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The United States Forces Japan, or USFJ (在日米軍 Zainichi Beigun ) refers to the various divisions of the United States Armed Forces that are stationed in Japan. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the United States is obliged to defend Japan in close cooperation with the Japan Self-Defense Forces for maritime defense, ballistic missile defense, domestic air control, communications security (COMSEC), and disaster response operations.
After the Japanese surrender in World War II, the United States Armed Forces assumed administrative authority in Japan. The Japanese Imperial Army and Navy were decommissioned, and the US Armed Forces took control of their military bases. The allied countries planned to demilitarize Japan, and the U.S. imposed the Constitution of Japan with a no-armed-force clause in 1947.
After the Korean War began in 1950, Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan, ordered the Japanese government to establish the paramilitary "National Police Reserve," which was later developed into the Japan Self-Defense Forces.
In 1951 the Treaty of San Francisco was signed by the allied countries and Japan, which restored its formal sovereignty. At the same time, the U.S. and Japan signed the Japan-America Security Alliance. By this treaty, the USFJ are legally responsible for the defense of Japan. In return for this, the Japanese government offered military bases, funds and various interests specified in the Status of Forces Agreement. At the expiration of the treaty, the United States and Japan signed the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan. The status of the United States Forces Japan was defined in the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement. This treaty is still in effect, and it forms the basis of Japan's foreign policy.
In the Vietnam War, the USFJ military bases in Japan, especially those in Okinawa, were used as important strategic and logistic bases. In 1970, Koza riot occurred against the US military presence in Okinawa. The USAF strategic bombers were deployed in the bases in Okinawa, which was still administered by the U.S. government. Before the 1972 reversion of the island to Japanese administration, it has been speculated but never confirmed that up to 1,200 nuclear weapons may have been stored at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in the 1960s.
As of December 2009[update], there are 35,688 U.S. military personnel stationed in Japan and another 5,500 American civilians employed there by the United States Department of Defense. The United States Seventh Fleet is based in Yokosuka. The 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) is based in Okinawa. 130 USAF fighters are stationed in the Misawa Air Base and Kadena Air Base.
The U.S. government employs over 8,000 Master Labor Contract (MLC)/Indirect Hire Agreement (IHA) workers on Okinawa (per the Labor Management Organization) not including Okinawan contract workers.
While the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma still remains unresolved as of April 2012, the United States of America and Japan reached in April 2012 a troop redeployment agreement which might make room for a new Futenma agreement according to Al Jazeera's Asia-Pacific correspondent Harry Fawcett. Under the terms of the new U.S.-Japan agreement 5.000 U.S. Marines will be relocated to Guam and 4.000 U.S. Marines to other Pacific locations such as Hawaii or Australia, while some 10.000 Marines will remain on Okinawa. No timetable for the Marines redeployment has been announced, but the Washington Post reported that U.S. Marines would leave Futenma as soon as suitable facilities on Guam and elsewhere are ready. The relocation move is expected to cost 8.6 billion US Dollars and includes a $3.1bn cash commitment from Japan for the move to Guam as well as for developing joint training ranges on Guam and on Tinian and Pagan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Certain parcels of land on Okinawa which are presently used by the American military shall be returned to Japanese control via a phased return process according to the agreement.
The scope and frequency of U.S. Forces Japan participation in major exercises has been in decline since the late 1990s. This is largely attributable to the DoD combatant command reorganizations that took place in the years following the terror attacks of September 11. United States Pacific Command (US PACOM), the parent command of U.S. Forces Japan, has taken on larger and broader roles during exercises in Japan, particularly in those exercises on mainland Japan.
Of note is the Keen X series of exercises, which includes Keen Edge, Keen Sword, and Keen Blade. Keen Blade exercises no longer exist due to funding limitations, but Keen Edge (a biannual command post exercise) and Keen Sword (a biannual field exercise) still do take place, albeit at significantly reduced levels from years past. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the high-water marks for these exercises. According to the Federation of American Scientists, US PACOM will likely assume control of all Keen X exercises by 2009.
U.S. Forces Japan has no control or authority over subordinate command exercises beyond manipulation of Force Protection Condition levels, which is the only area of tactical control residing with U.S. Forces Japan. Current fiscal realities and the declining role of U.S. Forces Japan as a center of gravity for U.S. military policy in Japan may guide future leaders to question a continued need for the organization.
While 73.4% of Japanese citizens appreciate the mutual security treaty with the U.S. and the presence of the USFJ, a portion of the population demand a reduction in the number of U.S. military bases in the region.
In May 2010, a survey of the Okinawan people conducted by Mainichi shimbun and Ryukyu shimpo, found that 71% of Okinawans surveyed thought that the presence of Marines on Okinawa was not necessary. 15% said it was necessary. Asked what they thought about 74% of United States Forces Japan bases being concentrated in Okinawa, 50% said that the number should be reduced, 41% said that the bases should be removed. Asked about the US-Japan security treaty, 55% said it should be changed to a peace treaty, 14% said it should be abolished and 7% said it should be maintained.
Many of the bases, such as Yokota Air Base, Naval Air Facility Atsugi and Kadena Air Base, are located in the vicinity of residential districts, and local citizens have complained about excessive aircraft noise as well as various crimes perpetrated against local civilians.
From 1952 to 2004, there were approximately 200,000 accidents and crimes involving U.S. troops, in which 1,076 Japanese civilians died. Over 90% of the incidents were vehicle or traffic related. According to the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement U.S. personnel have partial extraterritorial right, so in most cases suspects were not arrested by Japanese authorities.
On February 12, 2008, the National Police Agency (of Japan) or NPA, released its annual criminal statistics that included activity within the Okinawan prefecture. These findings held American soldiers responsible for 53 crimes per 10,000 U.S. male servicemen, while Okinawan males held a crime rate of 366 crimes per 10,000. The crime rate found a U.S. servicemen in Okinawa to be 86% less likely to commit a crime than that of an Okinawan male.
Beginning of occupation of Japan, U.S. soldiers played in Special Comfort Facility Association. Japanese government recruited 55,000 patriot women to sacrifice themselves for protecting the chastity of Japanese women. Then the Association was closed by Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. However, John Dower, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian, clarifys U.S. troops committed multiple rapes of Japanese women during the occupation and that press censorship muted reporting of these crimes.
In 1995, the abduction and rape of a 12-year-old Okinawan schoolgirl by two U.S. Marines and one U.S. sailor led to demands for the removal of all U.S. military bases in Japan. Other controversial incidents include helicopter crashes, the Girard incident, the Michael Brown Okinawa assault incident, the death of Kinjo family and the death of Yuki Uema. In February 2008, a 38-year-old U.S. Marine based on Okinawa was arrested in connection with the reported rape of a 14-year-old Okinawan girl. This triggered waves of protest against American military presence in Okinawa and led to tight restrictions on off-base activities. Although the accuser withdrew her charges the U.S. military court-martialed the suspect and sentenced him to 4 years in prison under the stricter rules of the military justice system. U.S. Forces Japan designated February 22 as a Day of Reflection for all U.S. military facilities in Japan, setting up a Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Task Force in an effort to prevent similar incidents. In November 2009, Staff Sgt. Clyde "Drew" Gunn, a U.S. Army Soldier stationed at Torii Station was involved in a hit-and-run accident of a pedestrian in Yomitan Village on Okinawa. Later, in April 2010, the soldier was charged with failing to render aid and vehicular manslaughter. Staff Sgt. Gunn, of Ocean Springs, Mississippi, was eventually sentenced to 2 years and 8 months in jail on October 15, 2010. In 2013, 2 U.S. Military Personnel Seaman Christopher Browning, of Athens, Texas, and Petty Officer 3rd Class Skyler Dozierwalker, of Muskogee, Oklahoma, were found guilty by the Naha District Court of raping and robbing a woman in her 20s in a parking lot in October. Both admitted committing the crime. The case outraged many Okinawans, who have long complained of military-related crime on their island, which hosts thousands of U.S. troops. It also sparked tougher restrictions for all 50,000 U.S. military personnel in Japan, including a curfew and drinking restrictions.
On 13 May 2013, Toru Hashimoto, co-leader of the Japan Restoration Association said to a senior American military official at the Marine Corps base in Okinawa “We can’t control the sexual energy of these brave marines.” and told United States soldiers should make more use of the local adult entertainment industry to reduce sexual crimes against local women. Hashimoto also told the necessity of former Japanese Army comfort women and other countries military prostitute existence[clarification needed].
On October 1, 2012, six MV-22 Ospreys were transferred to the US Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa despite the local residents protests.  Okinawa residents are fearful of the aircraft for its uncertain safety issues over the accidents in Morocco and in Florida, both of which resulted in human casualties. Meanwhile Japanese Defence Minister Satoshi Morimoto explained the Osprey aircraft is safe adding that those two accidents were 'caused by human factors'.  Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda also stated that the Japanese government was convinced of the MV-22's safety.  Despite such placation by the Japanese Government, Okinawa residents continued to protest over the disputed deployment. 'About 300 residents and mayors in Okinawa Prefecture blocked a gate of the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station in Ginowan' on Oct 1st according to The Daily Yomiuri. 
The USFJ headquarters is at Yokota Air Base, about 30 km west of central Tokyo.
The U.S. military installations in Japan and their managing branches are as follows:
|Name of Installation||Primary Purpose|
|Air Force||FAC 1054||Camp Chitose|
(Chitose III, Chitose Administration Annex)
|FAC 2001||Misawa Air Base||Air Base||Misawa, Aomori|
|FAC 3013||Yokota Air Base||Air Base||Fussa, Tokyo|
|FAC 3016||Fuchu Communications Station||Communications||Fuchu, Tokyo|
|FAC 3019||Tama Service Annex|
(Tama Hills Recreation Center)
|FAC 3048||Camp Asaka|
(South Camp Drake AFN Transmitter Site)
|FAC 3049||Tokorozawa Communications Station|
(Tokorozawa Transmitter Site)
|FAC 3056||Owada Communication Site||Communications||Niiza, Saitama|
|FAC 3162||Yugi Communication Site||Communications||Hachioji, Tokyo|
|FAC 4100||Sofu Communication Site||Communications||Iwakuni, Yamaguchi|
|FAC 5001||Itazuke Auxiliary Airfield||Air Cargo Terminal||Hakata-ku, Fukuoka|
|FAC 5073||Sefurisan Liaison Annex|
(Seburiyama Communications Station)
|FAC 5091||Tsushima Communication Site||Communications||Tsushima, Nagasaki|
|FAC 6004||Okuma Rest Center||Recreation||Kunigami, Okinawa|
|FAC 6006||Yaedake Communication Site||Communications||Motobu, Okinawa|
|FAC 6022||Kadena Ammunition Storage Area||Storage||Onna, Okinawa|
|FAC 6037||Kadena Air Base||Air Base||Kadena, Okinawa|
|FAC 6077||Tori Shima Range||Training||Kumejima, Okinawa|
|FAC 6078||Idesuna Jima Range||Training||Tonaki, Okinawa|
|FAC 6080||Kume Jima Range||Training||Kumejima, Okinawa|
|Army||FAC 2070||Shariki Communication Site||Communications||Tsugaru, Aomori|
|FAC 3004||Akasaka Press Center|
|FAC 3067||Yokohama North Dock||Port Facility||Yokohama, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3079||Camp Zama||Office||Zama, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3084||Sagami General Depot||Logistics||Sagamihara, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3102||Sagamihara Housing Area||Housing||Sagamihara, Kanagawa|
|FAC 4078||Akizuki Ammunition Depot||Storage||Etajima, Hiroshima|
|FAC 4083||Kawakami Ammunition Depot||Storage||Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima|
|FAC 4084||Hiro Ammunition Depot||Storage||Kure, Hiroshima|
|FAC 4152||Kure Pier No.6||Port Facility||Kure, Hiroshima|
|FAC 4611||Haigamine Communication Site||Communications||Kure, Hiroshima|
|FAC 6007||Gesaji Communication Site||Communications||Higashi, Okinawa|
|FAC 6036||Torii Communications Station|
|FAC 6064||Naha Port||Port Facility||Naha, Okinawa|
|FAC 6076||Army POL Depots||Storage||Uruma, Okinawa|
|Navy||FAC 2006||Hachinohe POL Depot||Storage||Hachinohe, Aomori|
|FAC 2012||Misawa ATG Range|
(R130, Draughon Range)
|FAC 3033||Kisarazu Auxiliary Landing Field||Air Facility||Kisarazu, Chiba|
|FAC 3066||Negishi Dependent Housing Area|
(Naval Housing Annex Negishi)
|FAC 3083||Naval Air Facility Atsugi||Air Facility||Ayase, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3087||Ikego Housing Area and Navy Annex||Housing||Zushi, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3090||Azuma Storage Area||Storage||Yokosuka, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3096||Kamiseya Communications Station|
(Naval Support Facility Kamiseya)
|FAC 3097||Fukaya Communication Site|
(Naval Transmitter Station Totsuka)
|FAC 3099||United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka||Port Facility||Yokosuka, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3117||Urago Ammunition Depot||Storage||Yokosuka, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3144||Tsurumi POL Depot||Storage||Yokohama, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3181||Iwo Jima Communication Site||Communications|
|FAC 3185||New Sanno U.S. Forces Center||Recreation||Minato, Tokyo|
|FAC 5029||United States Fleet Activities Sasebo||Port Facility||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5030||Sasebo Dry Dock Area||Port Facility||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5032||Akasaki POL Depot||Storage||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5033||Sasebo Ammunition Supply Point||Storage||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5036||Iorizaki POL Depot||Storage||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5039||Yokose POL Depot||Storage||Saikai, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5050||Harioshima Ammunition Storage Area||Storage||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5086||Tategami Basin Port Area||Port Facility||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5118||Sakibe Navy Annex||Hangar||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5119||Hario Dependent Housing Area|
(Hario Family Housing Area)
|FAC 6028||Tengan Pier||Port Facility||Uruma, Okinawa|
|FAC 6032||Camp Shields||Barracks||Okinawa, Okinawa|
|FAC 6046||Awase Communications Station||Communications||Okinawa, Okinawa|
|FAC 6048||White Beach Area||Port Facility||Uruma, Okinawa|
|FAC 6084||Kobi Sho Range||Training||Ishigaki, Okinawa|
|FAC 6085||Sekibi Sho Range||Training||Ishigaki, Okinawa|
|FAC 6088||Oki Daito Jima Range||Training||Kitadaito, Okinawa|
|FAC 3127||Camp Fuji||Barracks||Gotenba, Shizuoka|
|FAC 3154||Numazu Training Area||Training||Numazu, Shizuoka|
|FAC 4092||Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni||Air Station||Iwakuni, Yamaguchi|
|FAC 6001||Northern Training Area|
(Incl. Camp Gonsalves)
|FAC 6005||Ie Jima Auxiliary Airfield||Training||Ie, Okinawa|
|FAC 6009||Camp Schwab||Training||Nago, Okinawa|
|FAC 6010||Henoko Ordnance Ammunition Depot||Storage||Nago, Okinawa|
|FAC 6011||Camp Hansen||Training||Kin, Okinawa|
|FAC 6019||Kin Red Beach Training Area||Training||Kin, Okinawa|
|FAC 6020||Kin Blue Beach Training Area||Training||Kin, Okinawa|
|FAC 6029||Camp Courtney||Barracks||Uruma, Okinawa|
|FAC 6031||Camp McTureous||Barracks||Uruma, Okinawa|
|FAC 6043||Camp Kuwae (Camp Lester)||Medical Facility||Chatan, Okinawa|
|FAC 6044||Camp Zukeran (Camp Foster)||Barracks||Chatan, Okinawa|
|FAC 6051||Marine Corps Air Station Futenma||Air Station||Ginowan, Okinawa|
|FAC 6056||Makiminato Service Area (Camp Kinser)||Logistics||Urasoe, Okinawa|
|FAC 6082||Tsuken Jima Training Area||Training||Uruma, Okinawa|
Temporary use facilities and areas are as follows:
|Name of Installation||Primary|
|FAC 1066||Camp Higashi Chitose (JGSDF)||Training||Chitose, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1067||Hokkaido Chitose Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Chitose, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1068||Chitose Air Base (JASDF)||Air Base||Chitose, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1069||Betsukai Yausubetsu Large Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Betsukai, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1070||Camp Kushiro (JGSDF)||Barracks||Kushiro, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1071||Camp Shikaoi (JGSDF)||Training||Shikaoi, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1072||Kamifurano Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Kamifurano, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1073||Camp Sapporo (JGSDF)||Training||Sapporo, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1074||Shikaoi Shikaribetsu Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Shikaoi, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1075||Camp Obihiro (JGSDF)||Training||Obihiro, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1076||Asahikawa Chikabumidai Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Asahikawa, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1077||Camp Okadama (JGSDF)||Recreation||Sapporo, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1078||Nayoro Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Nayoro, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1079||Takikawa Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Takikawa, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1080||Bihoro Training Area (JGSDF)||Training||Bihoro, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1081||Kutchan Takamine Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Kutchan, Hokkaido|
|FAC 1082||Engaru Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Engaru, Hokkaido|
|FAC 2062||Camp Sendai (JGSDF)||Training||Sendai, Miyagi|
|FAC 2063||Camp Hachinohe (JGSDF)||Barracks||Hachinohe, Aomori|
|FAC 2064||Iwate Iwatesan Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Takizawa, Iwate|
|FAC 2065||Taiwa Ojojihara Large Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Taiwa, Miyagi|
|FAC 2066||Kasuminome Airfield (JGSDF)||Airfield||Sendai, Miyagi|
|FAC 2067||Aomori Kotani Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Aomori, Aomori|
|FAC 2068||Hirosaki Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Hirosaki, Aomori|
|FAC 2069||Jinmachi Otakane Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Murayama, Yamagata|
|FAC 3104||Nagasaka Rifle Range (JGSDF)||Training||Yokosuka, Kanagawa|
|FAC 3183||Fuji Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi|
|FAC 3184||Camp Takigahara (JGSDF)||Training||Gotenba, Shizuoka|
|FAC 3186||Takada Sekiyama Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Joetsu, Niigata|
|FAC 3187||Hyakuri Air Base (JASDF)||Air Base||Omitama, Ibaraki|
|FAC 3188||Soumagahara Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Shinto, Gunma|
|FAC 3189||Camp Asaka (JGSDF)||Training||Asaka, Saitama|
|FAC 4161||Komatsu Air Base (JASDF)||Air Base||Komatsu, Ishikawa|
|FAC 4162||1st Service School (JMSDF)||Training||Etajima, Hiroshima|
|FAC 4163||Haramura Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima|
|FAC 4164||Imazu Aibano Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Takashima, Shiga|
|FAC 4165||Gifu Air Base (JASDF)||Recreation||Kakamigahara, Gifu|
|FAC 4166||Camp Itami (JGSDF)||Training||Itami, Hyogo|
|FAC 4167||Nihonbara Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Nagi, Okayama|
|FAC 4168||Miho Air Base (JASDF)||Air Base||Sakaiminato, Tottori|
|FAC 5115||Nyutabaru Air Base (JASDF)||Air Base||Shintomi, Miyazaki|
|FAC 5117||Sakibe Rifle Range (JMSDF)||Training||Sasebo, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5120||Hijudai-Jumonjibaru Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Yufu, Oita|
|FAC 5121||Tsuiki Air Base (JASDF)||Air Base||Chikujo, Fukuoka|
|FAC 5122||Omura Air Base (JMSDF)||Recreation||Omura, Nagasaki|
|FAC 5123||Oyanohara-Kirishima Maneuver Area (JGSDF)||Training||Yamato, Kumamoto|
|FAC 5124||Camp Kita Kumamoto (JGSDF)||Training||Kumamoto, Kumamoto|
|FAC 5125||Camp Kengun (JGSDF)||Training||Kumamoto, Kumamoto|
|FAC 6181||Ukibaru Jima Training Area||Training||Uruma, Okinawa|
In Okinawa, U.S. military installations occupy about 10.4 percent of the total land usage. Approximately 74.7 percent of all the U.S. military facilities in Japan are located on the island of Okinawa.
The United States has returned some facilities to Japanese control. Some are used as military bases of the JSDF; others have become civilian airports or government offices; many are factories, office buildings or resential developments in the private sector. Due to the Special Actions Committee on Okinawa, more land in Okinawa is in the process of being returned. These areas include—Camp Kuwae [also known as Camp Lester], MCAS Futenma, areas within Camp Zukeran [also known as Camp Foster], about 9,900 acres (40 km2) of the Northern Training Area, Aha Training Area, Gimbaru Training Area (also known as Camp Gonsalves), small portion of the Makiminato Service Area (also known as Camp Kinser), and Naha Port.
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