United States House of Representatives elections, 1858

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1858
United States
1856 ←
August 2, 1858 - November 8, 1859[1]
→ 1860

All 238[2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
120 seats were needed for a majority
 First partySecond party
 WmPennington.jpgThomasSBocock.png
LeaderWilliam PenningtonThomas Bocock
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Leader's seatNew Jersey-5thVirginia-5th
Last election92 seats131 seats
Seats won114[2]101[3]
Seat changeIncrease 22Decrease 30

 Third partyFourth party
 John Adams Gilmer - Brady-Handy.jpgHenry Winter Davis.jpg
LeaderJohn Adams GilmerHenry Winter Davis
PartyOppositionAmerican
Leader's seatNorth Carolina-5thMaryland-4th
Last election0 seats14 seats
Seats won176
Seat changeIncrease 17Decrease 8

Speaker before election

James Orr
Democratic

Elected Speaker

William Pennington
Republican

 
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United States House of Representatives elections, 1858
United States
1856 ←
August 2, 1858 - November 8, 1859[1]
→ 1860

All 238[2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
120 seats were needed for a majority
 First partySecond party
 WmPennington.jpgThomasSBocock.png
LeaderWilliam PenningtonThomas Bocock
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Leader's seatNew Jersey-5thVirginia-5th
Last election92 seats131 seats
Seats won114[2]101[3]
Seat changeIncrease 22Decrease 30

 Third partyFourth party
 John Adams Gilmer - Brady-Handy.jpgHenry Winter Davis.jpg
LeaderJohn Adams GilmerHenry Winter Davis
PartyOppositionAmerican
Leader's seatNorth Carolina-5thMaryland-4th
Last election0 seats14 seats
Seats won176
Seat changeIncrease 17Decrease 8

Speaker before election

James Orr
Democratic

Elected Speaker

William Pennington
Republican

Elections to the House of Representatives for the 36th Congress were held in 1858-1859. Following these elections, the Republicans gained control of the House for the first time, benefiting from the continued breakdown in the anti-immigration and anti-Catholic American Party of the Know Nothing Movement, and from strife within the Democratic Party.

The Republicans were actually several seats short of a numerical majority and were forced to form a minority government, but were able to exercise authority by mustering support from members of smaller parties. The deeply divided Democrats continued to fall apart due to the slavery issue, losing a number of seats, and the American Party all but collapsed. A number of former Whigs who were dissatisfied with their short membership in the Republican Party, as well as some former Know Nothings, formed the Opposition Party, which generally allied more with the Republicans than Democrats.

For several states, this was the last Congressional election until the Reconstruction Era, and 29 of the Representatives elected in this election resigned near the end of the Congress following their states' secession from the Union.

Election summaries[edit]

One seat was added for the new State of Kansas,[4] which was unrepresented for most of the 36th Congress. For several Southern states, these were the last congressional elections they took part in until Reconstruction.

114176101
RepublicanOpp.AKNDemocratic
StateTypeDateTotal
seats
RepublicanDemocraticOppositionKnow-Nothing
SeatsChangeSeatsChangeSeatsChangeSeatsChange
DelawareAt-largeNovember 2, 1858
(Election Day)[5]
10Steady1Steady0Steady0Steady
IllinoisDistrict94Steady5Steady0Steady0Steady
MassachusettsDistrict1111Steady0Steady0Steady0Steady
MichiganDistrict43Decrease11Increase10Steady0Steady
New JerseyDistrict53Increase12[6]Decrease10Steady0Steady
New YorkDistrict3326Increase57[7]Decrease50Steady0Steady
WisconsinDistrict32Decrease11Increase10Steady0Steady
ArkansasDistrictAugust 2, 185820Steady2Steady0Steady0Steady
FloridaAt-largeOctober 4, 185810Steady1Steady0Steady0Steady
IndianaDistrictOctober 12, 1858117Increase24[8]Decrease20Steady0Steady
IowaDistrictOctober 12, 185822Steady0Steady0Steady0Steady
MaineDistrictSeptember 13, 185866Steady0Steady0Steady0Steady
MissouriDistrictAugust 2, 185870Decrease16[9]Increase20Steady1Decrease1
OhioDistrictOctober 12, 18582115Increase26Decrease20Steady0Steady
PennsylvaniaDistrictOctober 12, 18582520Increase105[10]Decrease100Steady0Steady
South CarolinaDistrictOctober 10–11, 185860Steady6Steady0Steady0Steady
VermontDistrictSeptember 7, 185833Steady0Steady0Steady0Steady
1859 elections
Alabama[11]DistrictAugust 1, 185970Steady7Steady0Steady0Steady
CaliforniaAt-largeSeptember 7, 185920Steady2Steady0Steady0Steady
ConnecticutDistrictApril 4, 185944Increase20Decrease20Steady0Steady
Georgia[11]DistrictOctober 3, 185980Steady6Steady1Increase11Decrease1
Kansas[12]At-largeDecember 1, 185911Increase10Steady0Steady0Steady
KentuckyDistrictAugust 1, 1859100Steady5Decrease35Increase50Decrease2
Louisiana[11]DistrictNovember 7, 185940Steady3Steady0Steady1Steady
MarylandDistrictNovember 8, 185960Steady3Steady0Steady3Steady
MinnesotaAt-largeOctober 4, 185922Increase20Decrease20Steady0Steady
Mississippi[11]DistrictOctober 3, 185950Steady5Steady0Steady0Steady
New HampshireDistrictMarch 8, 185933Steady0Steady0Steady0Steady
North Carolina[11]DistrictAugust 4, 185980Steady5Decrease23Increase30Decrease1
OregonAt-largeJune 27, 185910Steady1Steady0Steady0Steady
Rhode IslandDistrictApril 7, 185922Steady0Steady0Steady0Steady
TennesseeDistrictAugust 4, 1859100Steady3Decrease47Increase70Decrease3
Texas[11]DistrictAugust 1, 185920Steady2[9]Steady0Steady0Steady
VirginiaDistrictMay 26, 1859130Steady12[13]Decrease11Increase10Steady
Total[2]238114
47.9%
Increase22101[3]
42.4%
Decrease3017
7.1%
Increase176
2.5%
Decrease8
House seats
Republican
  
47.90%
Democratic
  
42.44%
Opposition
  
7.14%
Know-Nothing
  
2.52%

Complete returns[edit]

California[edit]

Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

DistrictIncumbentPartyFirst
elected
StatusCandidates
California's 2 at-large seatsCharles L. ScottDemocratic1856Re-electedJohn C. Burch (Democratic) 28.4%
Charles L. Scott (Democratic) 28.1%

Joseph C. McKibbin (Anti-Lecompton Democratic) 21.4%
Edward D. Baker (Republican) 20.4%
S. A. Booker (Anti-Lecompton Democratic) 1.5%
P. H. Sibley (Republican) 0.1%
Joseph C. McKibbinAnti-Lecompton Democratic1856Lost re-election
Democratic hold

Ohio[edit]

DistrictIncumbentPartyFirst
elected
ResultCandidates[14]
Ohio 1George H. PendletonDemocratic1856Re-elected
Ohio 2William S. GroesbeckDemocratic1856Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 3Clement L. VallandighamDemocratic1856[15]Re-elected
Ohio 4Matthias H. NicholsRepublican1852Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 5Richard MottRepublican1854Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 6Joseph R. CockerillDemocratic1856Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 7Aaron HarlanRepublican1852Lost renomination
Republican hold
Ohio 8Benjamin StantonRepublican1854Re-elected
Ohio 9Lawrence W. HallDemocratic1856Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 10Joseph MillerDemocratic1856Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 11Albert C. ThompsonRepublican1854Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 12Samuel S. CoxDemocratic1856Re-elected
Ohio 13John ShermanRepublican1854Re-elected
Ohio 14Philemon BlissRepublican1854Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 15Joseph BurnsDemocratic1856Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 16Cydnor B. TompkinsRepublican1856Re-elected
Ohio 17William LawrenceDemocratic1856Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 18Benjamin F. LeiterRepublican1854Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 19Edward WadeRepublican1852Re-elected
Ohio 20Joshua Reed GiddingsRepublican1842Lost renomination
Republican Hold
Ohio 21John BinghamRepublican1854Re-elected

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during this Congress
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ a b Includes 8 Anti-Lecompton Democrats and 7 Independent Democrats
  4. ^ 11 Stat. 269
  5. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing electors. Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections
  6. ^ Both Anti-Lecompton Democrats
  7. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat and 3 Anti-Lecompton Democrats
  8. ^ Includes 1 Anti-Lecompton Democrat
  9. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat
  10. ^ Includes 2 Anti-Lecompton Democrats
  11. ^ a b c d e f Last election before Reconstruction
  12. ^ New state, Representative seated January 29, 1861, and continued into the 37th Congress
  13. ^ Includes 4 Independent Democrats
  14. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 84, 85. 
  15. ^ (contested election)