United States Secret Service

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

United States Secret Service
Common nameSecret Service
AbbreviationUSSS
US-SecretService-StarLogo.svg
Logo of the U.S. Secret Service
United States Secret Service flag.svg
Flag of the U.S. Secret Service.
Agency overview
Employees6,700 + (2014)
Annual budget$1.80 billion (2014)
Legal personalityGovernmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agencyU.S.
General nature
Specialist jurisdiction
Operational structure
Sworn members4,400
Agency executiveJulia Pierson[1], Director
Parent agencyUnited States Department of Homeland Security
Field offices136
Facilities
Resident agent offices68
Overseas offices19
Website
www.SecretService.gov
 
Jump to: navigation, search
United States Secret Service
Common nameSecret Service
AbbreviationUSSS
US-SecretService-StarLogo.svg
Logo of the U.S. Secret Service
United States Secret Service flag.svg
Flag of the U.S. Secret Service.
Agency overview
Employees6,700 + (2014)
Annual budget$1.80 billion (2014)
Legal personalityGovernmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agencyU.S.
General nature
Specialist jurisdiction
Operational structure
Sworn members4,400
Agency executiveJulia Pierson[1], Director
Parent agencyUnited States Department of Homeland Security
Field offices136
Facilities
Resident agent offices68
Overseas offices19
Website
www.SecretService.gov

The United States Secret Service (USSS) is an American federal law enforcement agency that is part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.[2] The sworn members are divided among the Special Agents and the Uniformed Division. Until March 1, 2003, the Service was part of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.[3]

The U.S. Secret Service has two distinct areas of responsibility:

The Secret Service's initial responsibility was to investigate counterfeiting of U.S. currency, which was rampant following the U.S. Civil War. The agency then evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the agency's missions were later taken over by subsequent agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

Roles[edit]

Secret Service Special Agents (foreground) protecting the President of the United States in 2007.

Today the agency's primary investigative mission is to safeguard the payment and financial systems of the United States. These include crimes that involve financial institution fraud, computer and telecommunications fraud, false identification documents, access device fraud, advance fee fraud, electronic funds transfers and money laundering as it relates to the agency's core violations. After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress also directed the Secret Service to protect the President of the United States. Protection remains the other key mission of the United States Secret Service.

Today, the Secret Service is authorized by law to protect:[6]

Any of these individuals may decline Secret Service protection, with the exception of the President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, and the Vice President–elect.[6]

When Hillary Clinton became Secretary of State in 2009, the Secret Service continued to protect her at home; however the Diplomatic Security Service protected her while she was performing her duties as the Secretary of State, including foreign travel.

The Secret Service investigates thousands of incidents a year of individuals threatening the President of the United States.

Uniformed Division[edit]

President Barack Obama addresses United States Secret Service Uniformed Division officers before a group photo at the South Portico of the White House, April 4, 2011.

The United States Secret Service Uniformed Division (UD) assists in protection duties. Established in 1922 as the White House Police, this organization was fully integrated into the Secret Service in 1930. With more than 1,300 officers as of 2010, the Uniformed Division is responsible for security at the White House Complex; the vice president's residence; the Department of the Treasury (as part of the White House Complex); and foreign diplomatic missions in the Washington, D.C., area. Uniformed Division officers carry out their protective responsibilities through a network of fixed security posts, foot, bicycle, vehicular and motorcycle patrols.

The Uniformed Division has three branches: the White House Branch, the Foreign Missions Branch, and the Naval Observatory Branch. Together they provide protection for the following: the president, vice president, and their immediate families; presidential candidates; the White House Complex; the Vice President's Residence; the main Treasury Department building and its annex facility; and foreign diplomatic missions in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area.[11]

Officers are responsible for providing additional support to the Secret Service's protective mission through the following special support groups:

The Counter Sniper Unit (CS): Created in 1971, the CS unit's purpose is to provide specialized protective support to defend against long-range threats to Secret Service protectees.[12]

The Canine Explosives Detection Unit (K-9): Created in 1976, the mission of the K-9 unit is to provide skilled and specialized explosives detection support to protective efforts involving Secret Service protectees.[12]

The Emergency Response Team (ERT): Formed in 1992, ERT's primary mission is to provide tactical response to unlawful intrusions and other protective challenges related to the White House and its grounds. ERT personnel receive specialized, advanced training and must maintain a high level of physical and operational proficiency.[12]

Officers assigned to CS, ERT, and K9, are designated "Technicians" to recognize their advanced training. Today these units are part of the agency's Special Operations Division.

The Magnetometer Support Unit: Formed to ensure that all persons entering secure areas occupied by Secret Service protectees are unarmed,[12] the Secret Service began relying on magnetometer (metal detector) support by Uniformed Division officers to augment its protective efforts away from the White House following the attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan.

Attire[edit]

Secret Service agent guarding President Obama in 2010

Special Agents of the Secret Service wear attire that is appropriate for the surroundings. In many circumstances, the attire is a conservative suit, but attire can range from a tuxedo to a plain T-shirt with blue jeans or beige pants. Photographs often show them wearing reflective sunglasses and a communication earpiece. They normally wear loose-fitting jackets to conceal their service pistols.

The attire for Uniformed Division Officers includes standard police uniforms or utility uniforms and ballistic/identification vests for members of the countersniper team, Emergency Response Team (ERT), and canine officers. The shoulder patch of the Uniformed Division consists of the presidential seal on white or black depending on the garment to which it is attached or a lapel pin. Also, the shoulder patch is embroidered with "U.S. Secret Service Uniformed Division Police" around the emblem.[13]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

With a reported one third of the currency in circulation being counterfeit at the time,[14] the Secret Service was created on July 5, 1865 in Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit currency. Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. It was commissioned in Washington, D.C. as the "Secret Service Division" of the Department of the Treasury with the mission of suppressing counterfeiting. The legislation creating the agency was on Abraham Lincoln's desk the night he was assassinated.[15] At the time, the only other federal law enforcement agencies were the United States Park Police, the U.S. Post Office Department's Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations (now known as the United States Postal Inspection Service), and the U.S. Marshals Service. The Marshals did not have the manpower to investigate all crime under federal jurisdiction, so the Secret Service began to investigate everything from murder to bank robbery to illegal gambling. After the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, Congress informally requested that the Secret Service provide presidential protection. A year later, the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for presidential protection. In 1902, William Craig became the first Secret Service agent to die while serving, in a road accident while riding in the presidential carriage.

The Secret Service was the first U.S. domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Domestic intelligence collection and counterintelligence responsibilities were vested in the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) after the FBI's creation in 1908. The Secret Service assisted in arresting Japanese American leaders and in the Japanese American internment during World War II.[16] The U.S. Secret Service is not an official part of the U.S. Intelligence Community.[17]

Truman assassination attempt[edit]

In 1950, President Harry S. Truman was residing in Blair House while the White House, across the street, was undergoing renovations. On November 1, 1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists, Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, approached Blair House with the intent to assassinate President Truman. Collazo and Torresola opened fire on Private Leslie Coffelt and other White House Police officers. Though mortally wounded by three shots from a 9 mm Walther P38 to his chest and abdomen, Private Coffelt returned fire, killing Torresola with a single shot to his head. As of 2012, Coffelt is the only member of the Secret Service to be killed while protecting a US president against an assassination attempt (Special Agent Tim McCarthy stepped in front of President Ronald Reagan during the assassination attempt of March 30, 1981, and took a bullet to the abdomen but made a full recovery). Collazo was also shot, but survived his injuries and served 29 years in prison before returning to Puerto Rico in late 1979.

1960s[edit]

In 1968, as a result of Robert F. Kennedy's assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees.[18] In 1965 and 1968, Congress also authorized lifetime protection of the spouses of deceased presidents unless they remarry and of the children of former presidents until age 16.[3]

Changing roles[edit]

Secret Service agents providing security for Pope Benedict XVI in Washington, D.C.

The Secret Service Presidential Protective Division safeguards the President of the United States and his immediate family. They work with other federal, state and local law enforcement agencies and the military to safeguard the President when he travels in Air Force One, Marine One, and by limousine in motorcades.

Although the most visible role of the Secret Service today, personal protection is an anomaly in the responsibilities of an agency focused on fraud and counterfeiting.

In 1984 the US Congress passed the Comprehensive Crime Control Act, which extended the Secret Service's jurisdiction over credit card fraud and computer fraud.

In 1990 the Secret Service initiated Operation Sundevil, originally intended to be a sting against malicious hackers, allegedly responsible for disrupting telephone services across all the USA. The operation, which was later described by Bruce Sterling in his book The Hacker Crackdown, affected a great number of people unrelated to hacking, and led to no convictions. The Secret Service, however, was sued and required to pay damages.

In 1994 and 1995, it ran an undercover sting called Operation Cybersnare.[19]

The Secret Service investigates forgery of government checks, forgery of currency equivalents (such as travelers' or cashiers' checks), and certain instances of wire fraud (such as the so-called Nigerian scam) and credit card fraud. The reason for this combination of duties is that when the need for presidential protection became apparent in the early 20th century, few federal services had the necessary abilities and resources. The FBI, IRS, ATF, ICE, and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) did not yet exist. The United States Marshals Service was the only other logical choice, providing protection for the President on a number of occasions.

As of 2010, the Service has over 6,500 employees: 3,200 Special Agents, 1,300 Uniformed Division Officers, and 2,000 technical and administrative employees.[20] Special agents serve on protective details, special teams or sometimes investigate certain financial and homeland security-related crimes.

The Uniformed Division is similar to the United States Capitol Police and is in charge of protecting the physical White House grounds and foreign diplomatic missions in the Washington, D.C. area. The Uniformed Division was originally a separate organization known as the White House Police Force, but was moved into the Secret Service in 1930. In 1970, the role of the force, then called the Executive Protective Service, was expanded. The name United States Secret Service Uniformed Division was adopted in 1977.

Secret Service Uniformed Division cruiser in Washington D.C. at the White House

The Secret Service has concurrent jurisdiction with the FBI over certain violations of federal computer crime laws. They have created 24 Electronic Crimes Task Forces (ECTFs) across the United States. These task forces are partnerships between the Service, federal/state and local law enforcement, the private sector and academia aimed at combating technology-based crimes.

In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed Presidential Decision Directive 62, which established National Special Security Events (NSSE). That directive made the Secret Service responsible for security at designated events.

Effective March 1, 2003, the Secret Service transferred from the Treasury to the newly established Department of Homeland Security.

Attacks on Presidents[edit]

Since the 1960s, Presidents John F. Kennedy (killed), Gerald Ford (twice attacked, but uninjured) and Ronald Reagan (seriously wounded) have been attacked while appearing in public.[21][22] Agents on scene though not injured during attacks on Presidents include William Greer, and Roy Kellerman. One of the agents was Robert DeProspero, the Special Agent In Charge (SAIC) of Reagan's Presidential Protective Division (PPD) from January 1982 to April 1985. DeProspero was deputy to Jerry Parr, the SAIC of PPD during the Reagan assassination attempt on March 30, 1981.[23][24]

The Kennedy assassination spotlighted the bravery of two Secret Service agents. First, an agent protecting Mrs. Kennedy, Clint Hill, was riding in the car directly behind the presidential limousine only when the attack began. While the shooting continued, Hill leapt from the running board of the car he was riding on and jumped onto the back of the President's moving car and guided Mrs. Kennedy from the trunk back into the rear seat of the car. He then shielded the President and the First Lady with his body until the car arrived at the hospital.

Secret Service agents in response to the assassination attempt of Ronald Reagan by John Hinckley, Jr. on March 30, 1981

Rufus Youngblood was riding in the vice-presidential car. When the shots were fired, he vaulted over the front seat and threw his body over Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson.[25] That evening, Johnson called Secret Service Chief James J. Rowley and cited Youngblood's bravery.[26][27] Youngblood would later recall some of this in his memoir, Twenty Years in the Secret Service.

The period following the Kennedy assassination was the most difficult in the modern history of the agency. Press reports indicated that morale among the agents was "low" for months following the assassination.[28][29] The agency overhauled its procedures in the wake of the Kennedy killing. Training, which until that time had been confined largely to "on-the-job" efforts, was systematized and regularized.

The Reagan assassination attempt also highlighted the bravery of several Secret Service agents, particularly agent Tim McCarthy, who spread his stance to protect Reagan as six bullets were being fired by the would-be assassin, John Hinckley, Jr.[30] McCarthy survived a .22-caliber round in the abdomen. For his bravery, McCarthy received the NCAA Award of Valor in 1982.[31] Jerry Parr, the agent who pushed President Reagan into the limousine, and made the critical decision to divert the presidential motorcade to George Washington University Hospital instead of returning to the White House, was also honored with U.S. Congress commendations for his actions that day.[32] After the near-successful assassination attempt on Ronald Reagan, it was clear that the Secret Service needed to increase its efficiency to protect the President.

September 11, 2001, attacks[edit]

The New York City Field office was located at 7 World Trade Center. Immediately after the September 11 attacks, Special Agents and other New York Field office employees were among the first to respond with first aid. Sixty-seven Special Agents in New York City, at and near the New York Field Office, helped to set up triage areas and evacuate the towers. One Secret Service employee, Master Special Officer Craig Miller,[33] died during the rescue efforts. On August 20, 2002, Director Brian L. Stafford awarded the Director's Valor Award to employees who assisted in the rescue attempts.[citation needed]

Summit of the Americas prostitution scandal[edit]

In April 2012, a scandal involving the president's security detail received international press attention. The scandal involved 11 agents and personnel from four branches of the U.S. military; they allegedly engaged prostitutes while assigned to protect the U.S. President at the 6th Summit of the Americas in Cartagena, Colombia. As of April 24, 2012, nine employees had resigned or retired.[34][35]

After the incident was publicized, the Secret Service implemented new rules for its personnel.[36][37][38][39] The rules prohibit personnel from visiting "non-reputable establishments"[37] and from consuming alcohol less than ten hours before starting work. Additionally, they restrict who is allowed in hotel rooms.[37]

A few weeks later, stories emerged of Secret Service agents hiring strippers and prostitutes prior to Obama's 2011 visit to El Salvador.[40]

Expansion to electronic crimes in the wake of September 11, 2001[edit]

Domestic[edit]

The USA Patriot Act, signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001, mandated the U.S. Secret Service to establish a nationwide network of Electronic Crimes Task Forces (ECTFs) to investigate and prevent attacks on financial and critical infrastructures in the United States. As such, this mandate expanded on the agency's first ECTF—the New York Electronic Crimes Task Force, formed in 1995—which brought together federal, state and local law enforcement, prosecutors, private-industry companies, and academia.[41][42]

The network prioritizes investigations that meet the following criteria:

Currently, the network includes ECTFs in the following 28 U.S. cities:

International[edit]

On July 6, 2009, the U.S. Secret Service expanded its fight on cyber-crime by creating the first European Electronic Crimes Task Force, based on the successful U.S. domestic model, through a memorandum of understanding with Italian police and postal officials. Over a year later, on August 9, 2010, the agency expanded its European involvement by creating its second overseas ECTF in the United Kingdom.[45][46]

Both task forces are said to concentrate on a wide range of "computer-based criminal activity," including:

Currently, the overseas network includes ECTFs in the following European cities:

Cases[edit]

Arrest and indictment of Max Ray Butler, co-founder of the Carders Market carding website, was indicted by a federal grand jury in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, after his September 5, 2007 arrest, on wire fraud and identity theft charges. According to the indictment, Butler hacked over the Internet into computers at financial institutions and credit card processing centers and sold the tens of thousands of credit card numbers that he acquired in the process.[47]

Operation Firewall: In October 2004, 28 suspects—located across eight U.S. states and six countries—were arrested on charges of identity theft, computer fraud, credit-card fraud, and conspiracy. Nearly 30 national and foreign field offices of the U.S. Secret Service, including the newly established national ECTFs, and countless local enforcement agencies from around the globe, were involved in this operation. Collectively, the arrested suspects trafficked in at least 1.7 million stolen credit card numbers, which amounted to $4.3 million of losses to financial institutions. However, authorities estimated prevented loss to the industry to be in hundreds of millions of dollars. This over year-long operation, which started in July 2003, led investigators to identify three cyber-criminal groups: Shadowcrew, Carderplanet, and Darkprofits.[48]

Arrest and indictment of Albert "Segvec" Gonzalez and 11 individuals—three U.S. citizens, one from Estonia, three from Ukraine, two from the People's Republic of China, one from Belarus, and one known only by an online alias—were arrested for the theft and sale of more than 40 million credit and debit card numbers from major U.S. retailers, including TJX Companies, BJ's Wholesale Club, OfficeMax, Boston Market, Barnes & Noble, Sports Authority, Forever 21, and DSW. Gonzalez, the main organizer of the scheme, was charged with computer fraud, wire fraud, access device fraud, aggravated identity theft, and conspiracy for his leading role in the crime.[49]

Training and equipment[edit]

At a minimum, a prospective agent must be a U.S. citizen, possess a current valid driver's license, possess visual acuity no worse than 20/60 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 in each eye, and be between the ages of 21 and 37 at the time of appointment. However, preference eligible veterans may apply after age 37. In 2009, the Office of Personnel Management issued implementation guidance on the Isabella v. Department of State court decision: OPM Letter.[50]

Secret Service agents (foreground, right) guard President George W. Bush in 2008.

The agency (particularly agents under the Office of Protective Operations) receive the latest weapons, training, and technology. Special Agents receive basic training in two locations. The first phase, the Criminal Investigator Training Program (CITP) is conducted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynco, GA. The second phase, the Special Agent Training Course (SATC) is conducted at the James J. Rowley Training Center, located in Beltsville, MD.[citation needed]

The agency uses Motorola XTS radios and surveillance kits in order to maintain communication and are known to use DES encryption keys. When operationally required, MBITR (AN/PRC-148) radios that utilize Type 1 encryption algorithms are fielded.[51]

Weaponry[edit]

Since the agency's inception, a variety of weapons have been carried by its agents.

USSS agents carry the Sig Sauer P229 chambered for the .357 SIG or the FN Five-seveN pistol as sidearms.[52] Agents and Officers are also trained on shoulder weapons such as the Remington 870 shotgun, the FN P90 5.7x28mm PDW, the Heckler & Koch MP5, and the M4 carbine.

Special tactical units such as the Counter Assault Team (CAT) and the Emergency Response Team (ERT) are equipped with the Knight's Armament Company SR-16 assault rifle chambered for 5.56×45mm ammunition.

Uniform Division technicians assigned to the Counter Sniper (CS) team use custom built .300 Winchester Magnum bolt-action rifles referred to as JARs ("Just Another Rifle"), along with 7.62mm KAC SR-25/Mk11 Mod 0 semi-automatic sniper rifles.

As a less-than-lethal option, Special Agents and Uniformed Division Officers are armed with the ASP baton and OC pepper spray.

Previous firearms[edit]

Initially the firearms were privately procured and there was little if any standardization. In the 1930s, the USSS issued the Colt M1911A1 pistol in .45 ACP caliber. In the 1950s and 1960s, Special Agents carried the Smith & Wesson Model 36 and Colt Detective Special 38 Special revolvers.

Following President Kennedy's assassination, USSS Special Agents were authorized to carry the .357 Magnum Smith & Wesson Model 19 revolver.

Between 1981 and 1991, the Secret Service issued the Smith & Wesson Model 19 and the Smith & Wesson Model 66 .357 Magnum revolvers, with 2.5-inch barrels all the way up to the 4-inch-barreled models, loaded with hollow-point rounds.

By 1992, the standard issue weapon became the SIG Sauer P228 9mm pistol. In the late 1990s it was swapped for the SIG Sauer P229 chambered in .357 SIG cartridge along with the FN Five-seveN pistol.[52]

Special Agents carried UZI 9mm submachine guns in the 1970s and 80s, but they have since been phased out and replaced with the FN P90 5.7x28mm PDW.

Directors[edit]

  1. William P. Wood (1865–1869)
  2. Hiram C. Whitley (1869–1874)
  3. Elmer Washburn (1874–1876)
  4. James Brooks (1876–1888)
  5. John S. Bell (1888–1890)
  6. Andrew L. Drummond (1891–1894)
  7. William P. Hazen (1894–1898)
  8. John E. Wilkie (1898–1911)
  9. William J. Flynn (1912–1917)
  10. William H. Moran (1917–1936)
  11. Frank J. Wilson (1937–1946)
  12. James J. Maloney (1946–1948)
  13. U. E. Baughman (1948–1961)
  14. James J. Rowley (1961–1973)
  15. H. Stuart Knight (1973–1981)
  16. John R. Simpson (1981–1992)
  17. John Magaw (1992–1993)
  18. Eljay B. Bowron (1993–1997)
  19. Lewis C. Merletti (1997–1999)
  20. Brian L. Stafford (1999–2003)
  21. W. Ralph Basham (2003–2006)
  22. Mark J. Sullivan (2006–2013)
  23. Julia Pierson (2013–present)

Field offices[edit]

The Secret Service has agents assigned to 136 field offices and the headquarters in Washington, D.C. while the field offices are located in cities throughout the United States and in Brazil (Brasilia), Bulgaria (Sofia), Canada (Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver), Colombia (Bogota), China (Hong Kong), France (Paris), INTERPOL (Lyon), Germany (Frankfurt), Italy (Rome), Mexico (Mexico City), EUROPOL (Netherlands/The Hague), Romania (Bucharest), Russia (Moscow), South Africa (Pretoria), Spain (Madrid), Thailand (Bangkok), and the United Kingdom (London).

In popular culture[edit]

Similar organizations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A Look at New Secret Service Chief Julia Pierson
  2. ^ Resse, Shawn (2012-04-16). "The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 
  3. ^ a b "Secret Service History". United States Secret Service. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  4. ^ "United States Secret Service: Investigative Mission". Secretservice.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  5. ^ "United States Secret Service: Employment Opportunities - Uniformed Officer". Secretservice.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  6. ^ a b "United States Code: Title 18, Section 3056". 
  7. ^ Gillman, Todd J. "Obama signs lifetime Secret Service protection for George W. Bush, himself and future presidents". Trail Blazers Blog. The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  8. ^ Adams, Beckett (10 January 2013). "President Obama Will Have Secret Service Protection For the Rest of His Life". TheBlaze. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Compton, Ann (10 January 2013). "Lifetime Secret Service Protection Restored for Presidents Bush and Obama". ABC News. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  10. ^ USSS. "USSS Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  11. ^ "Uniformed Division". US Secret Service. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c d "United States Secret Service: Uniformed Division". Secretservice.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  13. ^ "The American Presidency". Americanhistory.si.edu. 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  14. ^ "The United States Secret Service". Clinton2.nara.gov. 1922-07-01. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  15. ^ Petro, Joeseph; Jeffrey Robinson (2005). Standing Next to History, An Agent's Life Inside the Secret Service. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-312-33221-1. 
  16. ^ 11 Asian L.J. 147 (2004), Foreword: Sixty Years after the Internment: Civil Rights, Identity Politics, and Racial Profiling; Tamaki, Donald K.
  17. ^ Intelligence.gov
  18. ^ Pub.L. 90–331
  19. ^ "Wireless Industry Salutes U.S. Secret Service". Ctia.org. 1995-09-11. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  20. ^ "United States Secret Service: Frequently Asked Questions". SecretService.gov. 1997-01-01. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  21. ^ Elaine Quijano (2005-05-10). "Secret Service told grenade landed near Bush". CNN.com. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  22. ^ Chilcote (2006-01-11). "Bush grenade attacker gets life". CNN. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  23. ^ Petro, Joeseph; Jeffrey Robinson (2005). Standing Next to History, An Agent's Life Inside the Secret Service. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 140–141 & 202–204. ISBN 978-0-312-33221-1. 
  24. ^ "Robert L. DeProspero". WVUAlumni. West Virginia University Alumni Association. 2005. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  25. ^ "Johnson Praises Agent's Bravery: Honors Guard Who Shielded Him in Dallas Shooting 'Courage' Is Cited". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 5, 1963. p. 32. 
  26. ^ "The Transfer of Power". Time. November 29, 1963. 
  27. ^ Associated Press (November 27, 1963). "Johnson Says Agent in Dallas Screened Him With His Body". The New York Times. p. 21. 
  28. ^ Youngblood, Rufus (1973). Twenty Years in the Secret Service. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 147–149. 
  29. ^ "Survivor's Guilt: The Secret Service and the Failure to Protect the President". 
  30. ^ "He Took A Bullet For Reagan". CBS News. June 11, 2004. "'In the Secret Service,' [McCarthy] continued, 'we're trained to cover and evacuate the president. And to cover the president, you have to get as large as you can, rather than hitting the deck.'" 
  31. ^ By means of the NCAA Award of Valor, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recognizes "courageous action or noteworthy bravery" by persons involved with intercollegiate athletics. McCarthy had played NCAA football at the University of Illinois.
  32. ^ Wilber, Del Quentin (2011). Rawhide Down: The Near Assassination of Ronald Reagan. Macmillan. ISBN 0-8050-9346-X.
  33. ^ "Master Special Officer Craig J. Miller". ODMP.org. The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  34. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (18 April 2012). "3 in Scandal Being Forced Out of Secret Service, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  35. ^ David Jackson; Richard Wolf (16 April 2012). "Obama: 'Angry' if Secret Service allegations are true". USA Today. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  36. ^ "Secret Service amends standards of conduct after KIRO 7 investigation". KIRO-TV. KIRO-TV. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  37. ^ a b c Norah O'Donnell; Jillian Hughes (27 April 2012). "New code of conduct issued for Secret Service agents". CBS News. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  38. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (27 April 2012). "Secret Service Tightens Travel Rules for Its Staff". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  39. ^ David Nakamura; Ed O'Keefe (28 April 2012). "Secret Service imposes new rules on agents for foreign trips". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  40. ^ Jackson, David (26 April 2012). "Secret Service investigating more allegations of misconduct". USA Today. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  41. ^ "United States Secret Service: Electronic Crimes Task Forces and Working Groups". Secretservice.gov. 2001-10-26. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  42. ^ "About the U.S. Secret Service Electronic Crimes Task Forces". Secretservice.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  43. ^ a b c "U.S. Secret Service Forms Three New Task Forces" (PDF) (Press release). July 10, 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  44. ^ "U.S. Secret Service Forms New Task Force" (PDF) (Press release). February 4, 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  45. ^ "United States Secret Service Signs Partnership Agreement With Italian Officials Establishing the First European Electronic Crimes Task Force" (PDF) (Press release). July 6, 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  46. ^ "United States Secret Service Signs Partnership Agreement With United Kingdom Officials Establishing the Second European Electronic Crimes Task Force" (PDF) (Press release). August 9, 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  47. ^ "Secret Service Investigation Disrupts Identity Theft Ring" (PDF) (Press release). September 13, 2007. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  48. ^ "U.S. Secret Service's Operation Firewall Nets 28 Arrests" (PDF) (Press release). October 28, 2004. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  49. ^ "Additional Indictments Announced in Ongoing Secret Service Network Intrusion Investigation" (PDF) (Press release). August 5, 2008. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  50. ^ "CHCOC.gov". CHCOC.gov. August 26, 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  51. ^ "Eyeballing the US Secret Service Technical Security Division". Cryptome.org. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  52. ^ a b Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35th edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.

External links[edit]