United States Forces Japan

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United States Forces Japan
在日米軍
United States Forces Japan.png
USFJ
Country Japan
 United States
NicknameUSFJ
 
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United States Forces Japan
在日米軍
United States Forces Japan.png
USFJ
Country Japan
 United States
NicknameUSFJ

The United States Forces Japan, or USFJ (在日米軍 Zainichi Beigun?) refers to the various elements of the United States Armed Forces that are stationed in Japan. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the United States is obliged to defend Japan in close cooperation with the Japan Self-Defense Forces for maritime defense, ballistic missile defense, domestic air control, communications security (COMSEC), and disaster response operations.

History[edit]

JGSDF soldiers at Camp Kinser
United States Forces helped Japanese in Operation Tomodachi

After the Japanese surrender in World War II, the United States Armed Forces assumed administrative authority in Japan. The Japanese Imperial Army and Navy were decommissioned, and the U.S. Armed Forces took control of their military bases until the new government could be formed and positioned to reestablish authority. Allied forces planned to demilitarize Japan, and new government adopted the Constitution of Japan with a no-armed-force clause in 1947.

After the Korean War began in 1950, Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan and the Japanese government established the paramilitary "National Police Reserve," which was later developed into the Japan Self-Defense Forces.

In 1951 the Treaty of San Francisco was signed by the allied countries and Japan, which restored its formal sovereignty. At the same time, the U.S. and Japan signed the Japan-America Security Alliance. By this treaty, USFJ is responsible for the defense of Japan. As part of this agreement, the Japanese government requested that the U.S. military bases remain in Japan, and agreed to provide funds and various interests specified in the Status of Forces Agreement. At the expiration of the treaty, the United States and Japan signed the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan. The status of the United States Forces Japan was defined in the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement. This treaty is still in effect, and it forms the basis of Japan's foreign policy. According to academics and experts, the U.S. provision of Japan's defense allowed Japan to focus domestic spending on their own economy, thereby assisting Japan with becoming one of the most powerful countries economically in the world.[1]

In the Vietnam War, the USFJ military bases in Japan, especially those in Okinawa, were used as important strategic and logistic bases. In 1970, Koza riot occurred against the US military presence in Okinawa. The USAF strategic bombers were deployed in the bases in Okinawa, which was still administered by the U.S. government. Before the 1972 reversion of the island to Japanese administration, it has been speculated but never confirmed that up to 1,200 nuclear weapons may have been stored at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in the 1960s.[2]

As of 2013, there are approximately 50,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Japan, along with approximately 40,000 dependents of military personnel and another 5,500 American civilians employed there by the United States Department of Defense. The United States Seventh Fleet is based in Yokosuka. The 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) is based in Okinawa. 130 USAF fighters are stationed in the Misawa Air Base and Kadena Air Base.[3]

The Japanese government paid ¥217 billion (US$ 2.0 billion) in 2007[4] as annual host-nation support called Omoiyari Yosan (思いやり予算?, sympathy budget or compassion budget).[5]

The U.S. government employs over 8,000 Master Labor Contract (MLC)/Indirect Hire Agreement (IHA) workers on Okinawa (per the Labor Management Organization) not including Okinawan contract workers.[6]

Immediately after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 9,720 dependents of United States military and government civilian employees in Japan evacuated the country, mainly to the United States.[7]

The relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Henoko was resolved as of December 2013 with the signing of the landfill agreement by the governor of Okinawa. Under the terms of the new U.S.-Japan agreement 5.000 U.S. Marines will be relocated to Guam and 4.000 U.S. Marines to other Pacific locations such as Hawaii or Australia, while some 10.000 Marines will remain on Okinawa.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14] No timetable for the Marines redeployment has been announced, but the Washington Post reported that U.S. Marines would leave Okinawa as soon as suitable facilities on Guam and elsewhere are ready.[11] The relocation move is expected to cost 8.6 billion US Dollars[8] and includes a $3.1bn cash commitment from Japan for the move to Guam as well as for developing joint training ranges on Guam and on Tinian and Pagan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.[9] Certain parcels of land on Okinawa which have been leased for use by the American military are being turned back to Japanese control via a long-term phased return process according to the agreement.[11] These returns have been ongoing since 1972.

Exercise participation[edit]

The scope and frequency of U.S. Forces Japan participation in major exercises has been rising in recent years. This is largely attributable to the refocus of the U.S. to the Asia-Pacific region, although certain forces, especially the Marine Corps, have never left the region and continue to be heavily involved in theater security and regional stability. United States Pacific Command (US PACOM), the parent command of U.S. Forces Japan, has also taken on larger and broader roles during exercises in Japan, particularly in those exercises on mainland Japan.

U.S. Forces Japan has no control or authority over subordinate command exercises beyond manipulation of Force Protection Condition levels, which is the only area of tactical control residing with U.S. Forces Japan.

U.S. Presence Debate[edit]

U.S. Presence on Okinawa[edit]

Okinawa makes up only 0.6 percent of the nation’s land area;[3] yet, approximately 62% of U.S. bases in Japan (exclusive use only) are in Okinawa.[15]

Status Of Forces Agreement[edit]

73.4% of Japanese citizens appreciate the mutual security treaty with the U.S. and the presence of the USFJ,[16] a small but very vocal portion of the population demand a reduction in the number of U.S. military bases presence.[17]

In May 2010, a survey of the Okinawan people conducted by Mainichi Shimbun and Ryukyu shimpo, found that 71% of Okinawans surveyed thought that the presence of Marines on Okinawa was not necessary. 15% said it was necessary. Asked what they thought about 62% of United States Forces Japan bases (exclusive use) being concentrated in Okinawa, 50% said that the number should be reduced, 41% said that the bases should be removed. Asked about the US-Japan security treaty, 55% said it should be changed to a peace treaty, 14% said it should be abolished and 7% said it should be maintained.[18]

Many of the bases, such as Yokota Air Base, Naval Air Facility Atsugi and Kadena Air Base, are located in the vicinity of residential districts, and local citizens have complained about excessive aircraft noise.[19][20][21]

There is also debate over the Status of Forces Agreement which covers a variety of administrative technicalities blending the systems which control how certain situations are handled between the U.S.'s and Japan's legal framework. SOFA was created to allow both nations the best way to administer legalities, and has worked well over the years.

U.S. Service Member Behavior[edit]

Per Okinawa Prefectural Police data, U.S. service members commit far less crimes than local Okinawans.[22] According to the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement, U.S. personnel who commit crimes off-duty and off-base, are always prosecuted under the Japanese law.[23]

On February 12, 2008, the National Police Agency (of Japan) or NPA, released its annual criminal statistics that included activity within the Okinawan prefecture. These findings held American soldiers responsible for 53 crimes per 10,000 U.S. male servicemen, while Okinawan males held a crime rate of 366 crimes per 10,000. The crime rate found a U.S. servicemen in Okinawa to be 86% less likely to commit a crime than that of an Okinawan male.[24]

Controversy over Sexual Crimes[edit]

At the commencement of the occupation of Japan, many U.S. soldiers participated in the Special Comfort Facility Association.[25] Japanese government recruited 55,000 women to work providing sexual services to US military personnel.[25] The Association was closed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.[25] However, John W. Dower, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian, alleged that many U.S. troops committed multiple rapes of Japanese women during the occupation and that press censorship led to under-reporting of these crimes.[26]

In 1995, the abduction and rape of a 12-year-old Okinawan schoolgirl by two U.S. marines and one U.S. sailor led to demands for the removal of all U.S. military bases in Japan. Other controversial incidents include helicopter crashes, the Girard incident, the Michael Brown Okinawa assault incident, the death of Kinjo family and the death of Yuki Uema. In February 2008, a 38-year-old U.S. Marine based on Okinawa was arrested in connection with the reported rape of a 14-year-old Okinawan girl.[27] This triggered waves of protest against American military presence in Okinawa and led to tight restrictions on off-base activities.[28][29] Although the accuser withdrew her charges the U.S. military court-martialed the suspect and sentenced him to 4 years in prison under the stricter rules of the military justice system.[30] U.S. Forces Japan designated 22 February as a Day of Reflection for all U.S. military facilities in Japan, and established the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Task Force in an effort to prevent similar incidents.[31] In November 2009, Staff Sgt. Clyde "Drew" Gunn, a U.S. Army soldier stationed at Torii Station was involved in a hit-and-run accident of a pedestrian in Yomitan Village on Okinawa. Later, in April 2010, the soldier was charged with failing to render aid and vehicular manslaughter.[32] Staff Sgt. Gunn, of Ocean Springs, Mississippi, was eventually sentenced to 2 years and 8 months in jail on October 15, 2010.[33] In 2013, 2 U.S. Military Personnel Seaman Christopher Browning, of Athens, Texas, and Petty Officer 3rd Class Skyler Dozierwalker, of Muskogee, Oklahoma, were found guilty by the Naha District Court of raping and robbing a woman in her 20s in a parking lot in October. Both admitted committing the crime. The case outraged many Okinawans, a number of whom have long complained of military-related crime on their island, which hosts thousands of U.S. troops. It also sparked tougher restrictions for all 50,000 U.S. military personnel in Japan, including a curfew and drinking restrictions.[34]

On 13 May 2013, Toru Hashimoto, co-leader of the Japan Restoration Association said to a senior American military official at the Marine Corps base in Okinawa “We can’t control the sexual energy of these brave marines.” and told United States soldiers should make more use of the local adult entertainment industry to reduce sexual crimes against local women.[35] Hashimoto also told the necessity of former Japanese Army comfort women and other countries military prostitute existence[clarification needed].[35]

Osprey deployment in Okinawa[edit]

In October, 2012, twelve MV-22 Ospreys were transferred to the US Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to replace aging Vietnam-era Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters in Okinawa, greatly increasing the safety, capability and range of the Marines who are charged with Japan's defense as well as regional security. Then in October 2013, an additional 12 Ospreys arrived, again to replace CH-46 Sea Knights, increasing the number of Ospreys to 24. Japanese Defence Minister Satoshi Morimoto explained the Osprey aircraft is safe adding that two recent accidents were 'caused by human factors'.[36] Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda also stated that the Japanese government was convinced of the MV-22's safety.[37]

Facilities[edit]

List of current facilities[edit]

U.S. military bases in Japan
U.S. military facilities in Okinawa

The USFJ headquarters is at Yokota Air Base, about 30 km west of central Tokyo.

The U.S. military installations in Japan and their managing branches are as follows:

Branch
(MilDep)
USFJ Facilities
Admin Code
Name of InstallationPrimary Purpose
(Actual)
Location
Air ForceFAC 1054Camp Chitose
(Chitose III, Chitose Administration Annex)
CommunicationsChitose, Hokkaido
FAC 2001Misawa Air BaseAir BaseMisawa, Aomori
FAC 3013Yokota Air BaseAir BaseFussa, Tokyo
FAC 3016Fuchu Communications StationCommunicationsFuchu, Tokyo
FAC 3019Tama Service Annex
(Tama Hills Recreation Center)
RecreationInagi, Tokyo
FAC 3048Camp Asaka
(South Camp Drake AFN Transmitter Site)
Barracks
(Broadcasting)
Wako, Saitama
FAC 3049Tokorozawa Communications Station
(Tokorozawa Transmitter Site)
CommunicationsTokorozawa, Saitama
FAC 3056Owada Communication SiteCommunicationsNiiza, Saitama
FAC 3162Yugi Communication SiteCommunicationsHachioji, Tokyo
FAC 4100Sofu Communication SiteCommunicationsIwakuni, Yamaguchi
FAC 5001Itazuke Auxiliary AirfieldAir Cargo TerminalHakata-ku, Fukuoka
FAC 5073Sefurisan Liaison Annex
(Seburiyama Communications Station)
CommunicationsKanzaki, Saga
FAC 5091Tsushima Communication SiteCommunicationsTsushima, Nagasaki
FAC 6004Okuma Rest CenterRecreationKunigami, Okinawa
FAC 6006Yaedake Communication SiteCommunicationsMotobu, Okinawa
FAC 6022Kadena Ammunition Storage AreaStorageOnna, Okinawa
FAC 6037Kadena Air BaseAir BaseKadena, Okinawa
FAC 6077Tori Shima RangeTrainingKumejima, Okinawa
FAC 6078Idesuna Jima RangeTrainingTonaki, Okinawa
FAC 6080Kume Jima RangeTrainingKumejima, Okinawa
ArmyFAC 2070Shariki Communication SiteCommunicationsTsugaru, Aomori
FAC 3004Akasaka Press Center
(Hardy Barracks)
OfficeMinato, Tokyo
FAC 3067Yokohama North DockPort FacilityYokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3079Camp ZamaOfficeZama, Kanagawa
FAC 3084Sagami General DepotLogisticsSagamihara, Kanagawa
FAC 3102Sagamihara Housing AreaHousingSagamihara, Kanagawa
FAC 4078Akizuki Ammunition DepotStorageEtajima, Hiroshima
FAC 4083Kawakami Ammunition DepotStorageHigashihiroshima, Hiroshima
FAC 4084Hiro Ammunition DepotStorageKure, Hiroshima
FAC 4152Kure Pier No.6Port FacilityKure, Hiroshima
FAC 4611Haigamine Communication SiteCommunicationsKure, Hiroshima
FAC 6007Gesaji Communication SiteCommunicationsHigashi, Okinawa
FAC 6036Torii Communications Station
(Torii Station)
CommunicationsYomitan, Okinawa
FAC 6064Naha PortPort FacilityNaha, Okinawa
FAC 6076Army POL DepotsStorageUruma, Okinawa
NavyFAC 2006Hachinohe POL DepotStorageHachinohe, Aomori
FAC 2012Misawa ATG Range
(R130, Draughon Range)
TrainingMisawa, Aomori
FAC 3033Kisarazu Auxiliary Landing FieldAir FacilityKisarazu, Chiba
FAC 3066Negishi Dependent Housing Area
(Naval Housing Annex Negishi)
HousingYokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3083Naval Air Facility AtsugiAir FacilityAyase, Kanagawa
FAC 3087Ikego Housing Area and Navy AnnexHousingZushi, Kanagawa
FAC 3090Azuma Storage AreaStorageYokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3096Kamiseya Communications Station
(Naval Support Facility Kamiseya)
Communications
(Housing)
Yokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3097Fukaya Communication Site
(Naval Transmitter Station Totsuka)
CommunicationsYokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3099United States Fleet Activities YokosukaPort FacilityYokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3117Urago Ammunition DepotStorageYokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3144Tsurumi POL DepotStorageYokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3181Iwo Jima Communication SiteCommunications
(Training)
Ogasawara, Tokyo
FAC 3185New Sanno U.S. Forces CenterRecreationMinato, Tokyo
FAC 5029United States Fleet Activities SaseboPort FacilitySasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5030Sasebo Dry Dock AreaPort FacilitySasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5032Akasaki POL DepotStorageSasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5033Sasebo Ammunition Supply PointStorageSasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5036Iorizaki POL DepotStorageSasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5039Yokose POL DepotStorageSaikai, Nagasaki
FAC 5050Harioshima Ammunition Storage AreaStorageSasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5086Tategami Basin Port AreaPort FacilitySasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5118Sakibe Navy AnnexHangarSasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5119Hario Dependent Housing Area
(Hario Family Housing Area)
HousingSasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 6028Tengan PierPort FacilityUruma, Okinawa
FAC 6032Camp ShieldsBarracksOkinawa, Okinawa
FAC 6046Awase Communications StationCommunicationsOkinawa, Okinawa
FAC 6048White Beach AreaPort FacilityUruma, Okinawa
FAC 6084Kobi Sho RangeTrainingIshigaki, Okinawa
FAC 6085Sekibi Sho RangeTrainingIshigaki, Okinawa
FAC 6088Oki Daito Jima RangeTrainingKitadaito, Okinawa
Marine
Corps
FAC 3127Camp FujiBarracksGotenba, Shizuoka
FAC 3154Numazu Training AreaTrainingNumazu, Shizuoka
FAC 4092Marine Corps Air Station IwakuniAir StationIwakuni, Yamaguchi
FAC 6001Northern Training Area
(Incl. Camp Gonsalves)
TrainingKunigami, Okinawa
FAC 6005Ie Jima Auxiliary AirfieldTrainingIe, Okinawa
FAC 6009Camp SchwabTrainingNago, Okinawa
FAC 6010Henoko Ordnance Ammunition DepotStorageNago, Okinawa
FAC 6011Camp HansenTrainingKin, Okinawa
FAC 6019Kin Red Beach Training AreaTrainingKin, Okinawa
FAC 6020Kin Blue Beach Training AreaTrainingKin, Okinawa
FAC 6029Camp CourtneyBarracksUruma, Okinawa
FAC 6031Camp McTureousBarracksUruma, Okinawa
FAC 6043Camp Kuwae (Camp Lester)Medical FacilityChatan, Okinawa
FAC 6044Camp Zukeran (Camp Foster)BarracksChatan, Okinawa
FAC 6051Marine Corps Air Station FutenmaAir StationGinowan, Okinawa
FAC 6056Makiminato Service Area (Camp Kinser)LogisticsUrasoe, Okinawa
FAC 6082Tsuken Jima Training AreaTrainingUruma, Okinawa

JSDF-USFJ Joint Use Facilities and Areas

Temporary use facilities and areas are as follows:

USFJ Facilities
Admin Code
Name of InstallationPrimary
Purpose
Location
FAC 1066Camp Higashi Chitose (JGSDF)TrainingChitose, Hokkaido
FAC 1067Hokkaido Chitose Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingChitose, Hokkaido
FAC 1068Chitose Air Base (JASDF)Air BaseChitose, Hokkaido
FAC 1069Betsukai Yausubetsu Large Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingBetsukai, Hokkaido
FAC 1070Camp Kushiro (JGSDF)BarracksKushiro, Hokkaido
FAC 1071Camp Shikaoi (JGSDF)TrainingShikaoi, Hokkaido
FAC 1072Kamifurano Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingKamifurano, Hokkaido
FAC 1073Camp Sapporo (JGSDF)TrainingSapporo, Hokkaido
FAC 1074Shikaoi Shikaribetsu Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingShikaoi, Hokkaido
FAC 1075Camp Obihiro (JGSDF)TrainingObihiro, Hokkaido
FAC 1076Asahikawa Chikabumidai Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingAsahikawa, Hokkaido
FAC 1077Camp Okadama (JGSDF)RecreationSapporo, Hokkaido
FAC 1078Nayoro Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingNayoro, Hokkaido
FAC 1079Takikawa Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingTakikawa, Hokkaido
FAC 1080Bihoro Training Area (JGSDF)TrainingBihoro, Hokkaido
FAC 1081Kutchan Takamine Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingKutchan, Hokkaido
FAC 1082Engaru Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingEngaru, Hokkaido
FAC 2062Camp Sendai (JGSDF)TrainingSendai, Miyagi
FAC 2063Camp Hachinohe (JGSDF)BarracksHachinohe, Aomori
FAC 2064Iwate Iwatesan Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingTakizawa, Iwate
FAC 2065Taiwa Ojojihara Large Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingTaiwa, Miyagi
FAC 2066Kasuminome Airfield (JGSDF)AirfieldSendai, Miyagi
FAC 2067Aomori Kotani Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingAomori, Aomori
FAC 2068Hirosaki Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingHirosaki, Aomori
FAC 2069Jinmachi Otakane Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingMurayama, Yamagata
FAC 3104Nagasaka Rifle Range (JGSDF)TrainingYokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3183Fuji Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingFujiyoshida, Yamanashi
Gotenba, Shizuoka
FAC 3184Camp Takigahara (JGSDF)TrainingGotenba, Shizuoka
FAC 3186Takada Sekiyama Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingJoetsu, Niigata
FAC 3187Hyakuri Air Base (JASDF)Air BaseOmitama, Ibaraki
FAC 3188Soumagahara Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingShinto, Gunma
FAC 3189Camp Asaka (JGSDF)TrainingAsaka, Saitama
FAC 4161Komatsu Air Base (JASDF)Air BaseKomatsu, Ishikawa
FAC 41621st Service School (JMSDF)TrainingEtajima, Hiroshima
FAC 4163Haramura Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingHigashihiroshima, Hiroshima
FAC 4164Imazu Aibano Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingTakashima, Shiga
FAC 4165Gifu Air Base (JASDF)RecreationKakamigahara, Gifu
FAC 4166Camp Itami (JGSDF)TrainingItami, Hyogo
FAC 4167Nihonbara Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingNagi, Okayama
FAC 4168Miho Air Base (JASDF)Air BaseSakaiminato, Tottori
FAC 5115Nyutabaru Air Base (JASDF)Air BaseShintomi, Miyazaki
FAC 5117Sakibe Rifle Range (JMSDF)TrainingSasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5120Hijudai-Jumonjibaru Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingYufu, Oita
Beppu, Oita
FAC 5121Tsuiki Air Base (JASDF)Air BaseChikujo, Fukuoka
FAC 5122Omura Air Base (JMSDF)RecreationOmura, Nagasaki
FAC 5123Oyanohara-Kirishima Maneuver Area (JGSDF)TrainingYamato, Kumamoto
Ebino, Miyazaki
FAC 5124Camp Kita Kumamoto (JGSDF)TrainingKumamoto, Kumamoto
FAC 5125Camp Kengun (JGSDF)TrainingKumamoto, Kumamoto
FAC 6181Ukibaru Jima Training AreaTrainingUruma, Okinawa

In Okinawa, U.S. military installations occupy about 10.4 percent of the total land usage. Approximately 74.7 percent of all the U.S. military facilities in Japan are located on the island of Okinawa.

List of former facilities[edit]

The United States has returned some facilities to Japanese control. Some are used as military bases of the JSDF; others have become civilian airports or government offices; many are factories, office buildings or resential developments in the private sector. Due to the Special Actions Committee on Okinawa, more land in Okinawa is in the process of being returned. These areas include—Camp Kuwae [also known as Camp Lester], MCAS Futenma, areas within Camp Zukeran [also known as Camp Foster], about 9,900 acres (40 km2) of the Northern Training Area, Aha Training Area, Gimbaru Training Area (also known as Camp Gonsalves), small portion of the Makiminato Service Area (also known as Camp Kinser), and Naha Port.

Army:

Navy:

Air Force:

Marines:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1], Japan Times, 10 Aug 2013
  2. ^ 疑惑が晴れるのはいつか, Okinawa Times, 16 May 1999
  3. ^ a b Yoshida, Reiji, "Basics of the U.S. military presence", Japan Times, 25 March 2008, p. 3.
  4. ^ 思いやり予算8億円減で日米合意、光熱水料を3年間で, Yomiuri Shinbun, December 12, 2007
  5. ^ PRESS RELEASE U.S. and Japan Sign Alliance Support Agreement, The embassy of the United States in Japan
  6. ^ "Purpose and Duties". Labor Management Organization. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  7. ^ Tritten, Travis J., "Evacuation from Japan a vacation? Not so much", Stars and Stripes, 31 May 2011.
  8. ^ a b Seales, Rebecca (27 April 2012). "End of an era: U.S. cuts back presence in Okinawa as 9,000 Marines prepare to move out". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "US agrees to Okinawa troop redeployment". Al Jazeera. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Shanker, Thom (26 April 2012). "U.S. Agrees to Reduce Size of Force on Okinawa". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c Greg Jaffe and Emily Heil (27 April 2012). "U.S. comes to agreement with Japan to move 9,000 Marines off Okinawa". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "Okinawa deal between US and Japan to move marines". BBC. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  13. ^ "U.S., Japan unveil revised plan for Okinawa". The Asahi Shimbun. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  14. ^ Quintana, Miguel (28 April 2012). "Japan Welcomes US Base Agreement". Voice of America. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  15. ^ [2], Okinawa Prefectural Government
  16. ^ 自衛隊・防衛問題に関する世論調査, The Cabinet Office of Japan
  17. ^ "Japanese protest against US base". BBC News. 8 November 2009. 
  18. ^ "毎日世論調査:辺野古移設に反対84% 沖縄県民対象". Megalodon.jp. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  19. ^ 基地騒音の問題, Yamato City
  20. ^ 横田基地における騒音防止対策の徹底について(要請), Tokyo Metropolitan Government
  21. ^ 嘉手納町の概要, Kadena Town
  22. ^ [3], Ethos Data
  23. ^ [4], SOFA Agreement
  24. ^ "在日米軍・沖縄駐留米軍の犯罪率を考える - 駄犬日誌". D.hatena.ne.jp. 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  25. ^ a b c KRISTOF, NICHOLAS (1995-10-27). "Fearing G.I. Occupiers, Japan Urgesd Women Into Brothels". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-05-14. 
  26. ^ "US troops abused women during occupation, says Japan mayor". Agence France-Presse (Arab News). 18 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-18. 
  27. ^ Lah, Kyung (February 10, 2008). "U.S. Marine accused of raping teen in Okinawa". CNN. 
  28. ^ "Japanese protest against US base". Al Jazeera. March 23, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Curfew for US troops in Okinawa". BBC. 20 February 2008. 
  30. ^ http://www.newser.com/story/27674/okinawa-marine-gets-4-years-for-teen-sex- abuse.html
  31. ^ U.S. imposes curfew on Okinawa forces, The Japan Times, February 21, 2008
  32. ^ [5][dead link]
  33. ^ David Allen. "U.S. soldier sentenced to Japanese jail for hit-and-run on Okinawa - News". Stripes. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  34. ^ "U.S. Navy sailors convicted in Okinawa rape". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-03-19. 
  35. ^ a b Tabuchi, Hiroko (May 13, 2013). "Women Forced Into WWII Brothels Served Necessary Role, Osaka Mayor Says". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-05-14. 
  36. ^ "US Osprey military aircraft begin Okinawa base move". BBC News. 1 October 2012. 
  37. ^ http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20121002a3.html
  38. ^ a b c d e A Soldier in Kyushu, By Capt. William B. Koons, October 1, 1947

External links[edit]