United States presidential election, 1916

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United States presidential election, 1916
United States
1912 ←
November 7, 1916
→ 1920

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
 Woodrow Wilson-H&E.jpgGovernor Charles Evans Hughes.jpg
NomineeWoodrow WilsonCharles E. Hughes
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Home stateNew JerseyNew York
Running mateThomas R. MarshallCharles W. Fairbanks
Electoral vote277254
States carried3018
Popular vote9,126,8688,548,728
Percentage49.2%46.1%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1916United States presidential election in Arizona, 1916United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1916United States presidential election in California, 1916United States presidential election in Colorado, 1916United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1916United States presidential election in Delaware, 1916United States presidential election in Florida, 1916United States presidential election in Georgia, 1916United States presidential election in Idaho, 1916United States presidential election in Illinois, 1916United States presidential election in Indiana, 1916United States presidential election in Iowa, 1916United States presidential election in Kansas, 1916United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1916United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1916United States presidential election in Maine, 1916United States presidential election in Maryland, 1916United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1916United States presidential election in Michigan, 1916United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1916United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1916United States presidential election in Missouri, 1916United States presidential election in Montana, 1916United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1916United States presidential election in Nevada, 1916United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1916United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1916United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1916United States presidential election in New York, 1916United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1916United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1916United States presidential election in Ohio, 1916United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1916United States presidential election in Oregon, 1916United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1916United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1916United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1916United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1916United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1916United States presidential election in Texas, 1916United States presidential election in Utah, 1916United States presidential election in Vermont, 1916United States presidential election in Virginia, 1916United States presidential election in Washington, 1916United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1916United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1916United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1916United States presidential election in Delaware, 1916United States presidential election in Maryland, 1916United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1916United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1916United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1916United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1916United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1916United States presidential election in Vermont, 1916United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1916ElectoralCollege1916.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Hughes/Fairbanks, Blue denotes those won by Wilson/Marshall. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Elected President

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

 
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"1916 presidential election" redirects here. For the elections in Guatemala and Panama that year, see Guatemalan presidential election, 1916 and Panamanian presidential election, 1916.
United States presidential election, 1916
United States
1912 ←
November 7, 1916
→ 1920

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
 Woodrow Wilson-H&E.jpgGovernor Charles Evans Hughes.jpg
NomineeWoodrow WilsonCharles E. Hughes
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Home stateNew JerseyNew York
Running mateThomas R. MarshallCharles W. Fairbanks
Electoral vote277254
States carried3018
Popular vote9,126,8688,548,728
Percentage49.2%46.1%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1916United States presidential election in Arizona, 1916United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1916United States presidential election in California, 1916United States presidential election in Colorado, 1916United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1916United States presidential election in Delaware, 1916United States presidential election in Florida, 1916United States presidential election in Georgia, 1916United States presidential election in Idaho, 1916United States presidential election in Illinois, 1916United States presidential election in Indiana, 1916United States presidential election in Iowa, 1916United States presidential election in Kansas, 1916United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1916United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1916United States presidential election in Maine, 1916United States presidential election in Maryland, 1916United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1916United States presidential election in Michigan, 1916United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1916United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1916United States presidential election in Missouri, 1916United States presidential election in Montana, 1916United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1916United States presidential election in Nevada, 1916United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1916United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1916United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1916United States presidential election in New York, 1916United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1916United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1916United States presidential election in Ohio, 1916United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1916United States presidential election in Oregon, 1916United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1916United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1916United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1916United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1916United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1916United States presidential election in Texas, 1916United States presidential election in Utah, 1916United States presidential election in Vermont, 1916United States presidential election in Virginia, 1916United States presidential election in Washington, 1916United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1916United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1916United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1916United States presidential election in Delaware, 1916United States presidential election in Maryland, 1916United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1916United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1916United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1916United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1916United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1916United States presidential election in Vermont, 1916United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1916ElectoralCollege1916.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Hughes/Fairbanks, Blue denotes those won by Wilson/Marshall. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Elected President

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916. Incumbent President Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic candidate, was pitted against Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by nearly 600,000 votes in the popular vote and secured a narrow Electoral College margin by winning several swing states by razor-thin margins. As a result, Wilson became the first Democratic president since Andrew Jackson to be elected to two consecutive terms of office.

The election took place while Mexico was going through the Mexican Revolution and Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (Allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large parts of Belgium and northern France. However, despite their sympathy with the Allied forces, most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. Wilson's campaign used the popular slogan "He kept us out of war" to appeal to those voters who wanted to avoid a war in Europe or with Mexico. The progressive Hughes criticized Wilson for not taking the "necessary preparations" to face a conflict, which served to strengthen Wilson's image as an anti-war candidate. The Republicans had supported a moderate interventionist policy under the previous three administrations, while no Democratic president had presided over a major war since James Knox Polk.

Despite the narrow margin of his win, the 1916 election saw an increase in Wilson's popular vote from his election in 1912, when he won in a landslide in the Electoral College. Wilson accomplished this due to the split in the Republican vote in 1912 between William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt, the former Republican president who was running as an independent. In 1916 conservative and progressive Republicans were largely united under the moderate Hughes in their bid to oust Wilson, however Wilson attracted many voters who had earlier supported Roosevelt. It is one of only three elections in which a nominee was elected president without the support of his state of residence (New Jersey). The other two were James Knox Polk (Tennessee, 1844) and Richard Nixon (New York, 1968). Wilson, however, did win his state of birth (Virginia), like Nixon (born in California), but unlike Polk (born in North Carolina). Wilson's re-election marked the first time since the Civil War that the Democratic Party won two consecutive Presidential elections, and Wilson himself became the first Democrat to win two consecutive Presidential elections since Andrew Jackson.

Nominations[edit]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican candidates:

Candidates gallery[edit]

Republican National Convention[edit]

The 1916 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago between June 7 and 10. A major goal of the party's bosses at the convention was to heal the bitter split within the party that had occurred in the 1912 presidential campaign. In that year, Theodore Roosevelt bolted the Republican Party and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, which attracted most of the Republican liberals. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president, won the nomination of the regular Republican Party. This split in the Republican ranks divided the Republican vote and led to the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Although several candidates were openly competing for the 1916 nomination—most prominently conservative Senator Elihu Root of New York and liberal Senator John W. Weeks of Massachusetts—the party's bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to both factions of the party. They turned to Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who had been serving on the court since 1910 and had the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political issues in six years. Although he had not actively sought the nomination, Hughes made it known that he would not turn it down; he won the nomination on the third ballot. Former Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated as his running mate. Hughes was the only Supreme Court Justice to be nominated for president by a major political party.

Republican Convention, The Coliseum, Chicago
Ballot123
Charles Evans Hughes253326950
John W. Weeks1051022
Elihu Root103899
Charles W. Fairbanks89757
Albert B. Cummins85772
Theodore Roosevelt816519
Theodore E. Burton78699
Lawrence Yates Sherman66595
Philander C. Knox36306
Henry Ford32299
Martin Grove Brumbaugh29222
Robert M. La Follette252523
William Howard Taft1440
T. Coleman du Pont7136
Henry Cabot Lodge720
John Wanamaker511
Frank B. Willis122
William Borah202
Warren G. Harding101
Samuel W. McCall011
Leonard Wood011

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Democratic candidate:

Candidates gallery[edit]

Democratic National Convention[edit]

The 1916 Democratic National Convention was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 14 and 16. Given Wilson's enormous popularity within the party, he was overwhelmingly re-nominated. Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall was also re-nominated with no opposition.

In the campaign Colonel House declined any public role, but was Wilson's top campaign advisor. Hodgson says, "he planned its structure; set its tone; guided its finance; chose speakers, tactics, and strategy; and, not least, handled the campaign's greatest asset and greatest potential liability: its brilliant but temperamental candidate."[1]

Progressive Party nomination[edit]

Candidates gallery[edit]

The Progressives re-nominated former President Theodore Roosevelt and nominated John Parker of Louisiana as his running-mate; others suggested for the Vice-Presidency were California Governor and the 1912 Vice-Presidential nominee Hiram Johnson, and Chairman of the Party Convention Raymond Robins, but both withdrew their names in favor of Parker. However Roosevelt later telegraphed the convention and declared that he could not accept their nomination and would be endorsing Republican nominee Charles Hughes for the Presidency. With Roosevelt refusing to be their candidate, the Progressive Party quickly fell into dissaray; there was a temporary shout lead by former Congressman Victor Murdock of Kansas for a ticket consisting of three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan and industrialist Henry Ford but it amounted to little. Some like National Committeeman Harold L. Ickes refused to consider endorsing Hughes, and there was some talk of nominating another for the Presidency in Roosevelt's stead, such as Hiram Johnson or Gifford Pinchot. However those discussed refused to consider the notion, and by this point some leaders like Henry Justin Allen had started to follow Roosevelt's lead and endorsed the Republican ticket, and various state parties such as those in Iowa and Maine began to disband. Finally, when the Progressive Party National Committee met in Chicago on June 26th, those in attendance begrudgingly endorsed Hughes; even those like Ickes who had vehemently refused to consider granting an endorsement to Hughes began to recognize that without Roosevelt the party had no electoral staying power. There had been a weak attempt to replace Roosevelt on the ticket with the former Kansas Congressman Victor Murdock, but the motion was defeated 31 to 15.

Most of its members would return to the Republican Party, although a substantial minority supported Wilson for his efforts in keeping the United States out of World War I. Roosevelt had turned down the Progressive nomination for both personal and political reasons; he had become convinced that running for president on a third-party ticket again would merely give the election to the Democrats, a result he was loath to make possible, since he had developed a strong dislike for President Wilson. He also believed Wilson was allowing Germany and other warring nations in Europe to "bully" and intimidate the United States.[2][3][4]

"Middle-Road" Progressive Party nomination[edit]

"Middle-Road" Progressive ticket[edit]

However many in the party, notably the Vice-Presidential nominee John Parker and Bainbridge Colby, remained steadfast in their refusal to back the Republican ticket, though they differed in their ultimate aims; Parker for example desired for a Progressive ticket to be put into the Presidential race (himself now being the major contender for the top of the ticket among the bolters), whereas Colby, while opposed to the endorsement of Hughes, considered a Progressive ticket at this point impractical and privately supported Wilson for the Presidency. Still it appeared likely for a time that another convention would be called in early August until a Conference held among the remaining representatives of the party in Indianapolis decided against it, while also narrowly voting against filling the vacancy that had been caused by Roosevelt's refusal to be placed on the ticket (though Parker remained the Vice-Presidential nominee). Electoral tickets would still be put in place where the Progressive Party remained organized in the hopes of electing enough electors so as to possibly hold the balance of power in a close contest between the Democratic and Republican candidates.

While running as the Vice-Presidential nominee, John Parker would endorse Woodrow Wilson for the Presidency.[5][6][7]

Socialist Party nomination[edit]

Socialist candidates[edit]

While the initial frontrunner for the nomination was the popular Eugene V. Debs, he opted to instead run for Congress in his native Indiana, leaving the field open to other contenders. Allan Benson, a newspaper editor from New York within a short time came to dominate the field through his fervent opposition to militarism, running on the proposal that all future participation in wars should be voted upon in a national referendum. The vote for the nomination was conducted through a mail-order ballot with Benson capturing 16,639 out of a total of 32,398 cast (to 12,264 for Maurer and 3,495 for Le Sueur). A vote for the Vice-Presidential nomination was jointly held with George Ross Kirkpatrick, a lecturer from New Jersey, winning the nomination 20,607 to 11,388 over Kate Richards O'Hare of Missouri. [8]

General election[edit]

The fall campaign[edit]

The Democrats built their campaign around the slogan, "He Kept Us out of War," saying a Republican victory would mean war with both Mexico and Germany. Wilson's position was probably critical in winning the Western states.[9] Charles Evans Hughes insisted on downplaying the war issue. He advocated a program of greater mobilization and preparedness.[10] With Wilson having successfully pressured the Germans to suspend unrestricted submarine warfare, it was difficult for Hughes to attack Wilson's peace platform. Instead, Hughes criticized Wilson's military interventions in Mexico, where the U.S. was supporting various factions in the Mexican civil war. Hughes also attacked Wilson for his support of various "pro-labor" laws (such as limiting the workday to eight hours), on the grounds that they were harmful to business interests. His criticisms gained little traction, however, especially among factory workers who supported such laws. Hughes was helped by the vigorous support of popular former President Theodore Roosevelt, and by the fact that the Republicans were still the nation's majority party at the time. A key mistake by Hughes was made in California. Just before the election, Hughes made a campaign swing through the state, but he never met with the powerful Republican Governor Hiram Johnson to seek his support. Johnson took this as a snub and never gave Hughes his full support.

Results[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Wilson (Democratic), shades of red are for Hughes (Republican), and shades of green are for "No Candidate" (Progressive).

The result was exceptionally close and the outcome was in doubt for several days, partially because of the wait for returns from California in the west. The electoral vote was one of the closest in American history – with 266 votes needed to win, Wilson took 30 states for 277 electoral votes, while Hughes won 18 states and 254 electoral votes. Wilson was the second of just four presidents in US history to win re-election with a lower percentage of the electoral vote than in their prior elections, following James Madison in 1812. As the electoral college had increased during Madison's first term, but held steady throughout Wilson's, Wilson was also the first of only three to receive fewer total electoral votes. This result would be experienced again only by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940 and 1944 and Barack Obama in 2012.

The key state proved to be California, which Wilson won by only 3,800 votes out of nearly a million cast. New Hampshire may have not been a deciding state in the election, but the margin of victory for Wilson there was the smallest ever recorded in an American presidential election: 56 votes.[11][12] If Hughes had carried California and its 13 electoral votes, he would have won the election. A popular legend from the 1916 campaign states that Hughes went to bed on election night thinking that he was the newly elected president. When a reporter tried to telephone him the next morning to get his reaction to Wilson's comeback, someone (stories vary as to whether this person was his son or a butler or valet) answered the phone and told the reporter that "the president is asleep." The reporter retorted, "When he wakes up, tell him he isn't the president."

Wilson's popular vote margin of 3.1% was the smallest attained by a victorious sitting president until 2004. By defeating Hughes, Woodrow Wilson became the first Democratic president to win a second consecutive term since Andrew Jackson in 1832. Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall also earned the distinction of becoming the first vice-president elected to a second term since John C. Calhoun in 1828.

The total popular vote cast in 1916 exceeded that of 1912 by 3,500,000. The very large total vote was an indication of an aroused public interest in the campaign. It was larger in every section, notably in the East North Central section. Some of this was due to the state extension of suffrage to women. In Illinois, for example, the total vote was 1,000,000 greater than in 1912. It increased by more than 260,000 in Kansas, and in Montana, it more than doubled.

Wilson's vote was 9,126,868, an increase of nearly 3,000,000. There was a gain in every section and in every state. Hughes, the nominee of the united Republican Party, polled more votes by nearly 1,000,000 than had ever been cast for a Republican candidate. In some of the states carried by Wilson, particularly in the South, the margin of popular vote was large. Considering the vote by sections, Wilson ran behind Hughes in New England, the (Northeastern) Mid-Atlantic states, and in the East North Central section.[13] His lead was not great in the West North Central, but was very large in the West South Central and Mountain as well as in the East South Central and South Atlantic sections.[14] 1/2 of Wilson's total vote was cast in the 18 states that he did not carry.

Of the 3,022 counties making returns, Wilson led in 2,039 counties (67.47%). Hughes managed to carry only 976 counties (32.30%), the smallest number in the Republican column in a two-party contest during the Fourth Party System. Two counties (0.07%) split evenly between Wilson and Hughes. Although the Progressive Party had no presidential candidate, just candidates for presidential elector who were unpledged for president, they carried 5 counties (0.17%).

There was a shift of votes to the Democratic Party, at least for this election, which was in locality and degree a novel phenomenon in party voting for the Fourth Party System. Wilson carried 200 counties that had never been Democratic in a two-party contest prior to that time.[15] This shift of votes led some to believe that the Democratic Party might have the position of decided advantage in the election of 1920, a judgment that later proved disastrously wrong.[16]

Wilson was the last Democrat to be elected without ever carrying Minnesota and the last Democrat to win an election without Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Although he had previously won both states in 1912). He was also the last Democrat elected to two terms without carrying Michigan and Pennsylvania either time (Although other Democrats since have won elections without one or both states, they either only served one term or they carried them both in another Presidential election).

As of 2012, this is the last election where North Dakota and South Dakota did not vote for the same candidate.

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPctVice-presidential candidateHome stateElect. vote
Woodrow WilsonDemocraticNew Jersey9,126,86849.24%277Thomas R. MarshallIndiana277
Charles Evans HughesRepublicanNew York8,548,72846.12%254Charles W. FairbanksIndiana254
Allan L. BensonSocialistNew York590,5243.19%0George Ross KirkpatrickNew Jersey0
Frank HanlyProhibitionIndiana221,3021.19%0Ira LandrithTennessee0
No CandidateProgressive(n/a)33,4060.18%0(n/a)(n/a)0
Arthur E. ReimerSocialist LaborMassachusetts15,2950.08%0Caleb HarrisonIllinois0
Other4620.00%Other
Total18,536,585100%531531
Needed to win266266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1916 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 28, 2005).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Popular vote
Wilson
  
49.24%
Hughes
  
46.12%
Benson
  
3.19%
Hanly
  
1.19%
Others
  
0.27%
Electoral vote
Wilson
  
52.17%
Hughes
  
47.83%

Results by state[edit]

[17]

States won by Wilson/Marshall
States won by Hughes/Fairbanks
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic
Charles Evans Hughes
Republican
Allan Benson
Socialist
James Hanly
Prohibition
No Candidate
Progressive
Arthur Reimer
Socialist Labor
MarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %electoral
votes
# %#
Alabama1299,40976.041228,66221.92-1,9161.47-7410.57-------70,74754.12130,728AL
Arizona333,17057.17320,52435.37-3,1745.47-1,1531.99-------12,64621.8058,021AZ
Arkansas9112,21165.97948,87928.73-6,9994.11-2,0151.18-------63,33237.23170,104AR
California13466,28946.6513462,51646.27-42,8984.29-27,7132.77-------3,7730.38999,603CA
Colorado6178,81660.746102,30834.75-10,0493.41-2,7930.95-4090.14----76,50825.99294,375CO
Connecticut799,78646.66-106,51449.8075,1792.42-1,7890.84----6060.28--6,728-3.15213,874CT
Delaware324,75347.78-26,01150.2034800.93-5661.09--------1,258-2.4351,810DE
Florida655,98469.34614,61118.10-5,3536.63-4,7865.93-------41,37351.2580,734FL
Georgia14127,75479.511411,2947.03-9410.59----20,69212.88----107,06266.63160,681GA
Idaho470,05452.04455,36841.13-8,0665.99-1,1270.84-------14,68610.91134,615ID
Illinois29950,22943.34-1,152,54952.562961,3942.80-26,0471.19----2,4880.11--202,320-9.232,192,707IL
Indiana15334,06346.47-341,00547.441521,8553.04-16,3682.28-3,8980.54-1,6590.23--6,942-0.97718,848IN
Iowa13218,69942.55-280,43954.571310,9732.14-3,3710.66----4600.09--61,740-12.01513,942IA
Kansas10314,58849.9510277,65844.09-24,6853.92-12,8822.05-------36,9305.86629,813KS
Kentucky13269,99051.9113241,85446.50-4,7340.91-3,0390.58-1290.02-3320.06-28,1365.41520,078KY
Louisiana1079,87585.90106,4666.95-2920.31----6,3496.83----73,40978.9592,982LA
Maine664,03346.97-69,50850.9962,1771.60-5960.44--------5,475-4.02136,314ME
Maryland8138,35952.808117,34744.78-2,6741.02-2,9031.11----7560.29-21,0128.02262,039MD
Massachusetts18247,88546.61-268,78450.541811,0582.08-2,9930.56----1,0970.21--20,899-3.93531,823MA
Michigan15286,77544.05-339,09752.091516,1202.48-8,1391.25----8420.13--52,322-8.04650,973MI
Minnesota12179,15246.25-179,54446.351220,1175.19-7,7932.01-2900.07-4680.12--392-0.10387,364MN
Mississippi1080,42292.78104,2534.91-1,4841.71----5200.60----76,16987.8786,679MS
Missouri18398,03250.5918369,33946.94-14,6121.86-3,8840.49----9020.11-28,6933.65786,769MO
Montana4101,06356.88466,75037.57-9,5645.38----3020.17----34,31319.31177,679MT
Nebraska8158,82755.288117,77140.99-7,1412.49-2,9521.03----6240.22-41,05614.29287,315NE
Nevada317,77653.36312,12736.40-3,0659.20-3481.04-------5,64916.9633,316NV
New Hampshire443,78149.12443,72549.06-1,3181.48-3030.34-------560.0689,127NH
New Jersey14211,01842.68-268,98254.401410,4052.10-3,1820.64----8550.17--57,964-11.72494,442NJ
New Mexico333,52750.20331,15246.64-1,9962.99-1120.17-------2,3753.5666,787NM
New York45759,42644.51-879,23851.534545,9442.69-19,0311.12----2,6660.16--119,812-7.021,706,305NY
North Carolina12168,38358.1012120,89041.71-5090.18-550.02-------47,49316.39289,837NC
North Dakota555,20647.84553,47146.34-5,7164.95-9970.86-------1,7351.50115,390ND
Ohio24604,16151.8624514,75344.18-38,0923.27-8,0800.69-------89,4087.671,165,086OH
Oklahoma10148,11350.591097,23333.21-45,52715.55-1,6460.56-2340.08----50,88017.38292,753OK
Oregon5120,08745.90-126,81348.4759,7113.71-4,7291.81-3100.12-----6,726-2.57261,650OR
Pennsylvania38521,78440.22-703,82354.263842,6383.29-28,5252.20----4190.03--182,039-14.031,297,189PA
Rhode Island540,39446.00-44,85851.0851,9142.18-4700.54----1800.20--4,464-5.0887,816RI
South Carolina961,84696.7191,5502.42-1350.21----1620.25----60,29694.2863,952SC
South Dakota559,19145.91-64,21749.8053,7602.92-1,7741.38--------5,026-3.90128,942SD
Tennessee12153,28056.3112116,22342.70-2,5420.93-1450.05-------37,05713.61272,190TN
Texas20286,51476.922064,99917.45-18,9695.09-1,9850.53-------221,51559.47372,467TX
Utah484,14558.78454,13737.82-4,4603.12-1490.10-1110.08-1440.10-30,00820.96143,146UT
Vermont422,70835.22-40,25062.4347981.24-7091.10--------17,542-27.2164,475VT
Virginia12101,84066.991248,38431.83-1,0560.69-6780.45----670.04-53,45635.16152,025VA
Washington7183,38848.137167,20843.89-22,8005.98-6,8681.80----7300.19-16,1804.25380,994WA
West Virginia8140,40348.441143,12449.3876,1502.12-1750.06--------2,721-0.94289,852WV
Wisconsin13191,36342.80-220,82249.391327,6316.18-7,3181.64--------29,459-6.59447,134WI
Wyoming328,31654.62321,69841.86-1,4532.80-3730.72-------6,61812.7751,840WY
TOTALS:5319,126,86849.242778,548,72846.12254590,5243.19-221,3021.19-33,4060.18-15,2950.08-578,1403.1218,536,585US

Close states[edit]

Business advertising postcard exploiting public interest in the election; parts of Wilson's and Hughes' faces can be seen in this image, with the U.S. Capitol building in the background

Margin of victory of less than 5% (129 electoral votes):

  1. New Hampshire, 0.06%
  2. Minnesota, 0.10%
  3. California, 0.38%
  4. West Virginia, 0.94%
  5. Indiana, 0.97%
  6. North Dakota, 1.50%
  7. Delaware, 2.43%
  8. Oregon, 2.57%
  9. Connecticut, 3.15%
  10. New Mexico, 3.56%
  11. Missouri, 3.65%
  12. South Dakota, 3.90%
  13. Massachusetts, 3.93%
  14. Maine, 4.02%
  15. Washington, 4.25%

Margin of victory of between 5% and 10% (162 electoral votes):

  1. Rhode Island, 5.08%
  2. Kentucky, 5.41%
  3. Kansas, 5.86%
  4. Wisconsin, 6.59%
  5. New York, 7.02%
  6. Ohio, 7.67%
  7. Maryland, 8.02%
  8. Michigan, 8.04%
  9. Illinois, 9.23%

Geography of Results[edit]

Cartographic Gallery[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Dillon County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Hampton County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Jasper County, South Carolina 100.00%
  4. Tunica County, Mississippi 100.00%
  5. Echols County, Georgia 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Leslie County, Kentucky 91.55%
  2. Sevier County, Tennessee 90.42%
  3. Zapata County, Texas 89.17%
  4. Jackson County, Kentucky 87.90%
  5. Johnson County, Tennessee 87.33%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Other)

  1. Lafourche Parish, Louisiana 59.38%
  2. Glascock County, Georgia 53.79%
  3. Paulding County, Georgia 53.52%
  4. Fannin County, Georgia 51.29%
  5. Iberia Parish, Louisiana 47.59%

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