97,28929.12334,055NH
New Jersey171,845,50261.57171,102,21136.77-34,3781.15-743,29124.802,997,229NJ
New Mexico4235,60661.054141,08436.56-8,7672.27-94,52224.49385,931NM
New York414,192,77858.54412,951,08441.21----1,241,69417.347,161,830NY
North Carolina131,054,88969.4613438,70528.89-25,0181.65-616,18440.581,518,612NC
North Dakota3174,10962.073100,38435.79-5,6462.01-73,72526.28280,514ND
Ohio252,441,82759.63251,558,88938.07-80,0671.96-882,93821.564,094,787OH
Oklahoma8759,02573.708247,14724.00-23,7282.30-511,87849.701,029,900OK
Oregon6486,68652.456392,76042.33-46,2114.98-93,92610.12927,946OR
Pennsylvania272,714,52159.11271,796,95139.13-70,5931.54-917,57019.984,592,105PA
Rhode Island4220,38353.004194,64546.81-250.01-25,7386.19415,808RI
South Carolina8478,42770.588189,27027.92-10,1661.50-289,15742.66677,880SC
South Dakota4166,47654.154139,94545.52----26,5318.63307,415SD
Tennessee10813,14767.7010357,29329.75-30,3732.53-455,85437.951,201,182TN
Texas262,298,89666.20261,154,29133.24-7,0980.20-1,144,60532.963,472,714TX
Utah4323,64367.644126,28426.39-28,5495.97-197,35941.25478,476UT
Vermont3117,14962.66368,17436.47----48,97526.20186,947VT
Virginia12988,49367.8411438,88730.12-19,7211.35-549,60637.721,457,019VA
Washington9837,13556.929568,33438.64-58,9064.00-268,80118.281,470,847WA
West Virginia6484,96463.616277,43536.39----207,52927.22762,399WV
Wisconsin11989,43053.4011810,17443.72-47,5252.56-179,2569.671,852,890WI
Wyoming3100,46469.01344,35830.47-7480.51-56,10638.54145,570WY
TOTALS:53847,168,71060.6752029,173,22237.52171,100,8681.42-17,995,48823.1577,744,027US

Close states[edit]

States where margin of victory was more than 5 percentage points, but less than 10 percentage points (43 electoral votes):

Scandals[edit]

Watergate[edit]

On June 17, five months before election day, five men broke into the Democratic National Convention headquarters at the Watergate hotel in Washington, D.C.; the resulting investigation led to the revelation of attempted cover-ups within the Nixon administration. Known as the Watergate scandal, the exposed corruption cost Nixon public and political support, and he resigned on August 9, 1974, in the face of probable impeachment charges by Congress.

Corporate campaign contributions[edit]

As part of the continuing investigation in 1974–75, Watergate scandal prosecutors offered companies that had given illegal campaign contributions to Nixon's re-election campaign lenient sentences if they came forward.[34] Many companies complied, including Northrop Grumman, 3M, American Airlines and Braniff Airlines.[34] By 1976, prosecutors had convicted 18 American corporations of contributing illegally to Nixon's campaign.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 21, 2012. 
  2. ^ "US President - D Primaries". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 16, 2012. 
  3. ^ Jack Anderson (June 4, 1971). "Don't count out Ted Kennedy". The Free Lance–Star. Retrieved March 16, 2012. 
  4. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 298. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. 
  5. ^ "Muskie, Edmund Sixtus, (1914 - 1996)". United States Congress. 
  6. ^ "Remembering Ed Muskie", Online NewsHour, PBS, March 26, 1996.
  7. ^ R. W. Apple, Jr. (January 18, 1971). "McGovern Enters '72 Race, Pledging Troop Withdrawal" (fee required). The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved March 16, 2012. 
  8. ^ Jo Freeman (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project. 
  9. ^ Robert D. Novak (2008). The Prince of Darkness: 50 Years Reporting in Washington. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 225. ISBN 9781400052004. 
  10. ^ Nancy L. Cohen (2012). Delirium: The Politics of Sex in America. Counterpoint Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 9781619020689. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "D Primaries Race – Mar 07, 1972". US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  12. ^ "D Primary Race – Mar 21, 1972". IL US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  13. ^ "More Muskie Support". New York Times. January 15, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2008. 
  14. ^ a b "Stephen M. Young". Candidate. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  15. ^ a b "Gertrude W. Donahey". Candidate. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  16. ^ "D Primary Race – May 2, 1972". OH US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  17. ^ Life So Far: A Memoir – Google Books. Books.google.com. August 1, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7432-9986-2. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  18. ^ "POV – Chisholm '72 . Video: Gloria Steinem reflects on Chisholm's legacy". PBS. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  19. ^ Terry Sanford: politics, progress ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1999. ISBN 978-0-8223-2356-3. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  20. ^ "D Convention Race – Jul 10, 1972". US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  21. ^ "All Politics: CNN Time. "All The Votes...Really"". Cnn.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  22. ^ Garofoli, Joe (March 26, 2008). "Obama bounces back – speech seemed to help". Sfgate.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  23. ^ McGovern, George S., Grassroots: The Autobiography of George McGovern, New York: Random House, 1977, pp. 214-215
  24. ^ McGovern, George S., Terry: My Daughter's Life-and-Death Struggle with Alcoholism, New York: Random House, 1996, pp. 97
  25. ^ Marano, Richard Michael, Vote Your Conscience: The Last Campaign of George McGovern, Praeger Publishers, 2003, pp. 7
  26. ^ The Washington Post, "George McGovern & the Coldest Plunge", Paul Hendrickson, September 28, 1983
  27. ^ The New York Times, "'Trashing' Candidates" (op-ed), George McGovern, May 11, 1983
  28. ^ http://www.primarynewhampshire.com/new-hampshire-primary-past-results.php
  29. ^ "R Primaries Race – Mar 07, 1972". US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  30. ^ a b Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 52. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. 
  31. ^ a b "Libertarians trying to escape obscurity". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press. December 30, 1973. Retrieved July 30, 2012. 
  32. ^ Walker, Jesse (July 2008). "The Age of Nixon: Rick Perlstein on the left, the right, the '60s, and the illusion of consensus". Reason. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  33. ^ "1972 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b c Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 31. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. 

Bibliography and further reading[edit]

Australian Journal of Politics & History, Mar1973, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p28-47

External links[edit]